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Encyclopedia > Nazi eugenics
Nazism

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Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germany's race based social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the center of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as "life unworthy of life" (German Lebensunwertes Leben), including but not limited to the: criminal, degenerate, dissident, feeble-minded, homosexual, idle, insane, religious and weak humans for elimination from the chain of heredity. More than 400,000 persons were sterilized against their will, while 70,000 were killed in the Action T4.[1] Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Nazis claimed to scientifically measure a strict hierarchy among races; at the top was the Aryan race (minus the Slavs, who were seen as below Aryan), then lesser races. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Life unworthy of life (in German: Lebensunwertes Leben) was a Nazi designation for the segments of populace that, according to racial policies of the Third Reich, had no right to live and thus were to be exterminated. ... For other uses, see Crime (disambiguation). ... Look up Degenerate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... Feeble-minded was a term used from the late 19th century through the early 20th century to loosely describe a variety of mental deficiencies, including what would now be considered mental retardation in its various types and grades, and learning disabilities such as dyslexia. ... Once vibrant, Eldorado gay night club in Berlin after being shut down in 1933 Gay men and, to a lesser extent, lesbians, were two of several groups targeted by Nazis during the Holocaust. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Inmates at Bedlam Asylum, as portrayed by William Hogarth Insanity, or madness, is a semi-permanent, severe mental disorder typically stemming from a form of mental illness. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... See Heredity (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmarks is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ...

Contents

Hitler's views on eugenics

Adolf Hitler had read some racial-hygiene tracts during his period of imprisonment in Landsberg Prison. The future leader considered that Germany could only become strong again if the state applied to German society the basic principles of racial hygiene and eugenics. Hitler believed the nation had become weak, corrupted by the infusion of degenerate elements into its bloodstream.[citation needed] In his opinion, these had to be removed as quickly as possible. He also believed that the strong and the racially pure had to be encouraged to have more children, and the weak and the racially impure had to be neutralized by one means or another. Hitler redirects here. ... This article is about the institution. ... Entrance of the Landsberg Prison Landsberg Prison is a penal facility located in the town of Landsberg am Lech in the southwest of the German state of Bavaria, about 30 miles (45 km) west of Munich. ... Racial hygiene (often labeled a form of scientific racism) is the selection, by a government, of the most physical, intellectual and moral persons to raise the next generation (selective breeding) and a close alignment of public health with eugenics. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...


The concepts of racist social Darwinism were discussed by European scientists, and also in the Vienna press during the 1920s, but how exactly Hitler picked up these ideas is uncertain.[2] In 1876, Ernst Haeckel had discussed the selective infanticide policy of the Greek city of ancient Sparta.[3] In his Second Book, which was kept unpublished during Nazi Germany, Hitler, like Haeckel before him, praised Sparta because he considered Sparta to be the first "Völkisch State," and endorsed what he perceived to be an early eugenics treatment of deformed children: Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... The Zweites Buch (Second Book) is a transcript of Adolf Hitlers unfiltered thoughts on a number of topics that was never edited. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The hard-to-translate word völkisch has connotations of folksy, folkloric, and populist. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...

Sparta must be regarded as the first Völkisch State. The exposure of the sick, weak, deformed children, in short, their destruction, was more decent and in truth a thousand times more humane than the wretched insanity of our day which preserves the most pathological subject, and indeed at any price, and yet takes the life of a hundred thousand healthy children in consequence of birth control or through abortions, in order subsequently to breed a race of degenerates burdened with illnesses.[4][5]

Nazi eugenics program

Nazi propaganda for Nazi Germany's T-4 Euthanasia Program: "This person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community 60,000 Reichsmark during his lifetime. Fellow German(s), that is your money, too."
Nazi propaganda for Nazi Germany's T-4 Euthanasia Program: "This person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community 60,000 Reichsmark during his lifetime. Fellow German(s), that is your money, too."
Further information: Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring & Action T4

The Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring, proclaimed on July 14, 1933 required physicians to register every case of hereditary illness known to them, except in women over forty-five years of age. Physicians could be fined for failing to comply. In 1934 the first year of the Law's operation, nearly 4,000 people appealed against the decisions of sterilization authorities. 3,559 of the appeals failed. By the end of the Nazi regime, over 200 Hereditary Health Courts (Erbgesundheitsgerichten) were created, and under their rulings over 400,000 people were sterilized against their will.[6] Image File history File links EnthanasiePropaganda. ... Image File history File links EnthanasiePropaganda. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmark is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... We do not stand alone: Nazi poster from 1936 with flags of other countries with compulsory sterilization legislation and a shield with the name and date of enaction of the German sterilization law. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmarks is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... We do not stand alone: Nazi poster from 1936 with flags of other countries with compulsory sterilization legislation and a shield with the name and date of enaction of the German sterilization law. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sterilization is a surgical technique leaving a male or female unable to procreate. ...


The Nazi eugenics policy led to Germans suffering from cerebral palsy and other physical impairments being killed. Action T4 (German Aktion T4) was the official name of the Nazi Germany eugenics program which forcefully conducted euthanasia on Germans who were institutionalized or suffering from birth defects. In total, an estimated 200,000 people were killed as a result of the program. Cerebral palsy (CP) is an umbrella term encompassing a group of non-progressive,[1] non-contagious diseases that cause physical disability in human development. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmarks is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ...


Nazi eugenics institutions

Further information: Hadamar Clinic & Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics

The Hadamar Clinic was a mental hospital in the German town of Hadamar, which was used by the Nazis as the site of their T-4 Euthanasia Program. The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927. In its early years, and during the Nazi era, it was strongly associated with theories of eugenics and racial hygiene advocated by its leading theorists Fritz Lenz and Eugen Fischer, and by its director Otmar von Verschuer. Under Fischer, the sterilisation of so-called Rhineland Bastards was undertaken. The Hadamar Clinic was a psychiatric hospital in the German town Hadamar, used by the Nazis as the site of their T-4 Euthanasia Program, which performed mass sterilizations and mass murder of undesirable members of Nazi society, specifically the physically and mentally handicapped. ... The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927. ... The Hadamar Clinic was a psychiatric hospital in the German town Hadamar, used by the Nazis as the site of their T-4 Euthanasia Program, which performed mass sterilizations and mass murder of undesirable members of Nazi society, specifically the physically and mentally handicapped. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called a mental hospital or asylum) is a hospital specializing in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... Hadamar the site of a former insane asylum used by the Nazis as the site of their T-4 Euthanasia Program, which performed mass sterilizations and mass murder of undesirable members of Nazi society, specifically the physically and mentally handicapped. ... The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fritz Lenz (9 March 1887 in Pflugrade, Pommern – 6 July 1976 in Goettingen ) was a German geneticist and influential specialist in racial hygiene during the Third Reich. ... Eugen Fischer, circa 1938. ... Rhineland Bastard was a derogatory term used in Nazi Germany to describe children of mixed German and African or Melanesian parentage. ...


Further reading

Books

  • Aly, G. (1994). Cleansing the Fatherland : Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4824-5
  • Baumslag, N. (2005). Murderous Medicine : Nazi Doctors, Human Experimentation, and Typhus. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-98312-9
  • Burleigh, M. (1991). The Racial State : Germany 1933-1945. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-39802-9
  • Burleigh , M. (1994). Death and Deliverance : 'Euthanasia' in Germany, c.1900 to 1945. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41613-2
  • Ehrenreich, Eric. The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial Science, and the Final Solution. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-253-34945-3
  • Friedlander, H. (1995). The Origins of Nazi Genocide. From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2208-6
  • Kuntz, D. (2006). Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2916-1
  • Lifton, R. (1986). THE NAZI DOCTORS : Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. ISBN 0-465-04905-2
  • Proctor, R. (2003). Racial Hygiene : Medicine Under the Nazis. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-74578-7
  • Spitz, V. (2005). Doctors from Hell : The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans. Sentient Publications. ISBN 1-59181-032-9
  • Weikart, R. (2006). From Darwin to Hitler: Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, And Racism in Germany. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-7201-X
  • Weindling, P.J. (2005). Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials : From Medical War Crimes to Informed Consent. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-3911-X
  • Weindling, P.J. et al. (1989). Health, Race and German Politics between National Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42397-X
  • Kuhl, S. (2002). The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism Oxford University Press ISBN 0195149785

Henry Friedlander (1930-) is a American historian of the Holocaust noted for his arguments in favor of broadening the scope of victims of the Holocaust. ...

Academic articles

The New England Journal of Medicine (New Engl J Med or NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... The Logo and Coat of Arms of the Society. ... The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences is a medical journal that publishes original articles dealing with the bio-psycho-social aspects of mobility, relocation, acculturation, ethnicity, stress situations in war and peace, victimology and mental health in developing countries. ... Annals of Internal Medicine (Ann Intern Med; ISSN 0003-4819) is an academic medical journal published by the American College of Physicians (ACP). ... BioMed Central (BMC) is a UK-based scientific publisher specializing in open access publication. ... National Center for Biotechnology Information logo The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health. ... kkdkd ... The European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) promotes bioscience in Europe through programmes and activities. ...

Videos

  • Burleigh, M. (1991). Selling Murder: The Killing Films of the Third Reich. London: Domino Films.
  • Michalczyk, J.J. (1997). Nazi Medicine: In The Shadow Of The Reich. New York: First-Run Features.

See also

The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. ... Karl Brandt at the Doctors Trial The Doctors Trial (officially United States of America v. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... German Blood Certificate A German Blood Certificate (Genehmigung) was a document provided to Mischlinge (those with partial Jewish heritage) during the Second World War that allowed exemption from Germanys racial laws. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... A Lebensborn birth house Lebensborn (Fount of Life, in German) was a child welfare and relocation program initiated by Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler to aid the racial heredity of the Third Reich. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi human experimentation was medical experimentation on large numbers of people by the German Nazi regime in its concentration camps during World War II. // According to the indictment at the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials, these experiments... Nazis claimed to scientifically measure a strict hierarchy among races; at the top was the Aryan race (minus the Slavs, who were seen as below Aryan), then lesser races. ... A Nazi illustration of the perceived Nordic master race. ... Nur für Deutsche (German: For Germans only): during World War II, in many German-occupied countries, signs bearing this admonition were posted at entrances to parks, cafes, cinemas, theaters and other facilities reserved for Germans only. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Mischling is a term coined during the Third Reich era in Germany to denote persons deemed to have partial Jewish ancestry. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with miscegenation. ... The Reich Citizenship Law was formed in Germany during World War II while Adolf Hitler was dictator. ... Scientific racism is a term that describes either obsolete scientific theories of the 19th century or historical and contemporary racist propaganda disguised as scientific research. ... Second class citizen is an informal term used to describe a person who is discriminated against or generally treated unequally within a state or other political jurisdiction. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... State racism is a concept used by French philosopher Michel Foucault to designate the reappropriation of the historical and political discourse of race struggle, In the late seventeenth century. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Ian Kershaw, Hitler: A Profile in Power, Chapter VI, first section (London, 1991, rev. 2001)
  2. ^ Dónal P O'Mathúna: "Human dignity in the Nazi era: implications for contemporary bioethics", BMC Med Ethics 2006. online March 14, 2006 (English)
  3. ^ Haeckel, Ernst (1876). The History of Creation, vol. I (English) pp. 170. New York: D. Appleton. “Among the Spartans all newly born children were subject to a careful examination or selection. All those that were weak, sickly, or affected with any bodily infirmity, were killed. Only the perfectly healthy and strong children were allowed to live, and they alone afterwards propagated the race.”
  4. ^ Hitler, Adolf (1961). Hitler's Secret Book (in English). New York: Grove Press, pp. 17-18. ISBN 0394620038. OCLC 9830111. 
  5. ^ Hawkins, Mike (1997). Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945: nature as model and nature as threat (in English). Cambridge University Press, pp. 276. ISBN 052157434X. OCLC 34705047. 
  6. ^ Robert Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988): 108.

Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Zweites Buch (Second Book and sometimes Secret Book) is a transcript of Adolf Hitlers unfiltered thoughts on a number of topics that was never published in his lifetime. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

Genocide Portal
General reference
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  • Bibliography
  • Deadly medicine
  • Euthanasia program
  • Mentally and physically handicapped
  • Nazi Persecution of the Disabled

 
 

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