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Encyclopedia > Nazism and race
Nazism
Flag of the NSDAP 1920-1945 and of Nazi Germany 1933-1945

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Executing Russian civilians. The Nazis considered the Slavs as "sub-humans".

Nazism developed several theories concerning races. They claimed to scientifically measure a strict hierarchy among "human race"; at the top was the "Nordic race", followed by lesser races. At the bottom of this hierarchy were "parasitic" races, or "Untermenschen" ("sub-humans"), which were perceived to be dangerous to society. Lowest of all in the Nazi racial policy were Africans, Gypsies and Jews. Gypsies and Jews were eventually deemed to be "Lebensunwertes Leben" ("Life unworthy of life"). Jews, and later Gypsies, became second-class citizens, expelled from Nazi Germany before being interned in concentration camps, then exterminated during the Holocaust (see Raul Hilberg's description of the various phases of the Holocaust). Richard Walther Darré, Reich Minister of Food and Agriculture from 1933 to 1942, popularized the expression "Blut und Boden" ("Blood and Soil"), one of the many terms of the Nazi glossary ideologically used to enforce popular racism in the German population. For other uses, see Race. ... In the last few centuries science has had an important influence on everyday notions of race. ... // Origins of modern humans see also single-origin hypothesis, multiregional hypothesis. ... The historical definition of race was an immutable and distinct type or species, sharing distinct racial characteristics such as constitution, temperament, and mental abilities. ... Race and health research is mostly from the US. It has found both current and historical racial differences in the frequency, treatments, and availability of treatments for several diseases. ... The study of race and intelligence is the controversial study of how human intellectual capacities may vary among the different population groups commonly known as races. ... // Even as the idea of race was becoming a powerful organizing principle in many societies, the shortcomings of the concept were apparent. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... // Main article: Racial demographics of the United States The United States is a diverse country racially. ... Brazil is a racially diverse and multiracial country. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... This is a list of topics related to racism: Affirmative action Afrocentrism Anti-Arabism Anti-Italianism Anti-Japanese sentiment Anti-racism Anti-Semitism Apartheid Aryan Nations[1] Asian pride The Bell Curve Black Hebrew Israelites[2] Black Panther Party Black power Black supremacy Blackface British National Party[3] Bumiputra Caste... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... For other uses, see Race. ... Nordic theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... Untermensch (German for under man, sub-man, sub-human; plural: Untermenschen) is a term from Nazi racial ideology used to describe inferior people, especially the masses from the East, that is Jews, Gypsies, Soviet Bolsheviks, homosexual men, and anyone else who was not an Aryan (i. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Languages Romany, languages of native region Religions Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... Life unworthy of life (in German: Lebensunwertes Leben) was a Nazi designation for the segments of populace that, according to racial policies of the Third Reich, had no right to live and thus were to be exterminated. ... Second-class citizen is an informal term used to describe a person, being a member of a discriminated group, who is systematically discriminated against within a state or other political jurisdiction. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany under Hitler maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Dr. Raul Hilberg Raul Hilberg (June 2, 1926 - August 4, 2007 in Williston, Vermont) was one of the best-known and most distinguished of Holocaust historians. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... R. Walther Darré in a 1939 calendar Richard Oscar Walther Darré (14 July 1895 - 5 September 1953), SS-Obergruppenführer, was one of the Nazi leading ‘blood and soil’ ideologists. ... Blood and Soil (German Blut und Boden) was a phrase and doctrine exploited by Adolf Hitler to provide moral justification for the ejection of the Jewish, and generally non-Germanic, people. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans that were specifically used in Nazi Germany. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Germanys population pyramid. ...

Contents

Racialist ideology

Philosophers and others theoreticians also participated to the elaboration of the Nazi ideology. The relationship between Heidegger and Nazism has remained a controversial subject in the history of philosophy, even today. According to the philosopher Emmanuel Faye, Heidegger said of Spinoza that he was "ein Fremdkörper in der Philosophie", a "foreign body in philosophy" — Faye notes that Fremdkörper was a term which belonged to the Nazi glossary, and not to classical German [1]. The jurist Carl Schmitt elaborated a philosophy of law praising the Führerprinzip and the German people, while Alfred Baeumler instrumentalized Nietzsche's thought, in particular his concept of the "Will to Power", in an attempt to justify Nazism. The German philosopher Martin Heidegger joined the Nazi Party (NSDAP) on May 1, 1933, nearly three weeks after being appointed Rector of the University of Freiburg. ... The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. ... Baruch Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 - February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in the community in which he grew up. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans that were specifically used in Nazi Germany. ... Carl Schmitt (July 11, 1888 – April 7, 1985) was a German jurist, political theorist, and professor of law. ... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... Alfred Baeumler (born November 19, 1887 in Neustadt an der Tafelfichte; died March 19, 1968 near Reutlingen) was a German philosopher and pedagogue. ... Nietzschean redirects here. ... The will to power (German: Der Wille zur Macht) is a concept prominent in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. ...


Four books belonging to the scientific racism ideology, which claimed that perceived racial difference was hierarchical and central to social order, had a major influence on the trajectory of Nazi racial theories:[2]

American eugenicists traded ideas with their counterparts in Nazi Germany (Lombardo 2002; Kühl 1994). Arthur de Gobineau. ... An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855) by Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau is a milestone of scientific racism (also called racialism) and White supremacy, and is generally considered to be the first formulation of biological racism, in contrast to Boulainvilliers theory of races. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ... Lothrop Stoddard. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with The Rising Tide of Color Against White World Supremacy. ...


Propaganda and implementation of racial theories

Nazis developed an elaborate system of propaganda to diffuse these theories. Nazi architecture, for example, was used to create the "new order" and improve the "Aryan race." Sports were also seen by the Nazis as a way to "regenerate the race." The Hitler Youth, founded in 1922, had among its basic motivations the training of future "Aryan supermen" and future soldiers who would faithfully fight for the Third Reich. Cinema was also used to propagandize racist theories, under the direction of Joseph Goebbels' Propagandaministerium. The Hygiene Museum, in Dresden, diffused racial theories. A 1934 poster of the museum shows a man with distinctly African features and reads, "If this man had been sterilized there would not have been born ... 12 hereditarily diseased." [3] According to the current director Klaus Voegel, "The Hygiene Museum was not a criminal institute in the sense that people were killed here," but "it helped to shape the idea of which lives were worthy and which were worthless." [3] The Racial Policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, and including measures aimed primarily against Jews by an ideological theory based on historical, but renewed antisemitism in 1920s and 1930s Europe. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi propaganda is the term that describes the psychologically powerful propaganda within Nazi Germany, much of which was centered around Jews, consistently alleged to be the source of Germanys economic problems. ... Germany pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris, 1937. ... A sport consists of a physical activity or skill carried out with a recreational purpose: for competition, for self-enjoyment, to attain excellence, for the development of a skill, or some combination of these. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ... // Goals of the Nazi film policy Despite its authoritarian core, Nazism was a populism, a political movement that courted the masses by the means of slogans that were aimed directly at the instincts and emotions of the people. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... The Propagandaministerium () (or State Ministry for Public enlightenment and Propaganda) was the Ministry of propaganda in Nazi Germany. ... The Dresden Elbe Valley cultural landscape Dresden is a cultural centre in Germany having influenced the development of European culture. ...


Nazi racial theories soon translated into legislation, most notably with the 1935 Nuremberg Laws and the July 1933 Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring. The Action T4 euthanasia program, in which the Kraft durch Freude (KdF, literally "Strength Through Joy") youth organization participated, targeted people accused of representing a danger of "degeneration" towards the "Deutsche Volk." The Nazi Regime also implemented a vast bureaucratic apparatus for making "racial determinations," the so-called ancestral proof (Abstammungsnachweis). Probably the vast majority of the population made such a proof during the course of the Third Reich. The Nuremberg Laws (German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... We do not stand alone: Nazi poster from 1936 with flags of other countries with compulsory sterilization legislation and a shield with the name and date of enaction of the German sterilization law. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmarks is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... Kraft durch Freude (abbreviated KdF and meaning strength through joy), was a large state-controlled leisure organization in Nazi Germany, a part of the Deutsche Arbeitsfront (DAF), the national German labour organization. ... This article deals with the social-philosophical meaning of degeneration. ... Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) is a historical term which arose in the early 20th century to apply for Germans living outside of the German Empire. ...


References

  1. ^ Emmanuel Faye, Heidegger, l'introduction du nazisme dans la philosophie, Albin Michel, 2005. See Nazi Foundations in Heidegger's Work, South Central Review, Volume 23, Number 1, Spring 2006, pp. 55-66
  2. ^ Chip Berlet. 2004. “Mapping the Political Right: Gender and Race Oppression in Right-Wing Movements.” In Abby Ferber, ed, Home-Grown Hate: Gender and Organized Racism. New York: Routledge.
  3. ^ a b MSNBC, "Nazi racial purity exhibit opens in Germany," October 9, 2006; on-line (English)

South Central Review is an academic journal founded in 1984 and the official publication of the South Central Modern Language Association. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ...

Bibliography

  • Biddiss, Michael D. 1970. Father of Racist Ideology: The Social and Political Thought of Count Gobineau. New York: Weybright and Talley.
  • Ehrenreich, Eric. 2007 The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial Science, and the Final Solution. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
  • Kühl, Stefan. 1994. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Lombardo, Paul A. 2002. "‘The American Breed’: Nazi Eugenics and the Origins of the Pioneer Fund." Albany Law Review 65:743–830.
  • Mintz, Frank P. 1985. The Liberty Lobby and the American Right: Race, Conspiracy, and Culture. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
  • Poliakov, Leon. 1974. Aryan Myth: A History of Racist and Nationalist Ideas in Europe. New York, NY: Basic Books.
  • Tucker, William. 2002. The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

See also

Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys race based social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the center of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as life unworthy... Life unworthy of life (in German: Lebensunwertes Leben) was a Nazi designation for the segments of populace that, according to racial policies of the Third Reich, had no right to live and thus were to be exterminated. ... State racism is a concept used by French philosopher Michel Foucault to designate the reappropriation of the historical and political discourse of race struggle, In the late seventeenth century. ... In Thus spake Zarathustra (in German, Also sprach Zarathustra), the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche explains the three steps through which man can become an Übermensch (literally, overman or superman): By his will to destruction By re-evaluating or destroying old ideals By overcoming nihilism The will to destruction Nietzsches... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... SS redirects here. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hitlers rise to power was marked at first by a period of the NSDAP as a fringe party before the events of the Beer hall putsch and the release of Mein Kampf introduced Hitler to a wider audience. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For other uses, see Night of the Long Knives (disambiguation). ... The Nazi partys 1936 Nuremberg Rally was its largest. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom that occurred throughout Nazi Germany on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         This article is about former members of the Nazi Party; for active groups, see: Neo-Nazism. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... Historians and biographers note some difficulty in attributing the political beliefs of Adolf Hitler. ... The National Socialist Program, also referred to as the 25-point program or 25-point plan was developed to formulate the party policies of, first, the Austrian German Workers Party (or DAP) and was copied later by Adolf Hitlers Nazi party. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi propaganda is the term that describes the psychologically powerful propaganda within Nazi Germany, much of which was centered around Jews, consistently alleged to be the source of Germanys economic problems. ... Germany pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris, 1937. ... Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys race based social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the center of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as life unworthy... Karl Brandt at the Doctors Trial The Doctors Trial (officially United States of America v. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi human experimentation was medical experimentation on large numbers of people by the German Nazi regime in its concentration camps during World War II. // According to the indictment at the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials, these experiments... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... The Parti national social chrétien was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. ... The German-American Bund was an American Nazi organization established in the 1930s. ... The Hungarian National Socialist Party was a political epithet adopted by a number of minor Nazi parties in Hungary before the Second World War. ... Symbol of the Hirden, the stormtroopers or paramilitary organization of the Nasjonal Samling. ... The Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging (NSB, National Socialist Movement) was a Nazi political party in the Netherlands during the 1930s and during the German occupation in World War II, when it was the only allowed political party. ... National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket), a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local nazi units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in UmeÃ¥. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB. The leader... The National Socialist League was a short lived political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War. ... The Ossewabrandwag (Oxwagon Sentinel)(OB) was a nationalist Afrikaner organization in South Africa, founded in Bloemfontein on February 4, 1939. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement) was a pro-German anti-Semitic national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. ... This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans that were specifically used in Nazi Germany. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... This article describes semi-religious developments of Nazism after 1945. ... The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the Populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the organic. ... Nazi Party (NSDAP) leaders and officials Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Gunter dAlquen Ludolf von Alvensleben Max Amann Benno von Arent Heinz Auerswald Hans... This List of Adolf Hitler Books is an annotated bibliography using APA style citations of the many books related to Adolf Hitler. ... List of Adolf Hitler speeches is an attempt to aggregate all of Adolf Hitlers speeches. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Between 1925 and 1945, the German SS grew from a mere eight members to over a quarter of a million Waffen-SS and well over a million Allgemeine-SS members. ... This is a list of Second world war era Nazis that are still alive and presumed/considered war criminals. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

 
 

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