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Encyclopedia > Nazism
Nazism
Flag of the NSDAP 1920-1945 and of Nazi Germany 1933-1945
Nazi organizations
Nazi Party
Sturmabteilung
Schutzstaffel
Hitler Youth
Nazism in history
Early Nazi Timeline
Hitler's rise to power
Nazi Germany
Night of the Long Knives
Nuremberg Rallies
Kristallnacht
The Holocaust
Nuremberg Trials
Ex-Nazis and Neo-Nazism
Nazi ideology
Nazism and race
Gleichschaltung
Hitler's political beliefs
National Socialist Program
Religious aspects of Nazism
Nazi propaganda
Nazi architecture
Mein Kampf
Nazism and race
Nazism and race
Racial policy of Nazi Germany
Nazi eugenics
Doctors' Trial
Nazi physicians
Nazi human experimentation
Nazism and Religion
Nuremberg Trials
Outside Germany
National Socialist Front (Sweden)
Swedish Resistance Movement
White Aryan Resistance (Sweden)
National Socialist Movement of Denmark
National Socialist Movement of Norway
Norwegian Resistance Movement
Canadian National Socialist Unity Party
German American Bund
Hungarian National Socialist Party
Nasjonal Samling
Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging
National Socialist Bloc
National Socialist League
National Socialist Workers’ Party of Denmark
Ossewabrandwag
Arrow Cross Party of Hungary
Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement
Related Subjects
Glossary of the Third Reich
Neo-Nazism
Esoteric Nazism
Völkisch movement
Lists
Nazi Party leaders and officials
Adolf Hitler books
Adolf Hitler speeches
SS personnel
Living Nazis
Former Nazis influential after 1945
Politics Portal   v  d  e 

Nazism, commonly known as National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus),[1][2][3][4] refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party under Adolf Hitler; and the policies adopted by the government of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945, a period also known as the Third Reich.[5][6][7][8] The official name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei[9] (NSDAP) — “National Socialist German Workers’ Party”. The Nazis were one of several historical groups that used the term National Socialism to describe themselves, and in the 1920s they became the largest such group. Nazism is generally considered by scholars to be a form of fascism. While not directly linked to any school of western conservative thought, like all strains of fascism, it drew many elements from and formed solid alliances with the political right.[10] Nāśī’ (נָשִׂיא) is a Hebrew term meaning, roughly, Prince. In classical times it was the title given to the head of the Sanhedrin, the supreme court and legislative body of ancient Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... The Nazi Party, officially: National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , abbreviated NSDAP), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... The Nazi Party, officially: National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , abbreviated NSDAP), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... SS redirects here. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hitlers rise to power was marked at first by a period of the NSDAP as a fringe party before the events of the Beer hall putsch and the release of Mein Kampf introduced Hitler to a wider audience. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For other uses, see Night of the Long Knives (disambiguation). ... The Nazi partys 1936 Nuremberg Rally was its largest. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom that occurred throughout Nazi Germany on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         This article is about former members of the Nazi Party; for active groups, see: Neo-Nazism. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Executing Russian civilians. ... The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... Historians and biographers note some difficulty in attributing the political beliefs of Adolf Hitler. ... The National Socialist Program, also referred to as the 25-point program or 25-point plan was developed to formulate the party policies of, first, the Austrian German Workers Party (or DAP) and was copied later by Adolf Hitlers Nazi party. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi propaganda is the term that describes the psychologically powerful propaganda within Nazi Germany, much of which was centered around Jews, consistently alleged to be the source of Germanys economic problems. ... Germany pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris, 1937. ... Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Executing Russian civilians. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys race based social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the center of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as life unworthy... Karl Brandt at the Doctors Trial The Doctors Trial (officially United States of America v. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi human experimentation was medical experimentation on large numbers of people by the German Nazi regime in its concentration camps during World War II. // According to the indictment at the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials, these experiments... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Nationalsocialistisk Front (NSF) is a Swedish neo-nazi political party. ... The Swedish Resistance Movement (Swedish: Svenska MotstÃ¥ndsrörelsen), also known as the SMR, is a Swedish extreme nationalist, racist organisation that exists in Stockholm, Göteborg, Malmö and Linköping in Sweden. ... Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Bevægelse (National Socialist Movement of Denmark, DNSB) is a neo-nazi political party in Denmark. ... Norwegian resistance to the Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany from 1940 to 1945 took several forms: Asserting the legitimacy of the exiled Norwegian government, and by implication the lack of legitimacy of the Quisling regime and Terboven administration The initial defense in Southern Norway, which was largely disorganized, but... The Parti national social chrétien was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. ... The German-American Bund was an American Nazi organization established in the 1930s. ... The Hungarian National Socialist Party was a political epithet adopted by a number of minor Nazi parties in Hungary before the Second World War. ... Symbol of the Hirden, the stormtroopers or paramilitary organization of the Nasjonal Samling. ... The Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging (NSB, National Socialist Movement) was a Nazi political party in the Netherlands during the 1930s and during the German occupation in World War II, when it was the only allowed political party. ... National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket), a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local nazi units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in UmeÃ¥. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB. The leader... The National Socialist League was a short lived political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War. ... The Ossewabrandwag (Oxwagon Sentinel)(OB) was a nationalist Afrikaner organization in South Africa, founded in Bloemfontein on February 4, 1939. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement) was a pro-German anti-Semitic national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. ... This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans that were specifically used in Nazi Germany. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... This article describes semi-religious developments of Nazism after 1945. ... The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the Populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the organic. ... Nazi Party (NSDAP) leaders and officials Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Gunter dAlquen Ludolf von Alvensleben Max Amann Benno von Arent Heinz Auerswald Hans... This List of Adolf Hitler Books is an annotated bibliography using APA style citations of the many books related to Adolf Hitler. ... List of Adolf Hitler speeches is an attempt to aggregate all of Adolf Hitlers speeches. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Between 1925 and 1945, the German SS grew from a mere eight members to over a quarter of a million Waffen-SS and well over a million Allgemeine-SS members. ... This is a list of Second world war era Nazis that are still alive and presumed/considered war criminals. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Since the rise of Adolf Hitler in the 1930s, and particularly since World War II, the term National Socialism almost always refers to Nazism and, in particular, the Nazi Party as well as derivatives such as modern neo-Nazism. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The Nazi Party, officially: National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , abbreviated NSDAP), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually when speaking about the United States. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ...


Nazism was not a monolithic movement, but rather a (mainly German) combination of various ideologies and groups, sparked by anger at the Treaty of Versailles and what was considered to have been a Jewish/Communist conspiracy (known in the vernacular as the Dolchstoßlegende or “Stab-in-the-Back Legend”) to humiliate Germany at the end of the First World War. This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . Left to right, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda theory popular in post-World War I Germany. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Among the key elements of Nazism were anti-parliamentarism, ethnic nationalism, racism, collectivism,[11][12] eugenics, antisemitism, opposition to economic liberalism and political liberalism,[13][14][12] anti-communism, and totalitarianism. States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Executing Russian civilians. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys race based social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the center of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as life unworthy... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... The liberal theory of economics is the theory of economics in classical liberalism developed in the Enlightenment, and believed to be first fully formulated by Adam Smith which advocates minimal interference by government in the economy. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...

Contents

Terminology

The term Nazi is derived from the first two syllables of Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, [9] the official German language name of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (commonly known in English as the Nazi Party). Party members rarely referred to themselves as Nazis, and instead used the official term, Nationalsozialisten (National Socialists). The word mirrors the term Sozi,[15] a common and slightly derogatory term for members of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands).[16] When Adolf Hitler took power, the use of the term Nazi almost disappeared from Germany, although it was still used by opponents in Austria.[16] German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... The Nazi Party, officially: National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , abbreviated NSDAP), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... SPD redirects here. ...


History

National Socialist philosophy came together during a time of crisis in Germany; the nation had lost World War I in 1918, but had also been forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles, a devastating capitulation, and was in the midst of a period of great economic depression and instability. The Dolchstosslegende (or “stab in the back”),[17] described by the National Socialists, featured a claim that the war effort was sabotaged internally, in large part by Germany’s Jews. The National Socialists suggested that a lack of patriotism had led to Germany’s defeat (for one, the front line was not on German soil at the time of the armistice). In politics, criticism was directed at the Social Democrats and the Weimar government (Deutsches Reich 1919–1933), which the National Socialists accused of selling out the country. The concept of Dolchstosslegende led many to look at Jews and other so-called “non-Germans”[citation needed] living in Germany as having extra-national loyalties, thereby raising antisemitic sentiments and the Judenfrage (German for “Jewish Question”),[18] at a time when the Völkisch movement and a desire to create a Greater Germany were strong. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . Left to right, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France... In economics, a depression is a term commonly used for a sustained downturn in the economy. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Stab-in-the-back myth (German: Dolchstoßlegende, literally Dagger stab legend) refers to a social myth and persecution-propaganda theory popular in Germany in the period after World War I through World War II... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Deutsches Reich was the official name for Germany from 1871 to 1945 in the German language. ... The Jewish question, in general usage, usually refers to questions about the essential nature of Jews, often in reference to the nature their relationship to non-Jews. ... For other uses, see Jewish Question (disambiguation). ... The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the Populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the organic. ... Grossdeutschland (literally Greater Germany) is a term that has been used in two separate contexts over history. ...


On January 5, 1919, the party that eventually became the Nazi Party was founded under the name German Workers' Party (DAP) by Anton Drexler, along with six other members.[19][20] German intelligence authorities sent Hitler, a corporal at the time, to investigate the German Workers’ Party. As a result, party members invited him to join after he impressed them with the speaking ability he displayed while arguing with party members. Hitler joined the party in September 1919, and he became the propaganda boss.[20][21] The party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers’ Party on February 24, 1920,[20] against Hitler’s choice of Social Revolutionary Party.[22][23] Hitler ousted Drexler and became the party leader on July 29, 1921.[23][20] is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The German Workers Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, short DAP) was a briefly existing progenitor of the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party). ... Anton Drexler (June 13, 1884 - February 24, 1942) was a German Nazi political leader of 1920s. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi propaganda is the term that describes the psychologically powerful propaganda within Nazi Germany, much of which was centered around Jews, consistently alleged to be the source of Germanys economic problems. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Although Adolf Hitler had joined the Nazi Party in September 1919, and published Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”) in 1925 and 1926, the seminal ideas of National Socialism had their roots in groups and individuals of decades past.[20] These include the Völkisch movement and its religious-occult counterpart, Ariosophy. Among the various Ariosophic lodge-like groups, only the Thule Society is related to the origins of the Nazi party. Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ... Werner von Bülows World-Rune-Clock, illustrating the correspondences between Lists Armanen runes, the signs of the zodiac and the gods of the months Armanism and Ariosophy are the names of ideological systems of an esoteric nature, pioneered by Guido von List and Jörg Lanz von... Thule Society emblem The Thule Society (German: Thule-Gesellschaft), originally the Studiengruppe für germanisches Altertum Study Group for Germanic Antiquity, was a German occultist and Völkisch group in Munich, named after a mythical northern country from Greek legend. ...


The term Nazism refers to the ideology of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party and its Weltanschauung, which permeated German society (and to some degree European and American society) during the party’s years as the German government (1933 to 1945). Free elections in 1932 under Germany’s Weimar Republic made the NSDAP the largest parliamentary faction; no similar party in any country at that time had achieved comparable electoral success. Hitler’s January 30, 1933 appointment as Chancellor of Germany and his subsequent consolidation of dictatorial power marked the beginning of Nazi Germany. During its first year in power, the NSDAP announced the Tausendjähriges Reich (“Thousand Years’ Empire”) or Drittes Reich (“Third Reich”), a putative successor to the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire). An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... This article is about the legislative institution. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ...

Part of the Politics series on
Fascism

Fascism Portal
Politics Portal

 v  d  e  For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... What constitutes a definition of fascism and fascist governments is a highly disputed subject that has proved complicated and contentious. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement) was a pro-German anti-Semitic national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. ... Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used by historians to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... The famous Integralist salute, Anauê!, which means you are my brother! (believed by some to have originated in a Tupi language expression) Integralist banner Brazilian Integralism (Portuguese: Integralismo brasileiro) was a Brazilian political movement created in October 1932. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... The Falange or sometimes the Phalange is the name assigned to several political movements and parties dating from the 1930s, most particularly the original movement in Spain. ... Ioannis Metaxas From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... -1... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... National Syndicalism is typically associated with the right-wing labor movement in Italy which would later become the basis for Mussolini’s Fascist Party. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Léon Degrelle Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... This article discusses regimes and movements that are alleged to have been either fascist or sympathetic to fascism. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Ioannis Metaxas From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund... Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ... This articles covers the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ From the Gustav Line to the Gothic Line Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion None defined. ... For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Acerbo Law was a 1923 electoral law, ostensibly proposed by Baron Giacomo Acerbo, forced through the Italian Parliament - if a party gained 25 percent of the votes, they gained 2/3 of the seats. ... Actual Idealism was a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a grounded idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Immanuel Kant and the Absolute idealism of Georg Hegel. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... For the 1970 film see Black Brigade (film) Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... Volksgemeinschaft was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... The economics of fascism refers to the economic policies implemented by fascist governments. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Giovanni Gentile (IPA:) (May 30, 1875 - April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian Idealist philosopher, a peer of Benedetto Croce. ... The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: ) was the main body of Mussolinis Fascist government in Italy. ... Adolf Hitler and others at a Nazi party rally in Nuremberg, Germany, performing the salute. ... The Oath of the Horatii (1784), by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down. ... During the late 1920s and early 30s, Communist Party leaders linked to the Communist International (such as Rajani Palme Dutt and Joseph Stalin) argued that capitalist society had entered a third period in which social fascism posed a threat. ... International Third Position was a group formed by Nick Griffin and Derek Holland as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement. ... Enrico Corradini (1865, near Montelupo Fiorentino—1931, Rome) was an Italian novelist, essayist, journalist, and nationalist political figure. ...

Post-1933 developments

In the night of February 27, 1933, the Reichstag fire provided Hitler with a convenient excuse for suppressing his opponents. The following day, he persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to sign an emergency decree suspending civil liberties and stripping the power of the federal German states. Opponents were imprisoned first in improvised camps (wilde Lager) and later in an organized system of Nazi concentration camps. On March 23, the Reichstag passed an “Enabling Law” which granted Hitler dictatorial powers. Unions were abolished and political parties, other than the National Socialists, forbidden. is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... Hindenburg may refer to: Persons: Paul von Hindenburg (1847 – 1934), German general in World War I and president of Germany (1925 – 1934) Oskar von Hindenburg (1883 – 1960), son of the former Carl Hindenburg (1741–1808), mathematician Hindenburg, Japanese comic writer Places (all named after Paul von Hindenburg): Hindenburg (Altmark) in... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... The Enabling Act (in German: Ermächtigungsgesetz) was passed by the Reichstag on March 23, 1933. ...


Having dealt with his political enemies, Hitler moved against his rivals in the party, principally those allied with Ernst Röhm, leader of the Sturmabteilung (known as SA or “brownshirts”) and Gregor Strasser, leader of the Nazi left wing. Between June 30 and July 2, 1934, these were purged in the so-called Night of the Long Knives. With this, Hitler assured the support of the powerful Reichswehr. After the death of Hindenburg, on August 2, there was no one left who could present an effective challenge to Nazi power. Ernst Julius Röhm, also known as Ernst Roehm in English (Munich November 28, 1887 – July 2, 1934) was a German military officer, and the commander and co-founder of the Nazi Sturmabteilung — the SA. // Röhm was one of three children of Julius Röhm and his wife Emilie... The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... Gregor Strasser Gregor Strasser (variant German spelling Straßer) (May 31, 1892, Geisenfeld, Germany - June 30, 1934, Berlin) was a politician of the German Nazi Party (NSDAP). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Nazi Party had been anti-Semitic from the beginning, and shortly after seizing power had attempted a boycott against the Jews (see Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses). Official measures against the Jews had been limited by the reluctance of President Hindenburg, but the Nuremberg Laws, proclaimed by Hitler at the 1935 Nazi rally in Nuremberg, provided a legal basis for systematic persecution. Visible signs of anti-Semitism were removed during the 1936 Summer Olympics, but replaced shortly thereafter. The Nuremberg Laws (German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ...


Foreign reaction

The British Conservative party and the right-wing parties in France appeased the Nazi regime in the mid- and late-1930s, even though they had begun to criticise its totalitarianism and, in Britain especially, Nazi Germany’s policies towards the Jews. However, Britain had appeased pre-Nazi Germany too. Important reasons behind this appeasement included, first, the erroneous assumption that Hitler had no desire to precipitate another world war, even though in Mein Kampf, he explained the party’s program to the voters in detail, describing World War I very much as he actually fought it (overtly and explicitly committing himself to World War II in precise detail) and second, when the rebirth of the German military could no longer be ignored, a concern that neither Britain nor France was yet ready to fight an all-out war against Germany. Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...


The second reason, that the West was not ready for war with Germany is, as Churchill pointed out, unsatisfactory, for the appeasement program worsened that problem, for example by removing Czechoslovakia’s resources from the anti Nazi side, and adding them to the Nazi side. As Churchill said of appeasement:

You were given the choice between war and dishonor. You chose dishonor, and you will have war. If you will not fight for the right when you can easily win without bloodshed; if you will not fight when your victory will be sure and not too costly, you may come to the moment when you will have to fight with all the odds are against you and only a precarious chance of survival. There may even be a worse case. You may have to fight when there is no hope of victory, because it is better to perish than live as slaves.

In 1936, Nazi Germany and Japan entered into the Anti-Comintern Pact, aimed directly at countering Soviet foreign policy. This alliance later became the basis for the Tripartite Pact with Italy, the foundation of the Axis Powers. The three nations united in their rabid opposition to communism, as well as their militaristic, racist regimes, but they failed to coordinate their military efforts effectively. The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ...


In his early years, Hitler also greatly admired the United States of America. In Mein Kampf, he praised the United States for its race-based anti-immigration laws and for the subordination of the “inferior” black population. According to Hitler, America was a successful nation because it kept itself “pure”[citation needed] of “lesser races”[citation needed]. Nevertheless, his view of the United States became more negative as time passed. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


World War Two

War Ensign of Nazi Germany (1938-1945)
War Ensign of Nazi Germany (1938-1945)

The Nazi rulers of Germany began World War II by invading Poland in September 1939 and conquered most of Western Europe except for the United Kingdom in the summer of 1940. On June 22, 1941, they invaded the Soviet Union and came close to capturing Moscow in December 1941. However, its fortunes in the war declined by late 1942 and early 1943 when the Western Allies defeated Nazi forces at Stalingrad and at both El-Alamein and Tunisia in North Africa. Image File history File links War_Ensign_of_Germany_1938-1945. ... Image File history File links War_Ensign_of_Germany_1938-1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The Nazi regime in Germany ended with World War II in 1945, when the party was declared a criminal organisation by the victorious Allied Powers. Since 1945, Nazism has been outlawed as a political ideology in Germany, as are forms of iconography and propaganda from the Nazi era. Nevertheless, neo-Nazis continue to operate in Germany and several other countries. Following World War II and the Holocaust, the term Nazi and symbols associated with Nazism (such as the Swastika) acquired extremely negative connotations in Europe and North America. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article is about the symbol. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ...


Ideology

Nazism has come to stand for a belief in the superiority of an Aryan race, an abstraction of the Germanic peoples. During Hitler’s time, the Nazis advocated a strong, centralized government under the Führer and claimed to defend Germany and the German people (including those of German ethnicity abroad) against Communism and so-called Jewish subversion. Ultimately, the Nazis sought to create a largely homogeneous and autarkic ethnic state, absorbing the ideas of Pan-Germanism. Hitler redirects here. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Nazi propaganda poster. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ... Pan-Germanism (German: ) was a political movement of the 19th century aiming for unity of the German-speaking peoples of Europe. ...


Historians often disagree on the principal interests of the Nazi Party and whether Nazism can be considered a coherent ideology. The original National Socialists claimed that there would be no program that would bind them, and that they wanted to reject any established world view. Still, as Hitler played a major role in the development of the Nazi Party from its early stages and rose to become the movement’s indisputable iconographic figurehead, much of what is thought to be “Nazism” is in line with Hitler’s own political beliefs — the ideology and the man remain largely interchangeable in the public eye. Some dispute whether Hitler’s views relate directly to those surrounding the movement; the problem is exacerbated by the inability of various self-proclaimed Nazis and Nazi groups to decide on a universal ideology. But if Nazism is the world view promulgated in Mein Kampf, that world view is consistent and coherent, being characterized essentially by a conception of history as a race struggle; the Führerprinzip; anti-Semitism; and the need to acquire Lebensraum (living space) at the expense of the Soviet Union [24]. The core concept of Nazism is that the German Volk is under attack from a judeo-bolshevist conspiracy[24], and must become united, disciplined and self sacrificing (must submit to Nazi leadership) in order to win. Historians and biographers note some difficulty in attributing the political beliefs of Adolf Hitler. ... Adolf Hitler made believe he was the incarnation of the Führerprinzip The Führerprinzip, the German name for the leader principle, refers to a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal           (German for habitat or literally living space) was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. ... Volk is a German (and Dutch) word meaning people or folk. It is commonly used as prefix in words such as Volksentscheid (plebiscite) or Völkerbund (League of Nations), or the car manufacturer Volkswagen (literally, peoples car). A number of völkisch movements were set up in Germany after...


Hitler's political beliefs were formulated in Mein Kampf. His views were composed of three main axes: a conception of history as a race struggle influenced by social darwinism; antisemitism and the idea that Germany needed to acquire land from Russia. His antisemitism, coupled with his anti-Communism, gave the grounds of his conspiracy theory of “judeo-bolshevism”.[24] Hitler first began to develop his views through observations he made while living in Vienna from 1907 to 1913. He concluded that a racial, religious, and cultural hierarchy existed, and he placed “Aryans” at the top as the ultimate superior race, while Jews and “Gypsies” were people at the bottom. He vaguely examined and questioned the policies of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, where as a citizen by birth, Hitler lived during the Empire’s last throes. He believed that its ethnic and linguistic diversity had weakened the Empire and helped to create dissent. Further, he saw democracy as a destabilizing force because it placed power in the hands of ethnic minorities who, he claimed, “weakened and destabilized” the Empire by dividing it against itself. Hitler’s political beliefs were then affected by World War I and the 1917 October Revolution, and saw some modifications between 1920 and 1923. He formulated them definitively in Mein Kampf.[25] Historians and biographers note some difficulty in attributing the political beliefs of Adolf Hitler. ... Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... The following is a list of pejorative political epithets; meaning, words or phrases used to mock or insult certain political views and their supporters. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Languages Romany, languages of native region Religions Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ...


Fascism

Further information: Fascism and ideology

In both popular thought and academic scholarship, Nazism is generally considered a form of fascism — a term whose definition is itself contentious. The debate focuses mainly on comparisons of fascist movements in general with the Italian prototype, including the fascists in Germany. The idea mentioned above to reject all former ideas and ideologies like democracy, liberalism, and especially marxism (as in Ernst Nolte[26]) make it difficult to track down a perfect definition of these two terms; however, Italian Fascists tended to believe that all elements in society should be unified through corporatism to form an “Organic State”; this meant that these Fascists often had no strong opinion on the question of race, since it was only the state and nation that mattered. There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... Ernst Nolte (born 11 January 1923, Witten, Germany) is a nationalistic German historian and philosopher, often described as one of the most brooding, German thinkers about history[1]. Nolte’s major interest is the comparative studies of fascism and Communism. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... For other uses, see Race. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ...


German Nazism, on the other hand, emphasized the Aryan race or “Volk” principle to the point where the state seemed simply a means through which the Aryan race could realize its “true destiny”. Since a debate among historians (especially Zeev Sternhell) to see each movement, or at least the German one, as unique, the issue has been for the most part settled, showing that there is a stronger family resemblance between the Italian and the German fascist movement than there is between democracies in Europe or the communist states of the Cold War;[27] additionally, the crimes of the fascist movement can be compared, not only in numbers of casualties, but also in common developments: the March on Rome of Mussolini to Hitler’s response shortly after to attempt a coup d'etat himself in Munich. Volk is a German (and Dutch) word meaning people or folk. It is commonly used as prefix in words such as Volksentscheid (plebiscite) or Völkerbund (League of Nations), or the car manufacturer Volkswagen (literally, peoples car). A number of völkisch movements were set up in Germany after... Zeev Sternhell is the Léon Blum Professor of Political Science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


Also, Aryanism was not an attractive idea for Italians who were seen as a non-Nordic population, but still there was a strong racism and also genocide in concentration camps long before either was in place in Germany.[28] The philosophy that had seemed to be separating both fascisms was shown to be a result of happening in two different countries: since the king of Italy had not died, unlike the Reichspräsident, the leader in Italy (Duce) was not able to gain the absolute power the leader in Germany (Führer) did, leading to Mussolini’s fall. The academic challenge to separate all fascist movements has since the 1980s and early 1990s been ground for a new attempt to see even more similarities. For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ...


According to most scholars of fascism, especially once in power, has historically attracted support from the political right, especially the "far right" or "extreme right."[29]


Nationalism

Hitler founded the Nazi state upon a racially defined “German people” and principally rejected the idea of being bound by the limits of nationalism.[30] That was only a means for attempting unlimited supremacy. In that sense, its hyper-nationalism was tolerated to reach a world-dominating Germanic-Aryan Volksgemeinschaft. This idea is a central concept of Mein Kampf, symbolized by the motto Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer (one people, one empire, one leader). The Nazi relationship between the Volk and the state was called the Volksgemeinschaft (people’s community), a late nineteenth or early twentieth century neologism that defined a communal duty of citizens in service to the Reich (as opposed to a simple society). The term “National Socialism” derives from this citizen-nation relationship, whereby the term socialism is invoked and is meant to be realized through the common duty of the individuals to the German people; all actions are to be in service of the Reich. The Nazis stated that their goal was to bring forth a nation-state as the locus and embodiment of the people’s collective will, bound by the Volksgemeinschaft, as both an ideal and an operating instrument. In comparison, traditional socialist ideologies oppose the idea of nations. Volksgemeinschaft is a Nazi term for peoples community. It was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...


Militarism

Nazi rationale invested heavily in the militarist belief that great nations grow from military power and maintained order, which in turn grow “naturally” from “rational, civilized cultures”. The Nazi Party appealed to German nationalists and national pride, capitalizing on irredentist and revanchist sentiments as well as aversions to various aspects of modernist thinking (although at the same time embracing other modernist ideas, such as admiration for engine power). Many ethnic Germans felt deeply committed to the goal of creating the Greater Germany (the old dream to include German-speaking Austria), which some believe required the use of military force to achieve. Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... Revanchism (from French revanche, revenge) is a term used since the 1870s to describe political campaigns to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country during previous wars and strifes, sometimes quite distant in time. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Grossdeutschland (literally Greater Germany) is a term that has been used in two separate contexts over history. ...


Racism and discrimination

Further information: Nazism and race & Racial policy of Nazi Germany

The Nazi racial philosophy was influenced by the works of Arthur de Gobineau, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, and Madison Grant, and was elaborated by Alfred Rosenberg in the Myth of the Twentieth Century. Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Executing Russian civilians. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... Arthur de Gobineau. ... Houston Stewart Chamberlain Houston Stewart Chamberlain (September 9, 1855 - January 9, 1927) was a British author noted for his works concerning the Aryan race. ... Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ... Alfred Rosenberg around 1935   (January 12, 1893 Reval (today Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... The Myth of the Twentieth Century (Ger. ...


Hitler also claimed that a nation was the highest creation of a “race”, and “great nations” (literally large nations) were the creation of homogeneous populations of “great races” working together. These nations developed cultures that naturally grew from “races” with “natural good health, and aggressive, intelligent, courageous traits”. The “weakest nations”, Hitler said, were those of “impure” or “mongrel races”, because they had divided, quarreling, and therefore weak cultures. Worst of all were seen to be the parasitic “Untermensch” (“subhumans”), mainly Jews, but also Gypsies and Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, the disabled and so-called anti-socials, all of whom were considered “lebensunwertes Leben” (“life-unworthy life”) owing to their perceived deficiency and inferiority, as well as their wandering, nationless invasions (“the International Jew”). The persecution of homosexuals as part of the Holocaust (with the pink triangle) has seen increasing scholarly attention since the 1990s, even though many homosexuals served in the Sturmabteilungen. Untermensch (German for under man, sub-man, sub-human; plural: Untermenschen) is a term from Nazi racial ideology used to describe inferior people, especially the masses from the East, that is Jews, Gypsies, Soviet Bolsheviks, homosexual men, and anyone else who was not an Aryan (i. ... A single frame from a Roland Klemig film produced by the Reich Propaganda Office. ... Prior to the Third Reich, Berlin was considered a liberal city, with many gay bars, nightclubs and cabarets. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... The pink triangle, a popular gay pride symbol, was originally used to denote homosexual men as a Nazi concentration camp badge. ...


According to Nazism, it is an obvious mistake to permit or encourage plurality within a nation. Fundamental to the Nazi goal was the unification of all German-speaking peoples, “unjustly” divided into different Nation States. The Nazis tried to recruit Dutch and Scandinavian men into the SS, considering them of superior “Germanic” stock, with only limited success. The term Germanic tribes applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop...


Hitler claimed that nations that could not defend their territory did not deserve it. He thought “slave races”, like the Slavic peoples, to be less worthy to exist than “leader races”. In particular, if a master race should require room to live (“Lebensraum”), he thought such a race should have the right to displace the inferior indigenous races.[citation needed] Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... Herrenvolk redirects here. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal           (German for habitat or literally living space) was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. ... The term indigenous peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ...


“Races without homelands”, Hitler proclaimed, were “parasitic races”, and the richer the members of a parasitic race were, the more virulent the parasitism was said to be. A master race could therefore, according to the Nazi doctrine, easily strengthen itself by eliminating parasitic races from its homeland. This idea was the given rationalization for the Nazis’ later oppression and elimination of Jews, Gypsies, Czechs, Poles, the mentally and physically handicapped, homosexuals and others not belonging to these groups or categories that were part of the Holocaust. The Waffen-SS and other German soldiers (including parts of the Wehrmacht), as well as civilian paramilitary groups in occupied territories, were responsible for the deaths of an estimated eleven million men, women, and children in concentration camps, prisoner-of-war camps, labor camps, and death camps such as Auschwitz and Treblinka. The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... POW redirects here. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... Treblinka II was a Nazi extermination camp in German-occupied Poland during World War II. Extermination camps like the one at Treblinka were used in the Holocaust for the systematic genocide of people categorized as sub-humans by the Nazis. ...


Eugenics

Main article: Nazi eugenics

The belief in the need to purify the German race led them to eugenics; this effort culminated in the involuntary euthanasia of disabled people and the compulsory sterilization of people with mental deficiencies or illnesses perceived as hereditary. Adolf Hitler considered Sparta to be the first “Völkisch State”, and praised its early eugenics treatment of deformed children.[31][32] Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys race based social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the center of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as life unworthy... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [10], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. ... Hitler redirects here. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... The hard-to-translate word völkisch has connotations of folksy, folkloric, and populist. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [10], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...


Antisemitism

According to Nazi propaganda, the Jews thrived on fomenting division amongst Germans and amongst states. Nazi antisemitism was primarily racial: “The Jew is the enemy and destroyer of the purity of blood, the conscious destroyer of our race;” however, the Jews were also described as plutocrats exploiting the worker: “As socialists we are opponents of the Jews because we see in the Hebrews the incarnation of capitalism, of the misuse of the nation’s goods.”[33] In addition, the Nazis articulated opposition to finance capitalism with an emphasis on antisemitic claims that this was manipulated by a conspiracy of Jewish bankers.[34] Financial capital, or economic capital, is any liquid medium or mechanism that represents wealth, or other styles of capital. ...


Homosexuality

An estimated 100,000 homosexuals were arrested after Hitler’s rise to power in the 1930s. Of those, 50,000 were suspected to be incarcerated in concentration camps, making for 5,000 to 15,000 deaths. According to Harry Oosterhuis, the Nazis’ original view toward homosexuality was at least ambiguous if not openly tolerant or even approving, with homosexuality common in the Sturmabteilung(SA) which was critical to Hitler as the paramilitary arm of the NSDAP.[35] Thus, the eventual arrests of homosexuals should not be viewed in the context of “race hygiene” or eugenics. Völkisch-nationalist youth movements attracted homosexuals because of the preaching of Männerbund (male bonding); in practice, Oosterhuis says, this meant that the persecution of homosexuals was more politically motivated or opportunistic than anything else.[36] For example, the homosexuality of Ernst Röhm and other leaders of the Sturmabteilung was well known for years and became the basis for satire and jokes, including in the Army, which was highly suspicious and resentful of the SA’s power and size.[37] Röhm was killed chiefly because he was perceived as a political threat, not for his homosexuality. Indeed, it was only after the murder of Roehm that the Nazis publicly expressed concern about the depraved morals of Roehm and the other S.A. leaders who were shot. …Hitler in addressing the surviving storm troop leaders in Munich at noon on June 30[when?], just after the first executions, declared that for their corrupt morals alone these men deserved to die.[38] Autobiography of Pierre Seel, a gay man sent to a concentration camp by the Nazis Before the beginning of World War II, the homosexual people in Germany, especially in Berlin, enjoyed more freedom and acceptance than anywhere else in the world. ... The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Ernst Julius Röhm, also known as Ernst Roehm in English (Munich November 28, 1887 – July 2, 1934) was a German military officer, and the commander and co-founder of the Nazi Sturmabteilung — the SA. // Röhm was one of three children of Julius Röhm and his wife Emilie...


Eventually, Nazism declared itself incompatible with homosexuality, because gays did not reproduce and perpetuate the master race. In 1936, Heinrich Himmler, Chief of the SS, created the "Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion." Homosexuality was declared contrary to "wholesome popular sentiment,"[39] and gay men were regarded as "defilers of German blood." Homosexuals were persecuted for their sexuality. When they were prisoners in a concentration camp, they were forced to wear a pink triangle.[40] The pink triangle, a popular gay pride symbol, was originally used to denote homosexual men as a Nazi concentration camp badge. ...


Religion

Further information: Religious aspects of Nazism, Religion in Nazi Germany, and Positive Christianity

Hitler extended his rationalizations into a religious doctrine, underpinned by his criticism of traditional Catholicism. In particular, and closely related to Positive Christianity, Hitler objected to Catholicism’s ungrounded and international character — that is, it did not pertain to an exclusive race and national culture. At the same time, and somewhat contradictorily, the Nazis combined elements of Germany’s Lutheran community tradition with its northern European, organic pagan past. Elements of militarism found their way into Hitler’s own theology; he preached that his was a “true” or “master” religion, because it would “create mastery” and avoid comforting lies. Those who preached love and tolerance, “in contravention to the facts”, were said to be “slave” or “false” religions. The man who recognized these “truths”, Hitler continued, was said to be a “natural leader”, and those who denied it were said to be “natural slaves”. “Slaves” — especially intelligent ones, he claimed — were always attempting to hinder their masters by promoting false religious and political doctrines. A Sun cross, adopted as the sign of the German Faith Movement because it resembles both a cross and a swastika Positive Christianity is a term used in Nazi ideology to refer to a form of Christianity consistent with Nazism. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... A Sun cross, adopted as the sign of the German Faith Movement because it resembles both a cross and a swastika Positive Christianity is a term used in Nazi ideology to refer to a form of Christianity consistent with Nazism. ... -1... Organic describes forms, methods and patterns found in living systems such as organisation of cells, to populations, communities, and ecosystems. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ...


Anti-clericalism can also be interpreted as part of Nazi ideology, simply because the new Nazi hierarchy did not allow itself to be overridden by the power that the Church traditionally held. In Austria, clerics had a powerful role in politics and ultimately responded to the Vatican. Although a few exceptions exist, Christian persecution was primarily limited to those who refused to accommodate the new regime and yield to its power. A particularly poignant example is seen in the life of Dietrich Bonhoeffer. However, the Nazis often used the church to justify their stance and included many Christian symbols in the Third Reich [41]. A Christian Dirce, by Henryk Siemiradzki. ... Dietrich Bonhoeffer [] (February 4, 1906 – April 9, 1945) was a German Lutheran pastor, theologian, participant in the German Resistance movement against Nazism, and a founding member of the Confessing Church. ...

The völkisch movement was inherently hostile toward atheism: freethinkers clashed frequently with Nazis in the late 1920s and early 1930s.[citation needed] On taking power, Hitler banned freethought organizations (such as the German Freethinkers League) and launched an “anti-godless” movement. In a 1933 speech he declared: “We have… undertaken the fight against the atheistic movement, and that not merely with a few theoretical declarations: we have stamped it out.” This forthright hostility was far more straightforward than the Nazis’ complex, often contradictory stance toward traditional Christian faith.[42][unreliable source?] Thule-gesellschaft_emblem, I got it from [1], which states that it is public domain. ... Thule-gesellschaft_emblem, I got it from [1], which states that it is public domain. ... The Thule-Gesellschaft (Thule Society) was founded August 17, 1918, by Rudolf von Sebottendorff. ... The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the Populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the organic. ...


Several of the founders and subsequent leadership of the Nazi Party had been associates — and very occasionally members — of the Thule-Gesellschaft (the Thule Society), which romanticized the Aryan race through theology and ritual.[43] The Thule Society had been an offshoot of the Germanenorden. The racist-occult notions of Ariosophy were not uncommon within these groups; Rudolf von Sebottendorf and a certain Wilde gave two lectures on occultism for the Thule Society.[44] In general, however, its lectures and excursions were devoted to such subjects as Germanic antiquity and antisemitism, and historically it is more notable for the role it played as a paramilitary group fighting against the Bavarian Soviet Republic.[45] Thule Society emblem The Thule Society (German: Thule-Gesellschaft), originally the Studiengruppe für germanisches Altertum Study Group for Germanic Antiquity, was a German occultist and Völkisch group in Munich, named after a mythical northern country from Greek legend. ... The Germanenorden or Germanic Order, was a secret society in Germany early in the 20th century. ... Werner von Bülows World-Rune-Clock, illustrating the correspondences between Lists Armanen runes, the signs of the zodiac and the gods of the months Armanism and Ariosophy are the names of ideological systems of an esoteric nature, pioneered by Guido von List and Jörg Lanz von... Rudolf Freiherr von Sebottendorf was the alias of Adam Alfred Rudolf Glauer (November 9, 1875 – May 8, 1945), who also occasionally used another alias, Erwin Torre. ... The Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayrische Räterepublik) — also known as the Munich Soviet Republic (Münchner Räterepublik) — was a short-lived revolutionary government in the German state of Bavaria in 1919 that sought to replace the fledgling Weimar Republic in its early days. ...


Dietrich Eckart, a remote associate of the Thule Society (he gave a reading there once from his plays, on 30 May 1919)[46] coached Hitler on his public speaking skills, and Hitler later dedicated Mein Kampf to him. However, Hitler himself has not been shown to have been a member of the Thule Society or even to have attended its meetings. The DAP initially received support from the group, but the Thulists were quickly sidelined because Hitler favoured a mass movement and denigrated the occult-conspiratorial approach.[47] Dietrich Eckart Dietrich Eckart (March 23, 1868 - December 26, 1923) was one of the early key members of the National-Socialist German Workers Party and one of the participants in the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. ... A modern day speaker addressing an audience through microphones Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. ...


Heinrich Himmler, by contrast, showed a strong interest in such matters, although as Steigmann-Gall points out, Hitler and many of his key associates attended Christian services.[41] Heinrich Himmler Heinrich Himmler (October 7, 1900 - May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ...


Himmler's activities at the Wewelsburg, the Thule Society and several other remote connections of Nazism with the occult are commonly brought up in the modern mythology of Nazi occultism. This image of Nazism only vaguely corresponds to its historic reality. For the village of Wewelsburg see Village of Wewelsburg Wewelsburg Castle - seen from the Alme valley Arial photo of the complete village Wewelsburg (pronounced ) is a Renaissance castle located in the northeast of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in the village of Wewelsburg (the same name as the castle) which is... For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi occultism is an occult undercurrent of Nazism, of minor overall importance. ...


The prevailing scholarly view[48] since the Second World War is that Martin Luther’s 1543 treatise, On the Jews and their Lies, exercised a major and persistent influence on Germany’s attitude toward its Jewish citizens in the centuries between the Reformation and the Holocaust . The National Socialists displayed On the Jews and their Lies during Nuremberg rallies, and the city of Nuremberg presented a first edition to Julius Streicher, editor of the Nazi newspaper Der Stürmer, the newspaper describing it as the most radically antisemitic tract ever published.[49] Against the majority view, theologian Johannes Wallmann writes that the treatise had no continuity of influence in Germany, and was in fact largely ignored during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.[50] Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Title page of Martin Luthers On the Jews and their Lies. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... The Nazi partys 1936 Nuremberg Rally was its largest. ... Julius Streicher (February 12, 1885 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to and during World War II. He was the publisher of the Nazi Der Stürmer newspaper, which was to become a part of the Nazi propaganda machine. ... 1943 Stürmer issue: Satan Der Stürmer (literally, The Stormer) was a weekly Nazi newspaper published by Julius Streicher from 1923 to the end of World War II in 1945, with brief suspensions in circulation due to legal difficulties. ...


According to Daniel Goldhagen, Bishop Martin Sasse, a leading Protestant churchman, published a compendium of Martin Luther’s writings shortly after the Kristallnacht; Sasse applauded the burning of the synagogues and the coincidence of the day, writing in the introduction, “On November 10, 1938, on Luther’s birthday, the synagogues are burning in Germany.” The German people, he urged, ought to heed these words “of the greatest antisemite of his time, the warner of his people against the Jews.”[51] Diarmaid MacCulloch argued that On the Jews and Their Lies was a “blueprint” for the Kristallnacht.[52] Daniel Jonah Goldhagen (born 1959) is an American political scientist. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom that occurred throughout Nazi Germany on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... Diarmaid MacCulloch is Professor of the History of the Church in the University of Oxford (at St Cross College, Oxford. ...


There was a Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany as well as of members of some other small Christian communities. Those groups were forced to wear a purple triangle in Nazi concentration camps. Main article: Persecution of Jehovahs Witnesses Nazi renunciation document Jehovahs Witnesses endured intense persecution under the Nazi regime between 1933 and 1945. ... The purple triangle was a concentration camp badge used by the Nazis to identify several unorthodox non-conformist religious groups known as Bibelforscher.[1][2] Among these were mainly Jehovahs Witnesses, as well as a few members of Witness splinter groups, and members of the Adventist, Baptist, and New... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany under Hitler maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ...


Anti-capitalist rhetoric

Nazi publications and speeches included anti-capitalist (especially anti-finance capitalist) rhetoric.[53] Hitler attacked what he called “pluto-democracy,” which he claimed to be a Jewish conspiracy to favor democratic parties in order to keep capitalism intact.[54] The “corporation” was attacked by orthodox Nazis as being the leading instrument of finance capitalism, with the role of Jews emphasized.[55] The National Socialist party described itself as socialist, and, at the time, conservative opponents such as the Industrial Employers Association described it as “totalitarian, terrorist, conspiratorial, and socialist.”[56] This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... Financial capital, or economic capital, is any liquid medium or mechanism that represents wealth, or other styles of capital. ... This proposed logo for the US Information Awareness Office was dropped due to fears that its Masonic symbolism would provoke conspiracy theories. ...


The Nazi Party’s 1920 “Twenty-Five Point Programme” demanded: The National Socialist Program, also referred to as the 25-point program or 25-point plan was developed to formulate the party policies of, first, the Austrian German Workers Party (or DAP) and was copied later by Adolf Hitlers Nazi party. ...

…that the State shall make it its primary duty to provide a livelihood for its citizens… the abolition of all incomes unearned by work… the ruthless confiscation of all war profits… the nationalization of all businesses which have been formed into corporations… profit-sharing in large enterprises… extensive development of insurance for old-age… land reform suitable to our national requirements…[57]

Nazi Party officials made several attempts in the 1920s to change some of the program or replace it entirely. In 1924, Gottfried Feder proposed a new 39-point program that kept some of the old planks, replaced others and added many completely new ones.[58] Hitler did not mention any of the planks of the programme in his book, Mein Kampf, and he only mentioned it in passing as “the so-called programme of the movement”.[59] The Nazi Party, officially: National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , abbreviated NSDAP), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Gottfried Feder Gottfried Feder (January 27, 1883 – September 24, 1941) was an economist, anti-semite and one of the early key members of the German Nazi party. ...


Hitler said in 1927, “We are socialists, we are enemies of today’s capitalistic economic system for the exploitation of the economically weak, with its unfair salaries, with its unseemly evaluation of a human being according to wealth and property instead of responsibility and performance.”[60] However, Hitler wrote in 1930, “Our adopted term 'Socialist' has nothing to do with Marxian Socialism. Marxism is anti-property; true Socialism is not.”[61] In a confidential 1931 interview, Hitler told the influential editor of a pro-business newspaper, “I want everyone to keep what he has earned subject to the principle that the good of the community takes priority over that of the individual. But the State should retain control; every owner should feel himself to be an agent of the State… The Third Reich will always retain the right to control property owners.”[62] Party spokesman Joseph Goebbels claimed in 1932 that the Nazi Party was a “workers’ party” and “on the side of labor and against finance”.[33] According to Friedrich Hayek, writing in 1944, “whatever may have been his reasons, Hitler thought it expedient to declare in one of his public speeches as late as February 1941 that ‘basically National Socialism and Marxism are the same.’ ”[63] Privately, Hitler stated in 1942, “I absolutely insist on protecting private property… we must encourage private initiative”.[64] Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ...


Ideological roots

The ideological roots that became German National Socialism were based on numerous sources in European history, drawing especially from Romantic nineteenth century idealism, and from a biological reading of Friedrich Nietzsche’s thoughts on “breeding upwards” toward the goal of an Übermensch (“superhuman”). Hitler was an avid reader and received ideas that later influenced Nazism from traceable publications, such as those of the Germanenorden or the Thule society. He also adopted many populist ideas such as limiting profits, abolishing rents and generously increasing social benefits—but only for Germans. Romantics redirects here. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and philologist. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... The Germanenorden or Germanic Order, was a secret society in Germany early in the 20th century. ... Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Nordic myth has been attributed to an inferiority complex. Phillip Wayne Powell claimed that the Nordic myth began to arise “in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, a powerful surge of German patriotism was stimulated by the disdain of Italians for German cultural inferiority and barbarism, which lead to a counterattempt by German humanists to laud German qualities.”[65] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


M. W. Fodor claimed in The Nation in 1936, “No race has suffered so much from an inferiority complex as has the German. National Socialism was a kind of Coué method of converting the inferiority complex, at least temporarily, into a feeling of superiority”.[66] Émile Coué (February 26, 1857 – July 2, 1926) was a French psychologist and pharmacist who introduced a method of psychotherapy, healing, and self-improvement based on optimistic autosuggestion. ...


Romanticism

According to Bertrand Russell, Nazism would come from a different tradition than that of either Liberalism or Marxism. Thus, to understand values of Nazism, it would be necessary to explore this connection, without trivializing the movement as it was in its peak years in the 1930s and dismissing it as little more than racism. Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ...


Antisemitism was shown to be a handy tool for Nazis to gain support, mainly because of the popular Houston Stewart Chamberlain.[67] Personal accounts by August Kubizek, Hitler’s childhood friend, have varied, offering ambiguous claims that antisemitism did and did not date back to Hitler’s youth.[citation needed] One reason is the higher Jewish community in Austria and Germany because Germany had been a haven for many Jews over the years, including influential families such as the Rothschilds, although World War I and the Dolchstosslegende ended that legacy. Anti-Judaism had already been widely transformed into antisemitism before 1914 because of the new Europe-wide post-Darwin theory of racism. Historians universally accept that Nazism’s mass acceptance depended upon nationalistic appeals and fear against “non-normal people” (which also could include xenophobia and antisemitism) and a patriotic flattery toward the wounded collective pride of defeated World War I veterans. Houston Stewart Chamberlain Houston Stewart Chamberlain (September 9, 1855 - January 9, 1927) was a British author noted for his works concerning the Aryan race. ... August Kubizek was a childhood friend and one time room mate of Adolf Hitler. ... ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Many see strong connections to the values of Nazism and the anti-rationalist tradition of the romantic movement of the early nineteenth century in response to the Enlightenment. Strength, passion, frank declarations of feelings, and deep devotion to family and community were valued by the Nazis though first expressed by many Romantic artists, musicians, and writers. German romanticism in particular expressed these values. For instance, Hitler identified closely with the music of Richard Wagner, who harbored antisemitic views as the author of Das Judenthum in der Musik. Some claim that he was one of Hitler’s role models, a comment of Kubizek’s that is also disputed. The word Enlightment redirects here. ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... For the general context, see Romanticism. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Das Judenthum in der Musik (German, Jewry in Music), (in German spelled after its first publication ‘Judentum’) is an essay by Richard Wagner, attacking Jews in general and the composers Giacomo Meyerbeer and Felix Mendelssohn in particular, which was published under a pseudonym in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik...


The idealization of tradition, folklore, classical thought, leadership (as exemplified by Frederick the Great), their rejection of the liberalism of the Weimar Republic, and calling the German state the “Third Reich” (which traces back to the medieval First Reich and the pre-Weimar Second Reich) has led many to regard the Nazis as reactionary. Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... The Holy Roman Empire should not be mistaken for the Roman Empire (31 B.C.–A.D. 476). ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ...


Ideological variants

Nazism as a doctrine is far from homogeneous, and can be divided into at least two sub-ideologies. During the 1920s and 1930s, there were two dominant Nazi factions; the followers of Otto Strasser and the followers of Adolf Hitler. The Strasserite faction eventually fell afoul of Hitler, when Otto Strasser was expelled from the party in 1930, and his attempt to create an oppositional left-block in the form of the Black Front failed. The remainder of the faction, which was to be found mainly in the ranks of the SA, was purged in the Night of the Long Knives, which included the murder of Gregor Strasser, Otto’s brother. Afterwards, the Hitlerite faction became dominant. In the post-World War II era, Strasserism has enjoyed something of a revival among many neo-Nazi groups. Hitler redirects here. ... Strasserism refers to the strand of neo-Nazism that calls for socialism to be initiated alongside nationalism. ... Otto Strasser formed the Black Front after his expulsion from the NSDAP in 1930. ... The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... For other uses, see Night of the Long Knives (disambiguation). ... Gregor Strasser Gregor Strasser (variant German spelling Straßer) (May 31, 1892, Geisenfeld, Germany - June 30, 1934, Berlin) was a politician of the German Nazi Party (NSDAP). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ...


List of elements of the Nazi ideology

The National Socialist Program, also referred to as the 25-point program or 25-point plan was developed to formulate the party policies of, first, the Austrian German Workers Party (or DAP) and was copied later by Adolf Hitlers Nazi party. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Adolf Hitler made believe he was the incarnation of the Führerprinzip The Führerprinzip, the German name for the leader principle, refers to a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... This article is about the Bolshevik faction in the RSDLP 1903-1912. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... Blood and Soil (German: Blut und Boden) was a phrase and doctrine exploited by Adolf Hitler to provide moral justification for the ejection of the Jewish, and generally non-Germanic, people. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal           (German for habitat or literally living space) was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Executing Russian civilians. ... The Racial Policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, and including measures aimed primarily against Jews by an ideological theory based on historical, but renewed antisemitism in 1920s and 1930s Europe. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys race based social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the center of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as life unworthy... Anti-Slavism was the movement that existed throughout World War II, parallel with the Anti-Semitism. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... The master race (German: Herrenrasse, Herrenvolk) is a concept in Nazi ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic people represent an ideal and pure race. It derives from nineteenth century racial theory, which posited a hierarchy of races placing African Bushmen and Australian Aborigines at the bottom of the... A Lebensborn birth house Lebensborn (Fount of Life, in German) was a child welfare and relocation program initiated by Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler to aid the racial heredity of the Third Reich. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Not to be confused with suprematism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with miscegenation. ... Nordic theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... The National Socialist Program, also referred to as the 25-point program or 25-point plan was developed to formulate the party policies of, first, the Austrian German Workers Party (or DAP) and was copied later by Adolf Hitlers Nazi party. ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Kraft durch Freude (abbreviated KdF and meaning strength through joy), was a large state-controlled leisure organization in Nazi Germany, a part of the Deutsche Arbeitsfront (DAF), the national German labour organization. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ...

Ideological competition

Nazism and communism emerged as two serious contenders for power in Germany after the First World War, particularly as the Weimar Republic became increasingly unstable. What became the Nazi movement arose out of resistance to the Bolshevik-inspired insurgencies that occurred in Germany in the aftermath of the First World War. The Russian Revolution of 1917 caused a great deal of excitement and interest in the Leninist version of Marxism and caused many socialists to adopt revolutionary principles. The Spartacist uprising in Berlin and the Bavarian Soviet Republic in 1919 were both manifestations of this. The Freikorps, a loosely organized paramilitary group (essentially a militia of former World War I soldiers) was used to crush both these uprisings and many leaders of the Freikorps, including Ernst Röhm, later became leaders in the Nazi Party. After Mussolini’s fascists took power in Italy in 1922, fascism presented itself as a realistic option for opposing communism, particularly given Mussolini’s success in crushing the communist and anarchist movements that had destabilized Italy with a wave of strikes and factory occupations after the First World War. Fascist parties formed in numerous European countries. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... The Spartacist uprising, also known as the January uprising, was a general strike (and the armed battles accompanying it) in Germany from January 5 to January 12, 1919. ... The Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayrische Räterepublik) — also known as the Munich Soviet Republic (Münchner Räterepublik) — was a short-lived revolutionary government in the German state of Bavaria in 1919 that sought to replace the fledgling Weimar Republic in its early days. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps) was originally applied to voluntary armies. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... Ernst Julius Röhm, also known as Ernst Roehm in English (Munich November 28, 1887 – July 2, 1934) was a German military officer, and the commander and co-founder of the Nazi Sturmabteilung — the SA. // Röhm was one of three children of Julius Röhm and his wife Emilie... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ...


Many historians, such as Ian Kershaw and Joachim Fest, argue that Hitler’s Nazis were one of numerous nationalist and increasingly fascistic groups that existed in Germany and contended for leadership of the anti-communist movement and, eventually, of the German state. Further, they assert that fascism and its German variant, National Socialism, became the successful challengers to communism because they were able to both appeal to the establishment as a bulwark against Bolshevism and appeal to the working class base, particularly the growing underclass of unemployed and unemployable and growingly impoverished middle class elements who were becoming declassed (denounced as the lumpenproletariat). The Nazis’ use of pro-labor rhetoric appealed to those disaffected with capitalism by promoting the limiting of profits, the abolishing of rents and the increasing of social benefits (only for Germans) while simultaneously presenting a political and economic model that divested “Soviet socialism” of elements that were dangerous to capitalism, such as the concept of class struggle, “the dictatorship of the proletariat” or worker control of the means of production. Thus, Nazism’s populism, anti-communism and anti-capitalism helped it become more powerful and popular than traditional conservative parties, like the DNVP. For the above reasons, particularly the fact that Nazis and communists fought each other (often violently) during most of their existence, nazism and communism are commonly seen as opposite extremes on the political spectrum. Nevertheless, this view is not without its challengers. Several political theorists and economists, primarily those associated with the Austrian school, argue that nazism, Soviet communism and other totalitarian ideologies share a common underpinning in socialism and collectivism. Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ... Joachim Clemens Fest (December 8, 1926–September 11, 2006), German historian, journalist, critic and editor, is best known for his writings and public commentary on Nazi Germany, including an important biography of Adolf Hitler and books about Albert Speer and the German Resistance. ... The lumpenproletariat (German Lumpenproletariat, rabble-proletariat; raggedy proletariat) is a term originally defined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The German Ideology (1845), their famous second joint work, and later expounded upon in future works by Marx. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), are the combination of the means of labor and the subject of labor used by workers to make products. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... The Austrian School, also known as the “Vienna School” or the “Psychological School”, is a heterodox school of economic thought that advocates adherence to strict methodological individualism. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The simplicity of Nazi rhetoric, campaigns, and ideology also made its conservative allies underestimate its strength, and its ability to govern or even to last as a political party. Michael Mann defined fascism as a “transcendent and cleansing nation statism through paramilitarism”, with “transcendent” meaning that the all classes were to be abolished in order for a new, organic and pure people: all classes are abolished by transition, all “others” (an estimated two-thirds of the German population alone[74]).[75] A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Michael Mann is the name of: Michael Mann (film director) (born 1943) Michael Mann (scientist), climate researcher. ...


Support of anti-communists for fascism and Nazism

Various far right politicians and political parties in Europe welcomed the rise of fascism and the Nazis, out of an intense aversion towards communism. They saw Hitler as the savior of Western civilization and of capitalism[citation needed] against Bolshevism. During the late 1930s and the 1940s, the Nazis were supported by the Falange movement in Spain, and by political and military figures who formed the government of Vichy France. The Legion of French Volunteers against Bolshevism (LVF) and other anti-Soviet fighting formations formed. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


Nazi economic policy

Further information: Economy of Nazi Germany

Nazi economic practice concerned itself with immediate domestic issues and separately with ideological conceptions of international economics. International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ...


Domestic economic policy was narrowly concerned with four major goals to eliminate Germany’s issues:

  • Elimination of unemployment.
  • Rapid and substantial rearmament.
  • Protection against the resurgence of hyper-inflation
  • Expansion of production of consumer goods to improve middle and lower-class living standards.

All of these policy goals were intended to address the perceived shortcomings of the Weimar Republic and to solidify domestic support for the party. In this, the party was successful. Between 1933 and 1936 the German Gross National Product (GNP) increased by an average annual rate of 9.5%, and the rate for industry alone rose by 17.2%. Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ...


This expansion propelled the German economy out of a deep depression and into full employment in less than four years. Public consumption during the same period increased by 18.7%, while private consumption increased by 3.6% annually. According to the historian Richard Evans, prior to the outbreak of war the German “economy had recovered from the Depression faster than its counterparts in other countries. Germany’s foreign debt had been stabilized, interest rates had fallen to half their 1932 level, the stock exchange had recovered from the Depression, the gross national product had risen by 81 per cent over the same period…. Inflation and unemployment had been conquered.”[76] In economics, a depression is a term commonly used for a sustained downturn in the economy. ...


German marriages increased from about 511,000 in 1932 to 611,000 in 1936, while births rose from 921,000 births in 1932 to 1,280,000 in 1936. Suicides committed by young people under 20 dropped by 80% between 1933 and 1939.[77]


Internationally, the Nazi Party believed that an international banking cabal was behind the global depression of the 1930s. Control of this cabal, which had grown to a position where it controlled both Europe and the United States, was identified with an elite and powerful group of Jews. Nevertheless, a number of people believed that this was part of an ongoing plot by the Jewish people, as a whole, to achieve global domination. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which began its circulation in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century, were said to have confirmed this, already showing “evidence” that the Bolshevik takeover in Russia was in accordance with one of the protocols. Broadly speaking, the existence of large international banking or merchant banking organizations was well known at this time. Many of these banking organizations were able to exert influence upon nation states by extension or withholding of credit. This influence is not limited to the small states that preceded the creation of the German Empire as a nation state in the 1870s, but is noted in most major histories of all European powers from the sixteenth century onward. Nevertheless, after the Great Depression, this libelous and unverified manuscript took on an important role in Nazi Germany, thus providing another link in the Nazis ideological motivation for the destruction of that group in the Holocaust. A bank is an institution that provides financial service, particularly taking deposits and extending credit. ... A cabal is a number of persons united in some close design, usually to promote their private views and interests in a church, state, or other community by intrigue. ... One World Government redirects here. ... 1992 Russian edition of the Protocols, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


The Nazis viewed private property rights as conditional upon the mode of use.[78] If the property was not being used to further Nazi goals, it could be nationalized. Government takeovers and threats of takeovers were used to encourage complance with government production plans, even if following these plans cost profits for companies. For example, the owner of the Junkers (aircraft) factory refused to follow the government’s directives, whereupon the Nazis took over the plant, placed the owner Hugo Junkers under house arrest, then compensated him for his loss. Junkers & Co was a major German aircraft manufacturer. ... Hugo Junkers Hugo Junkers (3 February 1859 - 3 February 1935) was an innovative German engineer, as his many patents in varied areas (gas engines, aeroplanes) show. ...


Central planning of agriculture was a prominent feature. In order to tie farmers to the land, the selling of agricultural land was prohibited. Farm ownership was nominally private, but ownership in the sense of having discretion over operations and claims on residual income were taken away. This was achieved by granting monopoly rights to marketing boards to control production and prices through a quota system. Quotas were also set for industrial goods, including pig iron, steel, aluminum, magnesium, gunpowder, explosives, synthetic rubber, all kinds of fuel, and electricity. A compulsory cartel law was enacted in 1936 which allowed the Minister of Economics to make existing cartels compulsory and permanent and to force industries to form cartels where none existed, though these were eventually decreed out of existence by 1943 with the objective being to replace them with more authoritarian bodies.[79]


In place of ordinary profit incentive to guide the economy, investment was guided through regulation to accord to the needs of the State. The profit incentive for business owners was retained, though greatly modified through various profit-fixing schemes: “Fixing of profits, not their suppression, was the official policy of the Nazi party.” However the function of profit in automatically guiding allocation of investment and unconsciously directing the course of the economy was replaced with economic planning by Nazi government agencies.[80] Government financing eventually came to dominate the investment process, which the proportion of private securities issued falling from over half of the total in 1933 and 1934 to approximately 10 percent in 1935–1938. Heavy taxes on business profits limited self-financing of firms. The largest firms were mostly exempt from taxes on profits, however government control of these were extensive enough to leave “only the shell of private ownership.”


Taxes and subsidies were also used in order to direct the economy. Underlying economic policy was the use of terror as an incentive to agree and comply. Nazi language indicated death or concentration camp for any business owner who pursued his own self interest instead of the ends of the State.[81]


It is often regarded that businesses were private property in name but not in substance. Chritoph Buchheim and Jonas Scherner dissent, saying that despite controls by the state firms still had significant freedom in planning their own production and investment activities, though they admit that the economy was state directed.[82]


Many companies dealt with the Third Reich: Volkswagen was created by the German state and was heavily supported by the Nazis; Opel employed Jewish slave labour to run their industrial plants; Daimler-Benz used prisoners of war as slaves to run their industrial plants; Krupp made gas chambers; Bayer worked with the Nazis as a small part of the enormous IG Farben chemistry monopoly; and Hugo Boss designed the SS uniforms (and admitted to this in 1997). There has been some disagreement about whether IBM had dealt with the Nazis to create a cataloguing system, the Hollerith punch-card machines, which the Nazis used to file information on those who they killed.[83] Some companies that dealt with the Third Reich claim to have not known the truth of what the Nazis were doing, and some foreign companies claimed to have lost control of their German branches when Hitler was in power.[84][85] VW redirects here. ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ... The three rings were the symbol for Krupp, based on the radreifen - the seamless railway wheels patented by Alfred Krupp. ... Bayer AG (IPA pronunciation //) (ISIN: DE0005752000, NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863. ... IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG) was a German conglomerate of companies formed in 1925 and even earlier during World War I. IG Farben held nearly a total monopoly on the chemical production, later during the time of Nazi Germany. ... For the clothing company, see Hugo Boss AG. Hugo Ferdinand Boss (1885 - 1948) was the founder of clothing company Hugo Boss AG. hello, pooey true that, cuh. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ...


Nazism in popular culture

Further information: Hitler in popular culture & Nazi chic

The term Nazi has become a generic term of abuse in popular culture, as have other Third Reich terms such as Führer (often spelled differently in English-speaking countries). Related terms (such as fascist or Gestapo or Hitler) are sometimes used to describe any people or behaviours that are viewed as thuggish, authoritarian, or extremist. Phrases such as grammar Nazi, feminazi, open source Nazi, and parking enforcement Nazi, are sometimes used in the United States. These uses are offensive to some, as indicated by the controversy in the mainstream media over the SeinfeldSoup Nazi” episode. These types of terms are used frequently enough to inspire Godwin's Law. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In fashion, Nazi Chic refers to the use of Hitlerian paraphernalia in clothing. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Feminazi (also spelled femi-Nazi or femme-nazi) is a pejorative, derogatory term used predominantly in the United States and Canada by political conservatives to characterize and belittle feminists whom conservatives perceive to be intolerant of conservative views. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... For other uses, see Seinfeld (disambiguation). ... Larry Thomas as the Soup Nazi Yev Kasem (a. ... Godwins law (also known as Godwins Rule of Nazi Analogies)[1] is an adage formulated by Mike Godwin in 1990. ...


Some people strongly associate the blackletter typefaces (e.g. Fraktur or Schwabacher) with Nazi propaganda (although the typeface is much older, and its usage was banned by the Nazi German government in 1941).[86] [87] In films such as the Indiana Jones series, Nazis are often portrayed as villains, whom the heroes battle without mercy. Video game website IGN declared Nazis to be the most memorable video game villains ever.[88] The main antagonists in the manga Hellsing are vampiric Nazis. “Black letter” redirects here. ... The German word Fraktur (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ... The German word Schwabacher (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... IGN - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about the comics created in Japan. ... This article is about the manga and anime franchise. ...


See also

The Brown House (German: ) was the national headquarters of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) in Germany. ... German Nazism and the acts of the Nazi German state profoundly affected many countries, communities and peoples before, during and after World War II. While the attempt of Germany to exterminate several nations viewed as subhuman by Nazi ideology, was stopped by the Allies, Nazi aggression neverthless led to deaths... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         This article is about former members of the Nazi Party; for active groups, see: Neo-Nazism. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... This article is about the term with respect to the Jewish Question in World War II. For other uses, see Final Solution (disambiguation). ... This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans that were specifically used in Nazi Germany. ... Hitler redirects here. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip, an 1898 political cartoon depicting the extension of the United States dominion Jingoism is chauvinistic patriotism, usually associated with a War Hawk political stance. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi occultism is an occult undercurrent of Nazism, of minor overall importance. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi propaganda is the term that describes the psychologically powerful propaganda within Nazi Germany, much of which was centered around Jews, consistently alleged to be the source of Germanys economic problems. ... The following is a list of people suspected of commiting war crimes on behalf of Nazi Germany or any of the Axis Powers during World War Two. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The pursuit of Nazi collaborators refers to the post-WWII pursuit and apprehension of individuals who were not citizens of the Third Reich at the outbreak of World War II and collaborated with the Nazi regime during the war. ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... Horst Wessels Song The official anthem of the Nazi Party was the Horst Wessel Lied. ... Coined by Ludwig von Mises in his work Omnipotent Government, Statolatry is literally worship of the State analogous to idolatry as worship of idols. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Notes

  1. ^ National Socialism Encyclopædia Britannica.
  2. ^ National Socialism Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007
  3. ^ Walter John Raymond. Dictionary of Politics. (1992). ISBN 155618008X p.327
  4. ^ National Socialism The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07.
  5. ^ Fritzsche, Peter. 1998. Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  6. ^ Kele, Max H. (1972). Nazis and Workers: National Socialist Appeals to German Labor, 1919–1933. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.
  7. ^ Payne, Stanley G. 1995. A History of Fascism, 1914–45. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
  8. ^ Eatwell, Roger. 1996. “On Defining the ‘Fascist Minimum,’ the Centrality of Ideology”, Journal of Political Ideologies 1(3):303–19. Eatwell, Roger. 1997. Fascism: A History. New York: Allen Lane.
  9. ^ a b The German name of the Nazi Party (German Workers’ Party) is the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, pronounced /natsjo'naːlzotsiaːˌlistiʃə 'dɔytʃə 'arbaitɐparˌtai/ (with Arbeiter meaning “worker”).
  10. ^ Fritzsche, Peter. 1998. Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; Eatwell, Roger, Fascism, A History, Viking/Penguin, 1996, pp.xvii-xxiv, 21, 26–31, 114–140, 352. Griffin, Roger. 2000. "Revolution from the Right: Fascism," chapter in David Parker (ed.) Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West 1560-1991, Routledge, London.
  11. ^ Davies, Peter; Dereck Lynch (2003). Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right. Routledge, p.103. ISBN 0415214955.
  12. ^ a b Hayek, Friedrich (1944). The Road to Serfdom. Routledge. ISBN 0415253896.
  13. ^ Hoover, Calvin B. (March 1935). “The Paths of Economic Change: Contrasting Tendencies in the Modern World”, The American Economic Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Supplement, Papers and Proceedings of the Forty-seventh Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association, pp.13–20.
  14. ^ Morgan, Philip (2003). Fascism in Europe, 1919–1945. Routledge, p.168. ISBN 0415169429.
  15. ^ The term Sozi (/zoːtsi/) is short for the German word Sozialdemokrat (pronounced /zo'tsjaːldemoˌkraːt/), meaning social democrat.
  16. ^ a b Franz H. Mautner (1944). "Nazi und Sozi". Modern Language Notes 59 (2): 93–100. doi:10.2307/2910599. 
  17. ^ “Lexicon: Dolchstosslegende” (definition), www.icons-multimedia.com, 2005, webpage: DolchSL.
  18. ^ “THHP Short Essay: Who was the Final Solution” Holocaust-History.org, July 2004, webpage: HoloHist-Final: notes that Hermann Göering used the term in his order of July 31, 1941 to Reinhard Heydrich of Reich Main Security.
  19. ^ “Nazi Party” (overview), Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006, Britannica.com webpage: Britannica-NaziParty.
  20. ^ a b c d e “February 24, 1920: Nazi Party Established” (history), Yad Vashem, The Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority, 2004, webpage: YV-Party.
  21. ^ “Australian Memories of the Holocaust” (history), Glossary, definition of Nazi (party), N.S.W. Board of Jewish Education, New South Wales, Australia, webpage: HolocaustComAu-Glossary.
  22. ^ “Hitler Youth” (history), The History Place, 1999, webpage: HPlace-HitlerYouth.
  23. ^ a b Kriegsverbrechen der alliierten Siegermächte (“War Crimes of Allied Powers”), Pit Pietersen, ISBN 3-8334-5045-2, 2006, page 151, webpage: GoogleBooks-Pietersen: describes Hitler as “Propagandachef”[citation needed] and becoming chairman on July 29, 1921.
  24. ^ a b c Ian Kershaw, Hitler: A Profile in Power, (London, 1991, rev. 2001), first chapter
  25. ^ Ian Kershaw, 1991, chapter I
  26. ^ Ernst Nolte, Der Faschismus in seiner Epoche, München 1963, ISBN 3-492-02448-3
  27. ^ cf. Roger Griffin, The Blackwell Dictionary of Social Thought, in Griffin, International Fascism, 35f., and Anthony Paxton, Anatomy of Fascism, London 2004, p.218, and Stanley Payne, A History of Fascism 1914–1945, University of Wisconsin Press 1995, p. 14
  28. ^ Enzo Collotti, Race Law in Italy, in: Christoph Dipper et.al., Faschismus und Faschismen im Vergleich, Vierow 1998. ISBN 3-89498-045-1
  29. ^ Laqueuer, 1996 p. 223; Eatwell, 1996, p. 39; Griffin, 1991, 2000, pp. 185-201; Weber, [1964] 1982, p. 8; Payne (1995), Fritzsche (1990), Laclau (1977), and Reich (1970).
  30. ^ called “transnational” Michael Mann, see references
  31. ^ Hitler, Adolf (1961). Hitler's Secret Book (in English). New York: Grove Press, pp. 8–9, 17–18. ISBN 0394620038. OCLC 9830111. “Sparta must be regarded as the first Völkisch State. The exposure of the sick, weak, deformed children, in short, their destruction, was more decent and in truth a thousand times more humane than the wretched insanity of our day which preserves the most pathological subject.” 
  32. ^ Mike Hawkins (1997). Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860–1945: nature as model and nature as threat (in English). Cambridge University Press, pp. 276. ISBN 052157434X. OCLC 34705047. 
  33. ^ a b Goebbels, Joseph; Mjölnir (1932). Die verfluchten Hakenkreuzler. Etwas zum Nachdenken. Munich: Franz Eher Nachfolger. English translation: Those Damned Nazis.
  34. ^ Bealey, Frank; et.al. (1999). Elements of Political Science. Edinburgh University Press, p.202.
  35. ^ Joachim C. Fest. Hitler, Harvest Books, Book 5 Chapter 3
  36. ^ Harry Oosterhuis (1997). "Medicine, Male Bonding and Homosexuality in Nazi Germany". Journal of Contemporary History 32 (2): 187–205. . Homosexual behavior had been illegal in Germany since the adoption of Paragraph 175 of the German Criminal Code in 1871, but enforcement was capricious, even under the early years of the Nazi regime.
  37. ^ William L. Shirer, in The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (Touchstone Edition) (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990), p. 214, quotes Field Marshal Walther von Brauchitsch that “rearmament was too serious and difficult a business to permit the participation of peculators, drunkards and homosexuals.”
  38. ^ Shirer, Rise and Fall, pp. 224–225. For Shirer’s overall discussion of “The Blood Purge of June 30, 1934,” including the trumped-up allegations of a planned coup d'êtat by Roehm and the simultaneous negative shift in Nazi policy toward homosexuals, see Shirer’s pp. 213–226.
  39. ^ The Holocaust Chronicle, Publications International Ltd., p. 108.
  40. ^ Plant, Richard, The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against Homosexuals, Owl Books, 1988, ISBN 0-8050-0600-1.
  41. ^ a b Steigmann-Gall 2003.
  42. ^ The Great Scandal: Christianity’s Role in the Rise of the Nazis
  43. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 149 and 2003: 114.
  44. ^ According to the diary of Johannes Hering; Goodrick-Clarke (2002), Black Sun, pp. 116-7.
  45. ^ Goodrick-Clarke (2002), pp. 114, 117.
  46. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 117.
  47. ^ Goodrick-Clarke (1985), pp. 150–51.
  48. ^ Scholarship for Martin Luther’s 1543 treatise, On the Jews and their Lies, exercising influence on Germany’s attitude:
    • Wallmann, Johannes. “The Reception of Luther’s Writings on the Jews from the Reformation to the End of the 19th Century”, Lutheran Quarterly, n.s. 1 (Spring 1987) 1:72–97. Wallmann writes: “The assertion that Luther’s expressions of anti-Jewish sentiment have been of major and persistent influence in the centuries after the Reformation, and that there exists a continuity between Protestant anti-Judaism and modern racially oriented anti-Semitism, is at present wide-spread in the literature; since the Second World War it has understandably become the prevailing opinion.”
    • Michael, Robert. Holy Hatred: Christianity, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006; see chapter 4 “The Germanies from Luther to Hitler,” pp. 105–151.
    • Hillerbrand, Hans J. “Martin Luther,” Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007. Hillerbrand writes: “[H]is strident pronouncements against the Jews, especially toward the end of his life, have raised the question of whether Luther significantly encouraged the development of German anti-Semitism. Although many scholars have taken this view, this perspective puts far too much emphasis on Luther and not enough on the larger peculiarities of German history.”
  49. ^ Ellis, Marc H. “Hitler and the Holocaust, Christian Anti-Semitism”, Baylor University Center for American and Jewish Studies, Spring 2004, slide 14. Also see Nuremberg Trial Proceedings, Vol. 12, p. 318, Avalon Project, Yale Law School, April 19, 1946.
  50. ^ Wallmann, Johannes. “The Reception of Luther’s Writings on the Jews from the Reformation to the End of the 19th Century”, Lutheran Quarterly, n.s. 1, Spring 1987, 1:72-97.
  51. ^ Bernd Nellessen, “Die schweigende Kirche: Katholiken und Judenverfolgung,” in Büttner (ed), Die Deutchschen und die Jugendverfolg im Dritten Reich, p. 265, cited in Daniel Goldhagen, Hitler’s Willing Executioners (Vintage, 1997).
  52. ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, Reformation: Europe's House Divided, 1490–1700. New York: Penguin Books Ltd, 2004, pp. 666–667.
  53. ^ Francis R. Nicosia. Business and Industry in Nazi Germany, Berghan Books, p. 43
  54. ^ Frank Bealey & others. Elements of Political Science (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 202
  55. ^ William Kessler (Dec., 1938), “The German Corporation Law of 1937”, The American Economic Review Vol. 28, No. 4: 653–662 
  56. ^ Turner, Henry Ashby (1985). German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler. Oxford University Press, pp.114. ISBN 0195034929. 
  57. ^ Lee, Stephen J. (1996), Weimar and Nazi Germany, Harcourt Heinemann, page 28
  58. ^ Henry A. Turner, “German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler”, Oxford University Press, 1985. p.62
  59. ^ Turner, Henry A. (1985). German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler, Oxford University Press, p.77. ISBN 0195034929.
  60. ^ Hitler’s speech on May 1, 1927. Cited in: Toland, John (1976). Adolf Hitler. Doubleday, p.306. 
  61. ^ Carsten, Francis Ludwig (1982).The Rise of Fascism, 2nd ed. University of California Press, p.137. Quoting: Hilter, A., Sunday Express, September 28, 1930.
  62. ^ Calic, Edouard (1968). Ohne Maske. Frankfurter Societäts-Druckerei, pp.11, 32–33. Translated by R.H. Barry as Unmasked. Two Confidential Interviews with Hitler in 1931., London: Chatto & Windus, 1971. ISBN 0701116420. Hitler’s confidential 1931 interviews were with Richard Breiting, editor of the Leipziger Neueste Nachrichten. Cited in: Bel, Germà (2006). Against The Mainstream: Nazi Privatization In 1930s Germany, Research Institute of Applied Economics 2006 Working Papers 2006/7, p.14. Also cited in Richard Pipes, Property and Freedom, 1998, p.416; which is cited in Richard Allen Epstein, Principles for a Free Society, De Capo Press, p.168. ISBN 0738208299.
  63. ^ Hayek, Friedrich (1944). The Road to Serfdom. Routledge, p.31. ISBN 0415253896.
  64. ^ Hitler, A.; transl. Norman Cameron, R. H. Stevens; intro. H. R. Trevor-Roper (2000). "March 24, 1942", Hitler’s Table Talk, 1941–1944: His Private Conversations. Enigma Books, pp.162–163. ISBN 1929631057. 
  65. ^ Powell, Phillip Wayne (1985). Tree of Hate, p.48. ISBN 0465087507. 
  66. ^ Fodor, M.W. (1936-02-05). The Spread of Hitlerism. The Nation p.156. New Deal Network. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  67. ^ Stanley Payne, A History of Fascism,, Madison:UP Wisconsin, 1995, p.14f.
  68. ^ A very complex topic due to a Sternhell-Wippermann disagreement about rejecting comparisons of 1930s totalitarian movements. cf. Bernd Weisbrod, “Gewalt in der Politik: Zur politischen Kultur Deutschlands zwischen den beiden Weltkriegen,” in: Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht (GWU) 43 (1992), pp.113–124
  69. ^ The Green and the Brown — Cambridge University Press
  70. ^ Amazon.com: How Green Were the Nazis?: Nature, Environment, and Nation in the Third Reich (Ecology & History): Books: Franz-Josef Bruggemeier,Mark Cioc,Thomas Zeller
  71. ^ The Green and the Brown: A History of Conservation in Nazi Germany by Frank Uekoetter
  72. ^ Wilko Graf von Hardenberg: Review of Franz-Josef Brueggemeier, Marc Cioc, and Thomas Zeller, eds, How Green Were the Nazis?: Nature, Environment, and Nation in the Third Reich. In: H-Environment, H-Net Reviews, October, 2006.
  73. ^ Proctor, R.N.: The Nazi War on Cancer
  74. ^ Hannah Arendt, Elemente der Ursprünge totalitärer Herrschaft = The Origins of Totalitarianism, New York 1952, Bern 1955
  75. ^ Michael Mann, Fascists, CUP 2004, p.13.
  76. ^ Evans, The Third Reich in Power, 1933–1939, Penguin Press, 2005, p. 409)
  77. ^ John Lukacs, Washington Post’s Book World, January 29, 2006; Page BW12)
  78. ^ Peter Temin (November 1991), Economic History Review, New Series 44, No.4: 573–593 
  79. ^ Philip C. Newman (August 1948), “Key German Cartels under the Nazi Regime”, The Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. 62, No. 4: 576–595 
  80. ^ Arthur Scheweitzer (Nov., 1946), “Profits Under Nazi Planning”, The Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. 61, No. 1: 5 
  81. ^ Peter Temin (November 1991), Economic History Review, New Series 44, No.4: 573–593 
  82. ^ Christoph Buchheim (27Jun2006), “The Role of Private Property in the Nazi Economy: The Case of Industry”, The Journal of Economic History: 390–416 
  83. ^ Probing IBM’s Nazi connection
  84. ^ Ford and the Führer. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  85. ^ The Awful Truth | Sal vs BMW
  86. ^ NAZI and Fraktur
  87. ^ Schwabach SPD
  88. ^ IGN: Top 10 Tuesday: Most Memorable Villains

The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ... Roger Griffin is a British academic at Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, England whose theory on fascism determines that it is palingenetic ultra-nationalism with concepts and acts of national rebirth being the its defining feature. ... Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 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Further reading

  • W.S. Allen (1965). The Nazi Seizure of Power: The Experience of a Single German Town 1922–1945. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-023968-5. 
  • Peter Fritzsche (1990). Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505780-5. 
  • Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke (1985). The Occult Roots of Nazism: Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology: The Ariosophists of Austria and Germany, 1890–1935. Wellingborough, England: The Aquarian Press. ISBN 0-85030-402-4. (Several reprints. Expanded with a new Preface, 2004, I.B. Tauris & Co. ISBN 1-86064-973-4.)
  • ——— (2002). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-3124-4. (Paperback, 2003. ISBN 0-8147-3155-4.)
  • Victor Klemperer (1947). LTI — Lingua Tertii Imperii.
  • Ludwig von Mises (1985 [1944]). Omnipotent Government: The Rise of the Total State and Total War. Libertarian Press. ISBN 0-91-088415-3. 
  • Robert O. Paxton (2005). The Anatomy of Fascism. London: Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-101432-6. 
  • David Redles (2005). Hitler’s Millennial Reich: Apocalyptic Belief and the Search for Salvation. New York: University Press. ISBN 0-8147-7524-1.
  • Alfred Sohn-Rethel (1978). Economy and Class Structure of German Fascism. London: CSE Bks. ISBN 0-906336-00-7. 
  • Wolfgang Sauer “National Socialism: Totalitarianism or Fascism?” pages 404–424 from The American Historical Review, Volume 73, Issue #2, December 1967
  • Richard Steigmann-Gall (2003). The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity, 1919–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • List of Adolf Hitler books

Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke is the author of several books on modern occultism and esotericism with the history of its intersection with fascist politics. ... The Occult Roots of Nazism: Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology : The Ariosophists of Austria and Germany, 1890-1935 is a book by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. ... Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity is a book by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. ... Victor Klemperer (Landsberg (Prussia), now Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland, October 9, 1881–February 11, 1960, Dresden, GDR), decorated veteran of World War I, businessman, journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technical College of Dresden (now Technische Universität Dresden). He was the... Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) (pronounced was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern libertarian movement. ... Robert Paxton (b 1932) is a historian who worked on Vichy France. ... Alfred Sohn-Rethel (born January 4, 1899 in Neuilly-sur-Seine near, today in Paris; died April 6, 1990 in Bremen, Germany) was an economist, a philosopher especially interested in epistemology. ... This List of Adolf Hitler Books is an annotated bibliography using APA style citations of the many books related to Adolf Hitler. ...

External links

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Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom that occurred throughout Nazi Germany on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         This article is about former members of the Nazi Party; for active groups, see: Neo-Nazism. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Executing Russian civilians. ... The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... Historians and biographers note some difficulty in attributing the political beliefs of Adolf Hitler. ... The National Socialist Program, also referred to as the 25-point program or 25-point plan was developed to formulate the party policies of, first, the Austrian German Workers Party (or DAP) and was copied later by Adolf Hitlers Nazi party. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi propaganda is the term that describes the psychologically powerful propaganda within Nazi Germany, much of which was centered around Jews, consistently alleged to be the source of Germanys economic problems. ... Germany pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris, 1937. ... Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Executing Russian civilians. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys race based social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the center of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as life unworthy... Karl Brandt at the Doctors Trial The Doctors Trial (officially United States of America v. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi human experimentation was medical experimentation on large numbers of people by the German Nazi regime in its concentration camps during World War II. // According to the indictment at the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials, these experiments... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... The Parti national social chrétien was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. ... The German-American Bund was an American Nazi organization established in the 1930s. ... The Hungarian National Socialist Party was a political epithet adopted by a number of minor Nazi parties in Hungary before the Second World War. ... Symbol of the Hirden, the stormtroopers or paramilitary organization of the Nasjonal Samling. ... The Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging (NSB, National Socialist Movement) was a Nazi political party in the Netherlands during the 1930s and during the German occupation in World War II, when it was the only allowed political party. ... National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket), a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local nazi units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in UmeÃ¥. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB. The leader... The National Socialist League was a short lived political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War. ... The Ossewabrandwag (Oxwagon Sentinel)(OB) was a nationalist Afrikaner organization in South Africa, founded in Bloemfontein on February 4, 1939. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement) was a pro-German anti-Semitic national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. ... This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans that were specifically used in Nazi Germany. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... This article describes semi-religious developments of Nazism after 1945. ... The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the Populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the organic. ... Nazi Party (NSDAP) leaders and officials Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Gunter dAlquen Ludolf von Alvensleben Max Amann Benno von Arent Heinz Auerswald Hans... This List of Adolf Hitler Books is an annotated bibliography using APA style citations of the many books related to Adolf Hitler. ... List of Adolf Hitler speeches is an attempt to aggregate all of Adolf Hitlers speeches. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Between 1925 and 1945, the German SS grew from a mere eight members to over a quarter of a million Waffen-SS and well over a million Allgemeine-SS members. ... This is a list of Second world war era Nazis that are still alive and presumed/considered war criminals. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference for Nazism - Search.com (7700 words)
Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus) refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party under Adolf Hitler; and the policies adopted by the government of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945, a period also known as the Third Reich.
Nazism was the main form of National Socialism that emerged after World War I, and is generally considered by scholars to be a form of fascism.
Nazism was not a monolithic movement, but rather a (mainly German) combination of various ideologies and groups, sparked by anger at the Treaty of Versailles and what was considered to have been a Jewish/Communist conspiracy to humiliate Germany at the end of the First World War.
Hitler - The Inverted Saint (1575 words)
Hitler's mistake was to delusionally believe in the affinity between capitalism and Nazism - an affinity enhanced, to his mind, by Germany's corporatism and by the existence of a common enemy: global communism.
Nazism was conspicuous nihilism - and Hitler served as a role model, annihilating Hitler the Man, only to re-appear as Hitler the stychia.
Communism, Fascism, Nazism, and Religious Fundamentalism are as utopian as the classical Idea of Progress, which is most strongly reified by Western science and liberal democracy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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