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Encyclopedia > Nazi parties
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Politics Portal   v  d  e 

Neo-Nazism (literally new Nazism) is the ideology of post-World War II political movements seeking to revive Nazism. Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Nazi Party (German: , or NSDAP, English: National Socialist German Workers Party), was a far-right, racist political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... The seal of SA The   or SA (German for Storm division, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s ), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... The   (German for Protective Squadron), abbreviated (Runic) or SS (Latin), was a large security and military organization of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) in Germany. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Adolf Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany in January 1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The Nazi partys 1936 Nuremberg Rally was its largest. ... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–10, 1938. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... This article is about former Nazis; for active groups, see: Neo-Nazism. ... Nazis claimed to scientifically measure a strict hierarchy among races; at the top was the Aryan race (minus the Slavs, who were seen as below Aryan), then lesser races. ... The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... Historians and biographers note some difficulty in attributing the political beliefs of Adolf Hitler. ... The National Socialist Program, also referred to as the 25-point program, was developed to formulate the party policies of, first, the Austrian German Workers Party (or DAP) and was copied later by Adolf Hitlers Nazi party. ... Nazi mysticism is a quasi-religious undercurrent of Nazism; it denotes the mixture of Nazism with occultism, esotericism, cryptohistory, and/or the paranormal — especially in the traditions of Germanic mysticism. ... Poster depicting America as a monstrous war machine destroying European culture. ... Germany pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris, 1937. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the Populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the organic. ... Nazis claimed to scientifically measure a strict hierarchy among races; at the top was the Aryan race (minus the Slavs, who were seen as below Aryan), then lesser races. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys nazism and race social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the centre of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as Life Unworthy of Life, including but not limited to: criminal, degenerate, dissident, feeble-minded, homosexual, idle... Karl Brandt at the Doctors Trial The Doctors Trial (officially United States of America v. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... The Parti national social chrétien was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. ... The German-American Bund was an American Nazi organization established in the 1930s. ... Symbol of the Hirden, the stormtroopers or paramilitary organization of the Nasjonal Samling. ... The Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging (NSB, National Socialist Movement) was a Nazi political party in the Netherlands during the 1930s and during the German occupation in World War II, when it was the only allowed political party. ... National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket), a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local nazi units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in UmeÃ¥. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB. The leader... The National Socialist League was a short lived political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War. ... The Ossewabrandwag (Oxwagon Sentinel)(OB) was a nationalist Afrikaner organization in South Africa, founded in Bloemfontein on February 4, 1939. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party Senior members of the Arrow Cross Party. ... This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans that were specifically used in Nazi Germany. ... Nazi Party (NSDAP) leaders and officials Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Gunter dAlquen Ludolf von Alvensleben Max Amann Benno von Arent Heinz Auerswald Hans... Adolf Hitlers Mein Kampf. ... List of Adolf Hitler speeches is an attempt to aggregate all of Adolf Hitlers speeches. ... Between 1925 and 1945, the German SS grew from a mere 8 members to over a quarter of a million Waffen-SS members and well over a million members of the Allgemeine-SS. The following list of SS personnel indicates a few of the SS members who were the most... This is a list of Second world war era Nazis that are still alive and presumed/considered war criminals. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The exact ideals adopted by neo-Nazi movements differ, but they often include allegiance to Adolf Hitler, anti-Semitism, racism, xenophobia towards non-whites, nationalism, White supremacism, militarism, and homophobia. Neo-Nazis often use the symbols of Nazi Germany, such as the Swastika, Sig Runes, and the red-white-black color scheme. Some groups and individuals who support the ideology openly declare themselves as Nazis or neo-Nazis, but others eschew those terms to avoid social stigma or legal consequences. Some European countries have laws prohibiting the expression of pro-Nazi, racist or anti-Semitic views, thus no significant political party would describe itself as neo-Nazi in those countries. Hitler redirects here. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Because racism carries connotations of race-based bigotry, prejudice, violence, oppression, stereotyping or discrimination, the term has varying and often hotly contested definitions. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... White supremacy is the variety of white nationalism that believes the white race should rule over other races. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church; a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... -1... Two Sig Runes: The symbol of the Nazi SS Sig Rune is the name given by Guido von List for the Sigel or s rune of the futhark. ... Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or beliefs that are against cultural norms. ...


Neo-Nazi activity appears to be a global phenomenon, with organized representation in almost every western country, as well as international networks. Despite this, modern Nazi groups are extremely marginalized by the stigma inherent in their politics. Individuals who have attempted to revive Nazism include Colin Jordan, George Lincoln Rockwell, Savitri Devi, Francis Parker Yockey, William Pierce, Eddy Morrison, and David Myatt. National Socialism redirects here. ... John Colin Campbell Jordan (born June 1923) son of a postman, was a leading representative of postwar National Socialism in Britain and around the world. ... George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 - August 25, 1967) was a U.S. Naval Commander and founder of the American Nazi Party. ... Savitri Devi (September 30, 1905 - October 22, 1982) was a Franco-Greek woman who became enamored with Hinduism and National Socialism, linking the Aryan invasion theory to Adolf Hitler, and proclaiming him an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... Francis Parker Yockey, (September 18, 1917 – June 16, 1960), was an American philosopher and polemicist best known for his neo-Spenglerian book Imperium, published under the pen name Ulick Varange [1] in 1948. ... Dr. William Luther Pierce III[1] (September 11, 1933 – July 23, 2002) was the founder of the white separatist National Alliance organization, and a principal ideologue of the white nationalist movement. ... Eddy Morrison is a political figure on the far right in Britain, who has been involved in a number of movements throughout his career. ... David Myatt David Wulstan Myatt (born 1950), also known as Abdul-Aziz ibn Myatt, was a British neo-Nazi and Islamist, and was the author of numerous pamphlets and articles advocating neo-Nazism, Islamism, and recently, what he calls The Numinous Way of Folk Culture. ...

Contents

Holocaust denial and minimization

A mass grave at Bergen-Belsen in 1945; neo-Nazis claim such evidence is either counterfeit or misrepresented.
Main article: Holocaust denial

Many neo-Nazis promote Holocaust denial. They claim that the intentional mass murder—often in gas chambers—of about 6,000,000 Jews is a lie or grossly exaggerated. These claims are unsupported (and often vehemently opposed) by mainstream historians. Some accuse them of using Holocaust denial to make Nazism more palatable by removing its association with genocide. Some Holocaust deniers don't identify as neo-Nazis, although many of their works are quoted and distributed by neo-Nazis. Some neo-Nazis who don't deny the Holocaust have pointed out alleged immoral equivalencies (e.g. the bombing of Dresden and the Expulsion of Germans after World War II), or have justified executions by the Nazis as retaliations for sabotage, terrorism and subversion. Photo of mass graves at Bergen Belsen concentration camp 1945 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Photo of mass graves at Bergen Belsen concentration camp 1945 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Bergen-Belsen, sometimes referred to as just Belsen, was a German concentration camp in the Nazi era. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... This article deals with mass killings which are not considered genocide. ... A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... The bombing of Dresden, led by the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and involving the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. Historian Frederick Taylor says: The destruction of Dresden has an... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... “Saboteur” redirects here. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Subversion is an overturning or uprooting. ...


Austria

Immediately after the Allies liberated Austria in 1945, the anti-Nazi parties - Socialists (SPÖ), Conservatives (ÖVP) and Communists (KPÖ) - passed legislation to overcome the effects of Nazi rule. A law passed on May 8, 1945, banned the NSDAP and Nazi activities. The denazification program designed to purge the state apparatus and society of Nazi followers was not successful, mainly because of the size of the problem and the bureaucratic shortcomings of the program. This failure was reflected primarily in the fact that ex-members and sympathizers of the NSDAP did not change their beliefs. Over 500,000 registered Nazis were allowed to vote in the 1949 general election.[citation needed] A considerable number of ex-Nazis were integrated into the SPÖ and the ÖVP, and several concessions were made to appease them, such as suppression of the history of the Nazizeit (literally 'Nazi Time'); a fall-off in the prosecutions of Nazi war criminals; and the reinstatement of Nazi civil servants, teachers, professors, lawyers and police officers. The Social Democratic Party of Austria (Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, SPÖ) is a political party in Austria. ... The Austrian Peoples Party or Österreichische Volkspartei is an Austrian political party. ... The Communist Party of Austria (German: Kommunistische Partei Österreichs) is a communist party from Austria. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Denazification (German: Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. ...


In the 1949 Austrian elections, ex-Nazis in the Verband der Unabhängigen (VdU) put up candidates and won seats, and the Austrian right wing went through a process of growth. The withdrawal of Allied troops from Austria in 1955 encouraged the consolidation of right-wing groups, ranging from neo-Nazis to moderate Pan-Germans. The VdU split in 1955, but re-formed itself one year later as the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ). The first leaders of the FPÖ were former Nazis, such as Anton Reinthaller, who had been a government minister in the Nazi era, and Friedrich Peter, who had been a Schutzstaffel (SS) officer. The Austrian public saw itself confronted with the organized right for the first time in 1959, during the Schiller Celebrations, when Pan-German youth, sport and cultural organizations took to the streets. The Burschenschaften and schlagende Verbindungen (fraternities of male uniformed students), the FPÖ's students' organization RFS and its graduate equivalent Freiheitliche Akademikerverbände (FAV) attained considerable influence within student and university bodies.[citation needed] The Federation of Independents (de: Verband der Unabhängigen – VdU) was an Austrian political party from 1949 to 1955. ... The Austrian Freedom Party (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, abbreviated to FPÖ) is a far-right political party in Austria. ... Friedrich Peter (born July 13, 1921 in Attnang-Puchheim, Upper Austria, died September 26, 2005 in Vienna) was an Austrian politician who served as the chairman of the Freedom Party of Austria from 1958 to 1978. ... The   (German for Protective Squadron), abbreviated (Runic) or SS (Latin), was a large security and military organization of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) in Germany. ... Burschenschaften are German associations of university students formed by liberal ideas. ... RFS can mean: Radio Frequency Systems Regardless of Feature Size: a term used in geometric dimensioning in engineering-related fields Registered Financial Specialist Remote File Server: in Oracle Data Guard configurations, a process on a standby database which receives archived redo logs from a primary database Remote File System Renewable...


1960s and later

Antisemitism

History · Timeline · Resources
Racial · Religious · New AS
Antisemitism around the world
Arabs and antisemitism
Christianity and antisemitism
Islam and antisemitism
Nation of Islam and antisemitism
Universities and antisemitism
Anti-globalization and antisemitism
Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews[1] as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1518x1372, 1426 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Star of David Yellow badge Talk:List of Jewish American journalists User:RolandR Metadata This file contains additional... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A timeline for antisemitism chronicles events from ancient times when hostile attitudes to the Jewish people can be found in among neighbouring civilisations, to the present day. ... This is a list of resources analyzing antisemitism in the alphabetical order of authors name. ... Racial antisemitism is hatred of Jews as a racial group, rather than hatred of Judaism as a religion. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nation of Islam. ... Poster at SFSU resurrects the blood libel: Palestinian Children Meat, Made in Israel and slaughtered according to Jewish Rites under American license. ... Some writers have argued there is rising acceptance of antisemitism within the anti-globalization movement. ...

Allegations
Deicide · Blood libel · Ritual murder
Well poisoning · Host desecration
Jewish lobby · Jewish Bolshevism
Usury · Dreyfus affair
Zionist Occupation Government
Holocaust denial This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Blood libels are false accusations, usually made by Christians, that Jews use human blood in certain of their religious rituals and magical rites. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion or on a basis of rituals. ... For the logical fallacy, see poisoning the well. ... Host desecration is a form of sacrilege in Christianity, involving the mistreatment or malicious use of a consecrated Host, or communion wafer. ... Jewish lobby is a term referring to allegations that Jews exercise undue influence in a number of areas, including politics, government, the media, academia, popular culture, public policy, international relations, and international finance. ... White Army propaganda poster depicting Leon Trotsky. ... Look up usury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ... Zionist Occupation Government (abbreviated as ZOG) is an antisemitic conspiracy theory according to which Jews secretly (or overtly in the case of the United States of America) control a country, while the formal government is a puppet regime. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ...

Publications
On the Jews and their Lies
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
The International Jew Title page of Martin Luther’s On the Jews and Their Lies. ... 1992 Russian language imprint, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet image The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: , see also other titles) is an antisemitic pamphlet that purports to describe a Jewish plot to achieve world domination. ... The International Jew: The Worlds Foremost Problem is a four volume set of books originally published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry Ford, an American industrialist, automobile developer and manufacturer. ...

Persecutions
Expulsions · Ghetto · Pogroms
Judenhut · Judensau · Yellow badge
Inquisition · Segregation
Holocaust · Nazism · Neo-Nazism
This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background live as a group in seclusion, voluntarily or involuntarily. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... Judensau (German for Jewish swine) is a derogatory and dehumanizing imagery of the Jews that appeared around the 13th century in Germany and some other European countries. ... Compulsory Jewish badge under the Nazi occupation of Europe: the Star of David with the word Jew inside (this one in German) A yellow badge, also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a mandatory mark or a piece of cloth of specific geometric shape, worn on the outer garment... Saint Dominic (1170 – August 6, 1221) Presiding over an Auto-da-fe, by Pedro Berruguete, (1450 - 1504). ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости - cherta osedlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to near the border with eastern/central Europe. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...

Organizations fighting AS
Anti-Defamation League
Community Security Trust
EUMC · Stephen Roth Institute
Wiener Library · SPLC · SWC · UCSJ Anti-Defamation League Logo The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... A 2005 CST report into anti-Semitism in the UK The Community Security Trust (CST) is an organization established to ensure the safety and security of the Jewish community in Britain (UK). ... Location: Vienna, Austria Formation: - Signed - Established 1994/1998 Superseding pillar: European Communities Director: Dr Beate Winkle Website: eumc. ... The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a resource for information, provides a forum for academic discussion, and fosters research on issues concerning antisemitic and racist theories and manifestations. ... The Wiener Library is the worlds oldest institution devoted to the study of the Holocaust, its causes and legacies. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education and litigation. ... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ... UCSJ, or the Union of Councils for Jews in the Former Soviet Union, is a collection of Jewish human rights organisations working in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ...

Categories
Antisemitism · Jewish history

v  d  e

In 1960, during the South Tyrol Crisis, right-wing extremists, along with German Kameraden, gained notoriety by involvement in terrorist acts in South Tyrol, Italy.[citation needed] Prominent among these was Norbert Burger, the ex-RFS leader and subsequent chairman of the neo-Nazi Nationaldemokratische Partei (NDP). The influence that the extreme right had gained in the universities became dramatically apparent five years later, during the Borodajkewycz Affair. Hundreds of students demonstrated in favor of the anti-semitic university professor Borodajkewycz, and were involved in street battles — in the course of which Ernst Kirchweger, a former concentration camp inmate, was beaten to death.[citation needed] The Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Bozen, or Alto Adige/Südtirol (official in Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: ; also in Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: ) is an autonomous province of Italy. ... Ernst Kirchweger (born 1897 or 1898; died April 3, 1965 in Vienna) was the first person to die as a result of political conflict in Austrias Second Republic. ...


During the 1960s and 1970s, Friedrich Peter, Chairman of the FPÖ, started establishing his party within the democratic party system — leading up to the entry of the FPÖ into a coalition government with the Socialists in 1983. This development led to the formation of a group around Norbert Burger (condemned in absentia by an Italian court for terrorist offenses in South Tyrol), which split from the FPÖ in 1966 and set up the NDP. In contrast to its German counterpart of the same name, the Austrian NDP found little resonance in an electorate moving to the left in the late 1960s. In 1972, Kurt Waldheim, an Austrian Nazi, had been elected United Nations Secretary General. Waldheim's election had caused anger among some people who had lost relatives in the Holocaust, as well as anti-UN groups who theorized the UN was supportive of totalitarian ideologies. Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Kurt Josef Waldheim (21 December 1918 – 14 June 2007) was an Austrian diplomat and conservative politician. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


The volume "Rechtsextremismus in Österreich seit 1945", issued by DÖW in 1979, listed nearly 50 active extreme right-wing organizations in Austria. Their influence waned gradually, partly due to liberalization programs in secondary schools and universities that emphasized Austrian identity and democratic traditions. Votes for the RFS in student elections fell from 30% in the 1960s to 2% in 1987. In the 1995 elections for the student representative body Österreichische Hochschülerschaft, the RFS got 4% of the vote. The FPÖ won 22% of the votes at the General Election in the same year.[1] In the 1980s, in the province of Carinthia, border issues with Slovenia — and disagreements over the rights of Carinthia's Slovenian minority — were used to orchestrate support for the far right organization Kärntner Heimatdienst. Carinthia (German: Kärnten, Italian: Carinzia, Slovenian: KoroÅ¡ka) is an Austrian state or Land, located in the south of Austria. ... The Kärntner Heimatdienst (KHD) is a right-wing association of Carinthian organizations. ...


Belgium

Main article: Bloed-Bodem-Eer en Trouw

A Belgian neo-Nazi organization, Bloed-Bodem-Eer-Trouw (Blood, Land, Honour and Faithfulness), was created in 2004 after splitting from the international network (Blood and Honour). The group rose to public prominence in September 2006, after 17 members (including 11 soldiers) were arrested under the December 2003 anti-terrorist laws and laws against racism, anti-semitism and negationism. According to Justice Minister Laurette Onkelinx and Interior Minister Patrick Dewael, the suspects (11 of whom were members of the military) were preparing terrorist attacks in order to "destabilize" Belgium.[2][3] According to journalist Manuel Abramowicz, of the Resistances network, the ultras of the radical right have always had as its aim to "infiltrate the state mechanisms," including the army in the 1970s and the 1980s, through Westland New Post and the Front de la Jeunesse.[4] Bloed-Bodem-Eer en Trouw (BBET; Blood, Soil, Honour and Loyalty) is a Flemish neo-Nazi group, created in 2004 from a splinter of the Flemish branch of the international Nazi skinhead organization Blood & Honour. ... Bloed-Bodem-Eer en Trouw (BBET; Blood, Soil, Honour and Loyalty) is a Flemish neo-Nazi group, created in 2004 from a splinter of the Flemish branch of the international Nazi skinhead organization Blood & Honour. ... Blood and Honour emblem. ... Anti-terrorism legislation designs all types of laws passed in the purported aim of fighting terrorism. ... Because racism carries connotations of race-based bigotry, prejudice, violence, oppression, stereotyping or discrimination, the term has varying and often hotly contested definitions. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Negationism is the denial of historic crimes. ... Laurette Onkelinx (born October 2, 1958) is a Belgian politician from the Socialist Party. ... Patrick Dewael (born 13 October 1955, Lier), is a liberal Belgian politician. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Westland New Post (WNP, also known as Westland National Socialistische Ordnung) was a Belgian neo-Nazi organization founded in March 1981 by Paul Latinus and members of the Front de la Jeunesse (FJ). ... The Front de la Jeunesse (FJ) was a Belgian private militia. ...


A police operation, which mobilized 150 agents, searched five military barracks (in Leopoldsburg near the Dutch border: Kleine-Brogel, Peer, Brussels (Royal military school) and Zedelgem — as well as 18 private addresses in Flanders. They found weapons, munitions, explosives, and a homemade bomb large enough to make "a car explode." The leading suspect, B.T., was organizing the trafficing of weapons, and was developing international links, in particular with the Dutch far right movement De Nationale Alliantie[5][6][7][8][9][10] Leopoldsburg is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg. ... Peer is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg. ... Nickname: Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Government  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area  - Region 162 km²  (62. ... Zedelgem is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) is a large historical region overlapping Belgium, France and the Netherlands. ...


Croatia

See also: Neo-Nazism in Croatia

Neo-Nazism in Croatia has roots in the ideology developed by Ante Pavelić, the leader of the Independent State of Croatia. At the end of World War II, many of Pavelić's Ustaše members fled to the West, where they found sanctuary and continued their political and terrorist activities (which were tolerated because of Cold War hostilities).[11] The resurgence of the Ustaše movement in post-war Croatia is partly due to the financial support of Ustaše members, who emigrated to the Croatian Democratic Union during the 1990s.[12] Jonathan Levy, one of the lawyers representing plaintiffs in a 1999 lawsuit against the Vatican Bank (Institute for Religious Works), the Franciscan order, and the Croatian Liberation Movement (the Ustaše), the National Bank of Switzerland and others, said: "Many are still terrified of the Ustashe, the Serbs particularly. Unlike the Nazi Party, the Ustashe still exist and have a party headquarters in Zagreb."[13], Some modern UstaÅ¡e supporters continue to impart far-right beliefs to their children; here they are dressed in uniforms of notorious Black legion. ... Ante Pavelić (July 14, 1889 - December 28, 1959) was the leader and founding member of the Croatian national socialist/fascist UstaÅ¡e movement in the 1930s and later the leader of the Independent State of Croatia during World War II. // Pavelić was born north of Konjic in Bradina, a small... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II1 Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature Hrvatski državni Sabor NDH (briefly in 1942) Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia April 6, 1941  - Established April 10, 1941  - Roma Contract May 19, 1941  - Italy... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular UstaÅ¡a or Ustasha; English: The insurgents) was a Croatian organization placed in control of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Croatian Democratic Union (Croatian: Hrvatska demokratska zajednica, HDZ), is a major Croatian political party. ...


To many of their modern supporters, the Ustaše are considered merely victims of the Bleiburg massacre, and the late president Franjo Tuđman even proposed to rebury them together with victims of the Jasenovac concentration camp, as a sign of national reconciliation. [14] Croatian Serbs felt insulted by that proposal. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Jasenovac concentration camp (in Croatian: Logor Jasenovac in Serbian: Логор Јасеновац) was the largest concentration and extermination camp in Croatia during World War II. It was established by the UstaÅ¡a (Ustasha) regime of the Independent State of Croatia in August 1941. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ...


In 1999, Zagreb's Square of the Victims of Fascism was renamed The Square of The Great Men of Croatia, provoking widespread criticism of Croatia's attitude toward the Holocaust.[15] Many streets in Croatia were renamed after the prominent Ustaše figure Mile Budak, which provoked outrage amongst the Serbian minority. Since 2002, there has been a reversal of this development, and streets with the name of Mile Budak or other persons connected with the Ustaše movement are few or non-existent.[16] A plaque in Slunj with the inscription "Croatian Knight Jure Francetić" was erected to commemorate Francetić, the notorious Ustaše leader of the Black Legion. The plaque remained there for four years, until it was removed by the authorities.[17][18][19] Zagreb (pronounced ) is the capital and the largest city of Croatia. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Mile Budak (1889 - 1945) is Croatian writer and politician, best known as one of the chief ideologists of Ustasha movement. ... Jordan Bicanic has founded the city of Slunj in early middle ages. ... Jure Francetić Jure Francetić was a member of the Croatian World War II regime the UstaÅ¡e, the commander of Battle group Francetić better known as Black Legion/Crna Legija and later commander of all brigades of UstaÅ¡e army (UstaÅ¡ka vojnica). ...


Post-war support for Ustaše is perhaps most visible in the form of graffiti. The most common is the serif letter U, representing Ustaše (sometimes embellished with a cross, and/or the letters NDH). There have also been instances of more explicit hate speech, such as the phrase Srbe na vrbe! (meaning "hang Serbs on the willow trees!"). An Orthodox church was sprayed with pro-Ustaše graffiti in 2004.[20][21] Police have sped up responses to the appearance of extreme right wing graffiti and other hate-based vandalism.[22] Graffiti (strictly, as singular, graffito, from the Italian — graffiti being the plural) are images or letters applied without permission to publicly viewable surfaces such as walls or bridges. ... The cry Srbe na vrbe!, meaning [Hang] the Serbs on the willow trees! is a hate speech slogan calling for extermination of the Serbs. ...


During some protests in Croatia, supporters of Ante Gotovina and other suspected war criminals have carried nationalist symbols and pictures of Ante Pavelić.[23] In 2003, an attempt was made to amend the Croatian penal code by adding articles prohibiting the public display of Nazi symbols, the propagation of Nazi ideology, historical revisionism and holocaust denial. However, this attempt was prevented by the Croatian constitutional court in the same year.[24] In 2005, the Croatian government made a move toward the Nazi-era law interpretation and practice, by granting exclusive rights to the Croatian parliament for the law authenticity and interpretation.[25] An amendment was added in 2006 to prohibit any type of hate crime based on factors such as race, color, gender, sexual orientation, religion or national origin.[26] In 2007, Austrian authorities launched a criminal investigation into the widespread display of Ustaše symbols at a May 12 gathering of Croatian nationalists in Bleiburg, Austria.[27][28]. Ante Gotovina Ante Gotovina (born October 12, 1955) is a former lieutenant general (general pukovnik) of the Croatian Army who served in the 1991-1995 war in Croatia. ... In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism has both a legitimate academic use and a pejorative meaning. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... Bleiburg (Pliberk in Slovenian) is a small city in the state of Carinthia, Austria, south-east of Klagenfurt, in the district of Völkermarkt, near the Slovenian border. ...


A popular Croatian singer, Thompson, has sung "Jasenovac i Gradiška Stara" at his concerts. That song glorifies the Ustaše and their genocide of the Serbs. His May 17, 2007 concert in Zagreb was attended by 60000 people; many of them wearing Ustaše uniforms, making Ustaše salutes and shouting the Ustaše slogan "Za dom spremni" (For home[land] ready). This event prompted the Jerusalem office of the Simon Wiesenthal Center to publicly address a protest to the Croatian president, Stjepan Mesić. [29][30][31][32] [33] Thompson is a Croatian rock band. ... Jasenovac i GradiÅ¡ka Stara is a fascist Croatian song referencing the Nazi-puppet UstaÅ¡e. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ... Stjepan Stipe Mesić (born December 24, 1934) is a Croatian politician. ...


Germany

An alleged militant neo-Nazi holding an air rifle.

In Germany immediately after World War II, Allied forces and the new German government attempted to prevent the creation of new Nazi movements through a process known as denazification. The West German government had passed strict laws prohibiting Nazis from publicly expressing their beliefs as well as barring them from the political process. Displaying the swastika was an offense punishable by up to one year imprisonment. There was little overt neo-Nazi activity in Europe until the 1960s. However, some former Nazis retained their political beliefs, and passed them down to new generations. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 948 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Neo-Nazism ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 948 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Neo-Nazism ... Air guns are weapons that propel a bullet using compressed air or another gas, possibly liquefied. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Denazification (German: Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. ...


After German reunification in the 1990s, neo-Nazi groups gained more followers, mostly among disaffected teenagers in the former East Germany. Many were new groups that arose amidst the economic collapse and high unemployment in the former East Germany. They have also had an aversion to people from Slavic countries (especially Poland) and people of other national backgrounds who moved from the former West Germany into the former German Democratic Republic after Germany was reunited. Their ideology was similar to that of Otto Strasser (Strasserism). German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to... GDR redirects here. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... Strasserism refers to the strand of neo-Nazism that calls for socialism to be initiated alongside nationalism. ...


Activities

German neo-Nazis have attacked accommodations for refugees and migrant workers in Hoyerswerda (September 17-September 22, 1991); Rostock-Lichtenhagen (August 23-August 27, 1992); and Schwedt, Eberswalde, Eisenhüttenstadt, Elsterwerda (October 1991). A May 29, 1993 neo-Nazi arson attack on the house of a Turkish family in Solingen resulted in the deaths of two women and three girls, as well as in severe injuries for seven other people. Neo-Nazis were involved in the murders of three Turkish girls in a November 23, 1992 arson attack in Mölln, in which nine other people were injured.[citation needed] These events preceded demonstrations in many German cities involving hundreds of thousands of people protesting against far right violence.[citation needed] These protests precipitated massive neo-Nazi counter-demonstrations and violent clashes between neo-Nazis and anti-fascists. Official German statistics record 178 violent crimes motivated by right-wing extremism in 1990.[citation needed] Statistics show that in 1991, there were 849 hate crimes, and in 1992 there were 1,485 (with a significant concentration in the eastern Bundesländer). After 1992, the numbers went down, although they have risen sharply in subsequent years. In the former East Germany, an average of 17 people have been murdered every year by far right groups.[34] Hoyerswerda (Upper Sorbian Wojerecy, Lower Sorbian Wórjejce, Czech HojeÅ™ice) is a town in the German Bundesland of Saxony. ... Motto: Within your walls be concordance and public welfare Rostock (pronounced // from Polabian Roz toc, literally to flow apart) is the largest city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. ... Solingen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Mölln is a town in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ...


Legal issues

German law forbids the production of pro-Nazi materials, so such items are smuggled into the country mostly from the United States, Scandinavia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Italy.[citation needed] Neo-Nazi rock bands such as Landser have been outlawed in Germany, yet bootleg copies of their albums printed in the US and other countries are still sold in the country. Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Cover of the album Rock gegen oben // Landser is a neo-Nazi rock band from Germany. ...

After the swastika became banned in Germany, some neo-Nazis began to display the older German Empire flag as a substitute, despite the fact that historically it has no Nazi connections whatsoever.

An American neo-Nazi group called NSDAP/AO runs an illegal smuggling ring, for supplying pro-Nazi materials to neo-Nazis in Europe and other locations where such materials are banned by law. NSDAP/AO supplies items such as magazines, CDs, posters, portraits, clothing, patches, stickers, pamphlets.[citation needed] The Kaiserliche Kriegsflagge (the War Ensign of the Kaiserliche Marine, the Imperial Germany Navy, 1903–1919) Downloaded from Flags of the World File links The following pages link to this file: SMS Ostfriesland SMS Scharnhorst SMS Gneisenau Wikipedia:WikiProject Ships SMS Lützow SMS Friedrich der Grosse SMS Kaiser... The Kaiserliche Kriegsflagge (the War Ensign of the Kaiserliche Marine, the Imperial Germany Navy, 1903–1919) Downloaded from Flags of the World File links The following pages link to this file: SMS Ostfriesland SMS Scharnhorst SMS Gneisenau Wikipedia:WikiProject Ships SMS Lützow SMS Friedrich der Grosse SMS Kaiser... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The NSDAP/AO was the Foreign Organization of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). ...


German neo-Nazi websites mostly depend on Internet servers in the US and Canada, and use other terms for Nazi ideas and symbols. They also invent new symbols reminiscent of the swastika and adopt other symbols used by the Nazis, such as the sun disc, sun wheel, hooked cross, wolf's cross, wolf's hook, black sun, and dark star. A trial was held before the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany over the prohibition of the National Democratic Party (NPD), considered (though not proven to be) a neo-Nazi party.[citation needed] In the course of the trial, it was discovered that some high-ranking party members worked as informants for the domestic intelligence service, the Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz. The trial was temporarily suspended, and then rejected by the court because of the unclear influence of informants within the NPD.-1... The Sun Wheel at night as seen from across Paradise Bay. ... Vertical alignment Horizontal alignment The Wolfsangel (German for wolfs hook) is a symbol which when used in the context of Nazi or Neo-Nazi organisations is described as looking like an Eihwaz rune but modified by an additional central stroke. ... The Black Sun similar to the design of the Wewelsburg mosaic. ... The Bundesverfassungsgericht The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) is a special court established by the German constitutional document, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... There is open debate on rather facism is rightwing or not. ... BfV headquarters in Cologne Verfassungsschutz (Protection of the Constitution) is the short name for Germanys federal and state-based secret services for the interior (Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz). ...


In 2004, NPD received 9.1% of the vote in the parliamentary elections for Saxony, thus earning the right to seat local parliament members.[35] The other parties refused to enter discussions with the NPD. In the 2006 parliamentary elections for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, the NPD received 7.3% of the vote and six seats in the local parliament. Other neo-Nazi groups that have been active in Germany and have attracted government attention include the Volkssozialistische Bewegung Deutschlands/Partei der Arbeit (which was banned in 1982), the Action Front of National Socialists/National Activists (banned in 1983), the Nationalist Front (banned in 1992), the Free German Workers' Party of Michael Kühnen and Friedhelm Busse, the German Alternative and National Offensive. The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a state in northern Germany. ... The Action Front of National Socialists/National Activists (German: Aktionsfront Nationaler Sozialisten/Nationale Aktivisten; abbreviated ANS/NA) was a German neo-Nazi organization. ... Nationalistische Front (Nationalist Front) was a minor German neo-Nazi group active during the 1980s. ... The Free German Workers Party (German: Freiheitliche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, FAP) is a political party in Germany that has been accused of Neo-Nazism. ... Michael Kühnen (born 21 June 1955; died 25 April 1991 in Kassel) was a leader in the German neo-Nazi scene. ... Friedhelm Busse in February 2001 Friedhelm Busse (born February 4, 1929 in Bochum) is a leading German neo-Nazi. ...


Greece

The most notable Greek neo-Nazi political organization was Hrisi Avgi, which stopped its activities in late 2005. Hrisi Avgi held 10 offices across Greece, and published a monthly youth magazine.[citation needed] Members of Hrisi Avgi have continued their activities through the Patriotic Alliance, a nationalist party formed two months before the 2004 European Parliament elections (in which it gathered 10,000 votes, corresponding to 0,17% of the general vote).[citation needed] Neo-Nazis in Greece are influenced by the Metaxas quasi-fascist dictatorship, the Security Battalions during the Second World War, and the collaborationist regimes which were placed in power by the Nazis during the German occupation of Greece (1940-1944) — such as those of Tsolakoglou, Ioannis Rallis and Logothetopoulos. Hrisi Avgis logo, featuring a meander pattern. ... Patriotic Alliance (Greek: Πατριωτική Συμμαχία, Patriotiki Symmachia, PATRIS) is a far-right Greek nationalist political party founded in 2004. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held from June 10, 2004 to June 13, 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... Ioannis Metaxas (Greek Ιωάννης Μεταξάς, April 12, 1871 – January 29, 1941) was a Greek General and the Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941. ... The Security Battalions (Greek: Τάγματα Ασφαλείας, Tágmata Asfalías) were Greek collaborationist military groups, formed during World War II in order to support the German occupation troops. ... Collaboration, literally, consists of working together with one or more other people. ... Ioannis Rallis (1878-1946) was the third Nazi collaborator prime minister of Greece, from 7 April 1943 to 12 October 1944, succeeding Konstantinos Logothetopoulos in the Nazi-held puppet government in Athens. ...


Neo-Nazis in Greece have been tied to hate-driven attacks on immigrants, homosexuals and leftists. One of the most deadly attacks was the murder of three immigrants in central Athens by Pandelis Kazakos.[citation needed] Twelve Greek neo-Nazis participated as volunteers in the Yugoslav wars in Bosnia, aiding the Serbian Army in capturing the town of Srebrenica.[36] Greek neo-Nazis have been active in football hooliganism. In September 2004, during a football match between Albania and Greece, Albanian hooligans set the Greek flag on fire, so members of Hrisi Avgi and The Blue Army (a nationalist group of football fans) launched a series of riots. They targeted Albanian immigrants in Greece, killing one and wounding seven. Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Burial of 505 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2006) Burial of 610 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2005 The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8,000 Bosniak males, in the region of Srebrenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina by units... Ultras at FC Twente - SC Heerenveen in 2002 Hooliganism is unruly and destructive behaviour, usually by gangs of young people. ... Categories: Stub | Riots ...


Russia

Bookcover of The ABC of a Russian Nationalist by A.P. Barkashov
Further information: Anti-national sentiment in Russia, Radical nationalism in Russia

The post-Soviet era has seen the rise of a variety of extreme nationalist and racist movements in Russia, some of which are openly neo-fascist or neo-Nazi, . The neo-Nazi groups of Russia are characterized by extreme racism, Islamophobia, and anti-Semitism. The ABC of a Russian Nationalist by A.P.Barkashov This work is copyrighted. ... The ABC of a Russian Nationalist by A.P.Barkashov This work is copyrighted. ... Anti-national sentiment in Russia as a negative attitude to non-Slavic persons can be traced far back into the history of Russia. ... Members of the National-Bolshevik Party The term nationalism in Russia refers to far-right extremist nationalist movements and organizations, however its often mixed up with fascism in Russia. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Because racism carries connotations of race-based bigotry, prejudice, violence, oppression, stereotyping or discrimination, the term has varying and often hotly contested definitions. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


Social roots

The collapse of the Soviet economic system in the early 1990s caused great economic and social problems,including widespread unemployment and poverty. Several far right paramilitary organizations were able to tap into popular discontent, particularly among the marginalized, lesser educated, and habitually unemployed youth. Of the three major age groups — youths, adults, and the elderly — youths may have been hit the hardest. The elderly suffered due to inadequate (or unpaid) pensions, but they found effective political representation in the Communists, and generally had their concerns addressed through better budget allocations. Adults, although often suffering financially and psychologically due to job losses, were generally able to find new sources of income. Moreover, Soviet-era indoctrination into the ideals of egalitarianism predisposed most against the message of right-wing extremists. The youths generally had no such prior inclinations. Soviet redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ...


Ideology

Russian neo-Nazi organizations have generally defined themselves as standing outside of the political process, disdaining the electoral system and advocating the overthrow of the government by force. Their ideology has centered on defending Russian national identity against what they perceive as a takeover by ethnic minority groups, notably Jews and Caucasian immigrants. Cleansing the nation by killing or expelling the Muslims, Jews and dark-skinned people has been a generally accepted goal. Their ideology became epitomized in the slogan "Russia for the Russians", a catchphrase also adopted by less extreme factions. Russian neo-Nazis have generally not outlined discernible economic programs. Russian neo-Nazis have openly admired and imitated the German Nazis and Adolf Hitler, and the book Mein Kampf stood high on their reading list. The most prominent organization, Russian National Union, led by Aleksandr Barkashov, adopted a three-ray swastika as its emblem (the Nazi swastika can be thought of consisting of two rays; the Z shaped segments). Ethno-Linguistic groups in the Caucasus region For the term Caucasian referring to all white people, see Caucasian race. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... The Russian National Union (Russkiy Natsional’niy Soyuz, Russkiĭ Nacionalhniĭ Soûz, Русский Национальний Союз) was a far right political party in Russia which split from Pamyat in 1992 (although the party was officially constituted on 6th May 1993). ... The ABC of a Russian Nationalist book by A. Barkashov Russian National Unity (Всероссийское общественное патриотическое движение Русское Национальное Единство or All-Russian civic patriotic movement Russkoye Natsionalnoye Edinstvo) is a nationalistic political party and paramilitary organization based in Russia and operating in states with Russian-speaking populations. ... -1...


Activities

Russian neo-Nazis have made it an explicit goal to take over the country by force, and they did put serious effort into preparing for this. Paramilitary organizations operating under the guise of sports clubs have trained their members in squad tactics and weapons handling. They have stockpiled weapons, often illegally. Reputedly, many were interested in martial arts and unarmed combat, and have organized realistic hand-to-hand combat classes. Neo-Nazis in Russia have also used legally-obtained weapons when confronting opponents. For example, Russian neo-Nazis once used bats to beat two lightly-armed US Marines guarding the wife of a congressman.[citation needed] Russian neo-Nazis' most notable action so far was the participation in the armed defense of the Supreme Soviet building against government forces during the standoff between Yeltsin and the Communist-dominated parliament in 1993.[citation needed] Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Mêlée generally refers to disorganized hand-to-hand combat involving a group of fighters. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ...


United States

In the United States, neo-Nazi groups are a sub-type of a wider array of anti-Semitic and white supremacist groups. American neo-Nazi groups tend to pay homage to — but are often less focused on — the specific tenets of the NSDAP than some neo-Nazi groups in other countries[citation needed]. Neo-Nazi groups in the United States can be traced back to the 1920s, with the US branch of the Nazi Party. This organization merged with Free Society of Teutonia to form the German-American Bund. The Bund and other groups achieved a limited popularity in the 1930s (at one point staging a rally with over 20,000 people), but rapidly faded with the onset of the Second World War. The groups either disbanded or were dismantled by force during the war period. After the war, new organizations formed, with varying degrees of support for Nazi principles. It is difficult to determine the extent of neo-Nazi organizations in the United States, because these groups are aware that public opinion concerning them is negative, and there are organizations dedicated to monitoring their activities (such as the Anti-Defamation League and Southern Poverty Law Center). The Nazi Party (German: , or NSDAP, English: National Socialist German Workers Party), was a far-right, racist political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... The German-American Bund or German American Federation was an American Nazi organization established in the 1930s. ... The German-American Bund, or German American Federation, was an American Nazi organization established in the 1930s. ... Anti-Defamation League Logo The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education and litigation. ...


While a small minority of American neo-Nazis draw public attention, most operate underground, so they may recruit, organize and raise funds without interference or harassment. The American corrcectional system houses many white supremacist and neo-nazi prison gangs, but more often than not, white prisoners join said gangs for protection from the bigger, stronger, and often more dangerous prisoners, and from other prison gangs, and do not necessarily subscribe to the ideologies that political neo-Nazi groups tend to emphasize. The United States Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, which allows political organizations great latitude in expressing Nazi, racist and anti-Semitic views. One notable event in the United States in which neo-Nazis were legally allowed to assemble is known as the Skokie Affair. American neo-Nazi groups often operate websites, occasionally stage public demonstrations, and maintain ties to groups in Europe and elsewhere[citation needed]. However, neo-Nazis are a tiny percentage of the national population. More often than not, neo-Nazis are outnumbered by counter-protesters at public demonstrations, and are quickly prosecuted for any crimes, such as hate crimes[citation needed]. In addition to targeting Jews and African Americans, neo-Nazi groups are known to harass and attack Asian Americans, Latinos, Arab Americans, homosexuals and people with different political or religious opinions. The life a neo-Nazi living in Venice Beach, California is depicted in the 1998 movie American History X. Underground Resistance (commonly abbreviated to UR) are a musical collective from Detroit, Michigan, in the United States of America. ... Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... National Socialist Party of America v. ... A hate crime (bias crime), loosely defined, is a crime committed because of the perpetrators prejudices. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... Latino refers to people living in the US of Latin American nationality and their US-born descendants. ... Arab Americans constitute an ethnicity made up of several waves of immigrants from 22 Morocco in the west to Oman in the east. ... Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... American History X is a 1998 crime drama film directed by Tony Kaye and written by David McKenna. ...


Legal issues

Some American neo-Nazi groups incite violence, however it is sometimes difficult for authorities to implicate them in violence or illegality in any meaningful way. In this way, prominent neo-Nazis may inspire, incite or even order violent crimes without much fear that their involvement will be traced back to an official organization. One notable North American exception to this fact is The Order, which had members convicted of crimes such as racketeering, conspiracy, violating civil rights and sedition. Other exceptions are Matthew F. Hale of the World Church of the Creator, who was imprisoned for soliciting the murder of a federal judge; and Richard Butler of Aryan Nations, which lost a $6.2 million dollar lawsuit after Aryan Nations members opened fire on a passing vehicle. Aryan Nations has since lost its headquarters and paramilitary training grounds, and has split into three separate organizations. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The Order (also called the Silent Brotherhood) was a neo-Nazi organization active in the United States between 1983 and 1984. ... Matthew F. Hale (center) at the Peoria Public Library. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Richard Butler may refer to: Politicians: Rab Butler, Richard Austen Butler (1902–1982), British politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer Richard Girnt Butler (1918–2004), American founder of the Aryan Nations Richard Butler (Australian politician) Premier of South Australia, 1905 Sir Richard Layton Butler (1850–1925), Premier of South Australia... Aryan Nations (AN) is an international anti-Semitic white supremacist, Neo-Nazi organization. ...


Neo-Nazi organizations

The Americas

A Finnish neo-Nazi

Partido del Nuevo Triunfo (New Triumph Party) is a minor far right group in Argentina. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article refers to the United States-based organization. ... David Copelands membership card for the National Socialist Movement The National Socialist Movement (NSM) is a British neo-Nazi group, best known in the UK for its association with David Copeland, the London nailbomber, who was a member, and local unit leader for his area. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Carecas do ABC (Skinheads from ABC region, in portuguese) are a skinhead group born on the region of ABC, in the metropolitan zone of São Paulo. ... The National Socialist Vanguard is a Nazi group based in The Dalles, Oregon. ... Aryan Nations (AN) (also known as the Aryan National Alliance) is an American anti_government, anti-Semitic white nationalist group. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 160 KB) Summary Finnish neo-nazi resistance fighter 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 160 KB) Summary Finnish neo-nazi resistance fighter 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Scandinavia

Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Bevægelse (National Socialist Movement of Denmark, DNSB) is a neo-nazi political party in Denmark. ... The Norges Nasjonalsosialistiske Bevegelse (National Socialist Movement of Norway, NNSB) is a Norwegian extreme-right group with around fifty members, led by Erik Rune Hansen, and is based in Eidsvoll. ... Nationalsocialistisk Front (NSF) is a Swedish neo-nazi political party. ... The Finnish Peoples Blue-whites (Finnish: Suomen Kansan Sinivalkoiset; Swedish: Finlands Folkets Blåvita) is a Finnish political party with a far-right nationalist agenda, led by the controvesial political figure Olavi Mäenpää. The party was founded in 1993, but it didnt become a registered political party... Svenska motståndsrörelsen (SMR) is a nazi organisation that exists in Stockholm, Göteborg, Malmö and Linköping in Sweden. ... VAM is an acronym for Vitt Ariskt Motstånd (Swedish for White Aryan Resistance). ... In Norse mythology, Vigrond (battle shaker) is the battlefield, on a plain, where Ragnarok will be fought. ...

United Kingdom

The British Nazi Party is a neo-nazi political party in the United Kingdom. ... The British Nazi Party is a neo-nazi political party in Great Britain. ... The British Movement was a British neo-Nazi group. ... Logo from Combat 18 website. ... International Third Position (ITP) was a United Kingdom group formed by the Italian Roberto Fiore and as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement that originated in the Third Positionist British National Front in the early 1980s. ... The League of St. ... NSM leader Colin Jordan The National Socialist Movement was a British Neo-Nazi group formed in 1962 by Colin Jordan on Adolf Hitlers birthday as a splinter group from the British National Party. ... David Copelands membership card for the National Socialist Movement The National Socialist Movement (NSM) is a British neo-Nazi group, best known in the UK for its association with David Copeland, the London nailbomber, who was a member, and local unit leader for his area. ... The Flag Group represented aone of the two wings of the British National Front in the 1980s and stood in opposition to the Political Soldier wing. ... The White Nationalist Party (WNP) is a United Kingdom political party, the UK arm of Aryan Unity, which considers racial separatism as fundamental to a healthy society. ...

Other European countries

Hrisi Avgis logo, featuring a meander pattern. ... Imperium Europa (European Empire in Latin) is a movement in Malta. ... Nacionalni stroj (National Formation) is the name of an obscure neo-nazi organisation that was formed in Serbia and that that caught a lot of attention by orchestrating several incidents in 2005. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ... The Kärntner Heimatdienst (KHD) is a right-wing association of Carinthian organizations. ... Carinthia (German: Kärnten, Italian: Carinzia, Slovenian: KoroÅ¡ka) is an Austrian state or Land, located in the south of Austria. ... Patriotic Alliance (Greek: Πατριωτική Συμμαχία, Patriotiki Symmachia, PATRIS) is a far-right Greek nationalist political party founded in 2004. ... Noua Dreaptă (The New Right) is a nationalist organization in Romania. ... Members of Russian National Unity group in a street parade Russian National Unity (RNU) or All-Russian civic patriotic movement Russkoye Natsionalnoye Edinstvo(Russian: ), better translated as Russian Ethnic Unity is an outlawed far-right, ultra-nationalist political party and paramilitary organization based in Russia and operating in states with...

Other continents

Blood & Honour are a militant neo-Nazi network founded in 1987 in response to the Anti-Nazi Leagues Rock Against Racism organisation. ... National Action was an Australian political party that was said to be on the far-right of the political spectrum. ... The flag of the National Socialist Japanese Workers Party The National Socialist Japanese Workers and Welfare Party is a Japanese political party that campaigns on a platform of Neo-Nazism. ... The Patriotic Youth League (PYL) is a patriotic youth organization in Australia whose members describe themselves as radical nationalists [1]. The PYL was founded in late 2002 by Stuart McBeth, a student at the University of Newcastle who was previously involved with the One Nation Party. ... The current National Front logo is the same as the British National Fronts logo from the early 1970s. ... SUMKA is an Iranian neo-Nazi party (otherwise known as Hezb-e Sosialist-e Melli-ye Kargaran-e Iran, Iran National-Socialist Workers Party). ... The Aryan League (also National Socialist Aryan League) are an Iranian Neo-Nazi political party. ... Taiwanese Nazi Partys logo National Socialism Association is a political organization founded in Taiwan in September 2006 by 許娜琦, a 22-year-old political science graduate of Soochow University. ...

Neo-Nazi bands

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Astrofaes is a Ukrainian black metal band that is believed to be NSBM. Also the name of a heavy metal album reviews site Astrofaes Metal Domain Category: Musical group stubs ... A popular Minnesota-based White Power band that formed in 1989. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Crusades fourth album, Give them a future Crusade is a Rock Against Communism/Oi! band from the United Kingdom. ... Grand Belials Key was an American black metal band which was formed in 1992 by bass guitarist Gelal Necrosodomy and vocalist Lord Vlad Luciferian. ... Graveland is a Polish black metal band which was formed in 1992 by Rob Darken (born Robert Fudali). ... Grinded Nig is a grindcore, white power band based out of Texas. ... Grom is an NSBM band with a strong Slavonic/Mediterranean influence within its lyrics, due to that being the racial composition of the band. ... Infernum was a black metal band from Polish city of Wrocław // Biography Infernum was created in 1992 by Anextiomarus - Guitar, Bass, Vocals - and drummer Tom Balrog (Oppressor/Baphomets Throne). ... The cover of a Johnny Rebel album. ... Cover of the album Rock gegen oben // Landser is a neo-Nazi rock band from Germany. ... Macht und Ehre is a neo-Nazi rock band based in Berlin, Germany. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pantheon is an American National Socialist black metal band formed in Tucson, Arizona in 1993. ... Prussian Blue is a controversial white nationalist folk teen duo formed in early 2003 by Lynx Gaede and Lamb Gaede (pronounced gay-dee or in IPA, , fraternal twin girls born June 30, 1992 and brought up in the United States. ... Saga is a Swedish right-wing singer/songwriter, notable as a symbol of racism and for her international following as a singer, including the UK and US. She first appeared on the scene as the female vocalist for Symphony of Sorrow, but has since become well known with her tribute... Skrewdriver was a punk rock band formed in Blackpool in 1976 by Ian Stuart Donaldson. ... Skullhead was a British RAC band in the 80s from Newcastle area. ... White American Youth, also known as W.A.Y., was among the first American white power skinhead bands to appear in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ...

See also

American History X is a 1998 crime drama film directed by Tony Kaye and written by David McKenna. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Entryism (or entrism or enterism) is a political tactic by which an organisation encourages members to infiltrate another organisation in an attempt to gain recruits, or take over entirely. ... Nazi mysticism is a term used to describe a philosophical undercurrent of National Socialism, it denotes the combining of it with occultism, esotericism, cryptohistory, and/or the paranormal. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. ... Fourth Reich is used by neo-Nazi and Nazi mystic groups who envision a Fourth Reich, a resurrection of the Third Reich. ... Historical revisionism is often a legitimate effort in which historians seek to broaden the awareness of certain historical events by re-examining conventional wisdom. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Nashism is the name given to an ideological framework underpinning the Nashi movement in Russia. ... Since the rise of Adolf Hitler in the 1930s, and particularly since World War II, the term National Socialism almost always refers to Nazism and, in particular, the Nazi Party as well as derivatives such as modern neo-Nazism. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... David Copelands membership card for the National Socialist Movement The National Socialist Movement (NSM) is a British neo-Nazi group, best known in the UK for its association with David Copeland, the London nailbomber, who was a member, and local unit leader for his area. ... Nazi mysticism is a quasi-religious undercurrent of Nazism; it denotes the mixture of Nazism with occultism, esotericism, cryptohistory, and/or the paranormal — especially in the traditions of Germanic mysticism. ... Two Punk Front members (1978). ... A Nazi skinhead from Germany Nazi skinheads are a far right subculture that developed in the United Kingdom around the late 1970s. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... This page pertains to fascism after World War II. For post-World War II Nazi movements, see Neo-Nazism. ... The study of Neofascism and religion is a controversial area that examines the parallels and intersections between what are purported to be various forms of neofascism and contemporary religions and religious movements. ... This article is about the website named Stormfront. ... Vinland was the name given to a part of North America by the Icelandic norseman Leif Eiríksson, about the year (AD) 1000. ... Though it is debatable if a planet as complex and diverse as Earth could ever be successfully dominated by a single central authority, the concept of world domination has long been a popular theme in both history and fiction. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... White Power is an ideology and a political slogan describing the views of white supremacists. ... White Aryan Resistance member wearing a white pride t-shirt White pride is a slogan used primarily in the United States (though its usage has spread internationally) to promote the glorification of the heritage of persons of White-European racial identity[1]—though generally to the exclusion of homosexuals and... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Brigitte Bailer-Galanda/Wolfgang Neugebauer. (1996). 'Incorrigibly Right - Right-Wing Extremists, "Revisionists" and Anti-Semites in Austrian Politics Today'. Vienna-New York.
  2. ^ De nouvelles découvertes, La Libre Belgique, 8 September 2006 (French)
  3. ^ Mandats d'arrêts confirmés pour les néo-nazis, Le Soir, 13 September 2006 (French)
  4. ^ Les néonazis voulaient déstabiliser le pays, Le Soir, Jeudi 7 septembre 2006 (French)
  5. ^ Un groupe terroriste néonazi démantelé, Le Nouvel Observateur, 8 septembre 2006 (French)
  6. ^ La Belgique démantèle un groupe néonazi préparant des attentats, Le Monde, 7 septembre 2006 (French)
  7. ^ Des militaires néonazis voulaient commettre des attentats, RTL Belgique, 8 septembre 2006 (French)
  8. ^ Des militaires néonazis voulaient déstabiliser la Belgique par des attentats, AFP, 08/09/06, 07h12 (French)
  9. ^ La Belgique découvre, stupéfaite, un complot néonazi au sein de son armée, AFP, 08/09/06, 12h01. (French)
  10. ^ Un réseau terroriste de militaires néonazis démantelé en Belgique, Le Monde, September 8, 2006 (French)
  11. ^ http://www.diacritica.com/degenerate/4/pavelic13.html
  12. ^ http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/index/DGB4V0MCGNFLU49E.pdf
  13. ^ http://www.christusrex.org/www1/news/haaretz-1-15-06a.html
  14. ^ http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/11/27/news/croatia.php
  15. ^ http://www.iwpr.net/?p=bcr&s=f&o=246286&apc_state=henibcr1999
  16. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3605236.stm
  17. ^ http://www.ex-yupress.com/nacional/nacional7.html
  18. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3605236.stm
  19. ^ http://see.oneworld.net/article/view/92811/1/
  20. ^ http://www.index.hr/clanak.aspx?id=279919
  21. ^ http://www.spc.org.yu/Vesti-2004/04/28-4-04-e01.html#usta
  22. ^ http://www.index.hr/clanak.aspx?id=253042
  23. ^ http://www.novilist.hr/default.asp?WCI=Pretrazivac&WCU=285A285B2863285D2863285A28582858285E2863286328632859285F2859285F2861285828632863286328592863M
  24. ^ http://www.novilist.hr/default.asp?WCI=Pretrazivac&WCU=285A285F2863285E2863285A28582858285E286328632863286028582860285D285C28632863286328592863F
  25. ^ http://www.novilist.hr/default.asp?WCI=Pretrazivac&WCU=285B28582863285928592863285A28582858285E2863286328632859285E2861285E285A285C28632863286328592863I
  26. ^ http://www.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeno/2006/1706.htm
  27. ^ Wiesenthal Center Welcomes Opening of Investigation by Austrian Authorities of the Display of Fascist Ustasha Symbols at Recent Bleiburg Gathering [1]
  28. ^ Austrija pokrenula istragu o ustaskim obiljezjima u Bleiburgu [2] (Croatian)
  29. ^ Zuroff Mesiću: Gnušamo se ustaških simbola na Thompsonovu koncertu [3] (Croatian)
  30. ^ Margelov institut traži opoziv ministra Kirina zbog Thompsonovog koncerta [4] (Croatian)
  31. ^ Nazi hunters slam singer’s concert [5]
  32. ^ Nazi hunter raps 'fascist' Croatian rock concert [6]
  33. ^ Jews slam Croatia's failure to condemn 'Nazi' concert [7]
  34. ^ http://serwisy.gazeta.pl/swiat/1,34180,3354654.html
  35. ^ http://www.statistik.sachsen.de/wahlen/allg/Seite_1.htm
  36. ^ Michas, Takis;"Unholy Alliance", Texas A&M University Press: Eastern European Studies (College Station, Tex.) pp. 22 [8]
  37. ^ http://pnt.libreopinion.com/

La Libre Belgique (English: Free Belgium) is a Belgian newspaper in French. ... Le Soir (meaning The Evening) is a Belgian newspaper in French. ... Le Soir (meaning The Evening) is a Belgian newspaper in French. ... Le Nouvel Observateur (often shorten to Le Nouvel Obs) is a weekly French newsmagazine. ... Le Monde is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... RTL is an abbreviation used in several contexts. ... AFP logo Paris headquarters of AFP Charles Havas Agence France-Presse (AFP) is the oldest news agency in the world, and one of the three largest with Associated Press and Reuters. ... Le Monde is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ...

Bibliography

Primary sources

Categories: Literature stubs ... Francis Parker Yockey, (September 18, 1917 – June 16, 1960), was an American philosopher and polemicist best known for his neo-Spenglerian book Imperium, published under the pen name Ulick Varange [1] in 1948. ... The Lightning and the Sun is a book written by Savitri Devi outlining her philosophy of history with her critique of the modern world. ... Savitri Devi (September 30, 1905 - October 22, 1982) was a Franco-Greek woman who became enamored with Hinduism and National Socialism, linking the Aryan invasion theory to Adolf Hitler, and proclaiming him an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 - August 25, 1967) was a U.S. Naval Commander and founder of the American Nazi Party. ... Several people are named John McLaughlin: John McLaughlin (musician), an English jazz fusion guitar player. ... George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 - August 25, 1967) was a U.S. Naval Commander and founder of the American Nazi Party. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... John Colin Campbell Jordan (born June 1923) son of a postman, was a leading representative of postwar National Socialism in Britain and around the world. ... John Colin Campbell Jordan (born June 1923) son of a postman, was a leading representative of postwar National Socialism in Britain and around the world. ... The Turner Diaries is a 1978 novel by Dr. William Luther Pierce (under the pseudonym Andrew Macdonald), the late leader of the National Alliance, a white separatist organization. ... Dr. William Luther Pierce III[1] (September 11, 1933 – July 23, 2002) was the founder of the white separatist National Alliance organization, and a principal ideologue of the white nationalist movement. ... Siege: The Collected Writings of James Mason is a book, edited and introduced by Michael M. Jenkins. ... James N. Mason (born 1952) is an American National Socialist Revolutionary. ... Michael Moynihan, (b. ... Hunter is a 1989 novel written by William Luther Pierce, the late founder and chairman of the National Alliance, a white nationalist group, under the pseudonym Andrew Macdonald. ... Dr. William Luther Pierce III[1] (September 11, 1933 – July 23, 2002) was the founder of the white separatist National Alliance organization, and a principal ideologue of the white nationalist movement. ... Matt Koehl (full name Matthias Koehl Jr. ... A pseudonym (Greek pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons true name. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... The Nexus was a journal edited by Kerry Bolton in Paraparaumu Beach, New Zealand. ... Kerry Bolton Kerry Bolton (born 1956) is a occultist and far-right activist in New Zealand. ... David Lane (born 1938) is a American neo-Nazi leader and author, currently incarcerated in the Federal Supermax prison in Florence, Colorado. ...

Academic surveys

  • The Beast Reawakens by Martin A. Lee, (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1997, ISBN 0-316-51959-6)
  • Fascism (Oxford Readers) by Roger Griffin (1995, ISBN 0-19-289249-5)
  • Beyond Eagle and Swastika: German nationalism since 1945 by Kurt P. Tauber (Wesleyan University Press; [1st ed.] edition, 1967)
  • Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 edited by Philip Rees, (1991, ISBN 0-13-089301-3)
  • Hitler's Priestess: Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth, and Neo-Nazism by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke (1998, ISBN 0-8147-3111-2 and ISBN 0-8147-3110-4)
  • Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockey and the Postwar Fascist International by Kevin Coogan, (Autonomedia, Brooklyn, NY 1998, ISBN 1-57027-039-2)
  • Hate: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party by William H. Schmaltz (Potomac Books, 2000, ISBN 1-57488-262-7)
  • American Fuehrer: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party by Frederick J. Simonelli (University of Illinois Press, 1999, ISBN 0-252-02285-8)
  • Fascism in Britain: A History, 1918-1985 by Richard C. Thurlow (Olympic Marketing Corp, 1987, ISBN 0-631-13618-5)
  • Fascism Today: A World Survey by Angelo Del Boca and Mario Giovana (Pantheon Books, 1st American edition, 1969)
  • Swastika and the Eagle: Neo-Naziism in America Today by Clifford L Linedecker (A & W Pub, 1982, ISBN 0-89479-100-1)
  • The Silent Brotherhood: Inside America's Racist Underground by Kevin Flynn and Gary Gerhardt (Signet Book; Reprint edition, 1995, ISBN 0-451-16786-4)
  • "White Power, White Pride!": The White Separatist Movement in the United States by Betty A. Dobratz with Stephanie L. Shanks-Meile (hardcover, Twayne Publishers, 1997, ISBN 0-8057-3865-7); a.k.a. The White Separatist Movement in the United States: White Power White Pride (paperback, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8018-6537-9)
  • Encyclopedia of White Power: A Sourcebook on the Radical Racist Right by Jeffrey Kaplan (Rowman & Littlefield Pub Inc, 2000, ISBN 0-7425-0340-2)
  • Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Nazi Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White Culture by James Ridgeway (Thunder's Mouth Press; 2nd edition, 1995, ISBN 1-56025-100-X)
  • A Hundred Little Hitlers: The Death of a Black Man, the Trial of a White Racist, and the Rise of the Neo-Nazi Movement in America by Elinor Langer (Metropolitan Books, 2003, ISBN 0-8050-5098-1)
  • The Racist Mind: Portraits of American Neo-Nazis and Klansmen by Raphael S. Ezekiel (Penguin (Non-Classics); Reprint edition, 1996, ISBN 0-14-023449-7)
  • Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke (2001, ISBN 0-8147-3155-4)
  • Free to Hate: The Rise of the Right in Post-Communist Eastern Europe by Paul Hockenos (Routledge; Reprint edition, 1994, ISBN 0-415-91058-7)
  • The Dark Side of Europe: The Extreme Right Today by Geoff Harris, (Edinburgh University Press; New edition, 1994, ISBN 0-7486-0466-9)
  • The Far Right in Western and Eastern Europe by Luciano Cheles, Ronnie Ferguson, and Michalina Vaughan (Longman Publishing Group; 2nd edition, 1995, ISBN 0-582-23881-1)
  • The Radical Right in Western Europe : A Comparative Analysis by Herbert Kitschelt (University of Michigan Press; Reprint edition, 1997, ISBN 0-472-08441-0)
  • Shadows Over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe edited by Martin Schain, Aristide Zolberg, and Patrick Hossay (Palgrave Macmillan; 1st edition, 2002, ISBN 0-312-29593-6)
  • The Fame of a Dead Man's Deeds: An Up-Close Portrait of White Nationalist William Pierce by Robert S. Griffin (Authorhouse, 2001, ISBN 0-7596-0933-0)
  • Nation and Race: The Developing Euro-American Racist Subculture by Jeffrey Kaplan, Tore Bjorgo (Northeastern University Press, 1998, ISBN 1-55553-331-0)
  • Gods of the Blood: The Pagan Revival and White Separatism by Mattias Gardell (Duke University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8223-3071-7)
  • The Nazi conception of law (Oxford pamphlets on world affairs) by J. Walter Jones, Clarendon (1939)

The Beast Reawakens is a book by investigative journalist Martin A. Lee. ... Fascism is a 1995 book edited by Roger Griffin. ... Roger Griffin is a British academic at Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, England whose theory on fascism determines that it is palingenetic ultra-nationalism with concepts and acts of national rebirth being the its defining feature. ... Beyond Eagle and Swastika: German Nationalism Since 1945 is a book by Kurt P. Tauber. ... Wesleyan University, founded in 1831, is a private liberal arts college in Middletown, Connecticut. ... Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 is a reference book edited by Philip Rees. ... Philip Rees is an writer and Librarian in charge of acquisitions at the J. B. Morrell Library, University of York. ... Hitlers Priestess: Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth and Neo-Nazism is a book by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. ... Savitri Devi (September 30, 1905 - October 22, 1982) was a Franco-Greek woman who became enamored with Hinduism and National Socialism, linking the Aryan invasion theory to Adolf Hitler, and proclaiming him an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke is the author of several books on modern occultism and esotericism with the history of its intersection with fascist politics. ... Dreamer of the Day is the name of a book written by Kevin Coogan in 1999 for Autonomedia. ... Francis Parker Yockey, (September 18, 1917 – June 16, 1960), was an American philosopher and polemicist best known for his neo-Spenglerian book Imperium, published under the pen name Ulick Varange [1] in 1948. ... Kevin Coogan is an American investigative journalist. ... The University of Illinois Press is a major American university press. ... Fascism Today: A World Survey is a book by Angelo Del Boca and Mario Giovana. ... Encyclopedia of White Power: A Sourcebook on the Radical Racist Right is a reference book edited by Jeffrey Kaplan. ... Jeffrey Kaplan is the lead designer responsible for the World Design for the massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) World of Warcraft. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Aryan Nations (AN) is an international anti-Semitic white supremacist, Neo-Nazi organization. ... Nazi-Skinheads are a right wing subculture that developed in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 1980s. ... James Ridgeway is a prominent American investigative journalist. ... The Racist Mind: Portraits of American Neo-Nazis and Klansmen is a book by Raphael S. Ezekiel. ... Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity is a book by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. ... Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke is the author of several books on modern occultism and esotericism with the history of its intersection with fascist politics. ... The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1583 as a renowned centre for teaching in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Radical Right in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis is a book written by Herbert Kitschelt in collaboration with Anthony J. McGann. ... Nation and Race: The Developing Euro-American Racist Subculture is a book edited by Jeffrey Kaplan and Tore Bjørgo. ...

External links

News reports and criticism

Supporters

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  • American Nazi Party
  • Aryan Nations
  • Taiwan Nazi Group

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nazi Party – FREE Nazi Party Information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Nazi Party Research (955 words)
Though the failed Beer Hall Putsch diminished the party's influence, the effects of the Great Depression brought millions of new members, and in 1932 the party became the largest bloc in the Reichstag.
After Hitler was named chancellor in 1933, he obtained passage of the Enabling Act, and his government declared the Nazi party to be the only political party in Germany and required bureaucrats to become members.
The party controlled virtually all activities in Germany until Germany's defeat in World War II (1945), after which the party was banned.
National Socialist German Workers Party - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3975 words)
The NSDAP was the main political force in Nazi Germany from the fall of the Weimar Republic in 1933 until the end of World War II in 1945, when it was declared illegal and its leaders were arrested and convicted of crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials.
By 1923, the Nazi party and the SA stormtroopers were considered almost one and the same with the first Nazi paramilitary ranks, those being the ranks and insignia of the Sturmabteilung, in use.
Nazi Flags: The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and fl colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil).
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