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Encyclopedia > Nazi Party
National Socialist German Workers' Party
Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei
Image:Nazi eagle swastika.png
1919–1945
Political ideology National Socialism
Official Newspaper Völkischer Beobachter
See also Politics of Germany

Political parties in Germany
Elections in Germany Image File history File links Nazi_eagle_swastika. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... One of the last editions of the Völkischer Beobachter (April 20, 1945) hails Adolf Hitler as man of the century on the occasion of his 56th birthday, ten days before his suicide. ... Politics of Germany takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Federal Chancellor is the head of government, and of a plurality multi-party system. ... This is a list of political parties in Germany. ... Elections in Germany gives information on election and election results in Germany, including elections to the Federal Diet (the lower house of the federal parliament), the Landtage of the various states, and local elections. ...

The Nazi Party, officially: National Socialist German Workers' Party, (German: , abbreviated NSDAP), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. It was known as the German Workers' Party (DAP) before the name was changed in 1920. Image File history File links De-Nationalsozialistische_Deutsche_Arbeiterpartei. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... The German Workers Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, short DAP) was a briefly existing progenitor of the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party). ...


The party's leader, Adolf Hitler, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by president Paul von Hindenburg in 1933. Hitler rapidly established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich. Hitler redirects here. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Nazi ideology stressed the racial purity of the German people and persecuted those it perceived either as race enemies or Lebensunwertes Leben, that is "life unworthy of life". This included Jews, Slavs, Roma and homosexuals (See also Paragraph 175), along with Jehovah's Witnesses, the mentally or physically disabled, socialists, and communists. To carry out these beliefs, the party and the German state which it controlled organised the systematic murder of approximately six million Jews (in what has become known as the Holocaust), and about five million other people, mainly Russians, Poles and Roma. Many thousands of political enemies of the Nazi regime, along with homosexuals, people with disabilities, and religious minorities were also killed. Hitler's desire to create a territorial empire at the expense of Germany's neighbors was the principal cause of World War II, in which more than 60 million people died. Life unworthy of life (in German: Lebensunwertes Leben) was a Nazi designation for the segments of populace that, according to racial policies of the Third Reich, had no right to live and thus were to be exterminated. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Languages Romany, languages of native region Religions Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ... Paragraph 175 (known formally as §175 StGB; also known as Section 175 in English) was a provision of the German Criminal Code from 15 May 1871 to 10 March 1994. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys race based social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the center of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as life unworthy... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

Origins and early existence: 1918–1923

Nazism
Flag of the NSDAP 1920-1945 and of Nazi Germany 1933-1945

Politics Portal   v  d  e 

The party grew out of smaller political groups with a nationalist orientation that formed in the last years of World War I. In the early months of 1918, a party called the Freier Ausschuss für einen deutschen Arbeiterfrieden ("Free Committee for a German Workers' Peace") was created in Bremen, Germany. Anton Drexler, an avid German nationalist, formed a branch of this league on 7 March 1918, in Munich. Drexler was a local locksmith in Munich who had been a member of the militarist Fatherland Party during World War I, and was bitterly opposed to the armistice of November 1918 and to the revolutionary upheavals that followed in its wake. Drexler followed the typical views of militant nationalists of time, such as opposing the Treaty of Versailles, having anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist views, believing in the superiority of Germans who nationalists claimed to be part of the Aryan "master race" (herrenvolk) but he also accused international capitalism as being a Jewish-dominated movement and denounced capitalists for war profiteering in World War I.[1] Drexler saw the situation of political violence and instability in Germany as the result of the new Weimar Republic being out being out-of-touch with the masses, especially the lower classes.[2] Drexler emphasized the need for a synthesis of völkisch nationalism, a right-wing movement, with economic socialism to create a popular nationalist-oriented workers movement that could challenge the rise of communism, as well as the internationalist left and right in general. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Anton Drexler (June 13, 1884 - February 24, 1942) was a German Nazi political leader of 1920s. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... German Fatherland Party (in German Deutsche Vaterlandspartei) was a pro-war party in the German Empire. ... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . Left to right, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Herrenvolk redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ...


On January 5, 1919, Drexler, together with Gottfried Feder, Dietrich Eckart and Karl Harrer, and twenty workers from Munich's railway shops and some others met to discuss the creation of a new political party based on the political principles which Drexler endorsed.[3] Drexler proposed that the party be named the German-Socialist Workers Party, but Harrer objected to using the term "socialist" in the name, the issue was settled by removing the term from the name, and it was agreed that the party was named the German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP).[4] To ease concerns among potential right-wing nationalist supporters, Drexler made clear that unlike Marxists, the party supported middle-class citizens, and that the party's socialist policy was meant to give social welfare to German citizens deemed part of the Aryan race.[5] The became one of many völkisch movements that existed in Germany at the time. Like other völkisch groups, the DAP advocated the belief that Germany should become a unified "national community" (Volksgemeinschaft) rather than a society divided along class and party lines. This ideology was explicitly anti-Semitic as it declared that the "national community" must be judenfrei ("free of Jews"). Gottfried Feder Gottfried Feder (January 27, 1883 – September 24, 1941) was an economist, anti-semite and one of the early key members of the German Nazi party. ... Dietrich Eckart Dietrich Eckart (March 23, 1868 - December 26, 1923) was one of the early key members of the National-Socialist German Workers Party and one of the participants in the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. ... Karl Harrer (8 October 1890 - 5 September 1926) was a German journalist and politician, one of the founding members of the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers Party, DAP) in 1919, the party that soon would become the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP). ... The German Workers Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, short DAP) was a briefly existing progenitor of the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party). ... ... The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the Populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the organic. ...


From the outset, the DAP was violently opposed to non-nationalist political movements, especially on the left, including the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and particularly to the newly-formed Communist Party of Germany (KPD). Members of the DAP saw themselves as fighting against "Bolshevism" and anyone considered to be part of or aiding so-called "international Jewry". SPD redirects here. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... For a discussion of historical Jewish populations, along with estimates of current population from the World Jewish Population Survey, please see Jewish population. ...


Although officially called a political party, the DAP was a tiny group with fewer than 60 members. Nevertheless, it attracted the attention of the German authorities, who were suspicious of any organisation that appeared to have subversive tendencies. A young corporal, Adolf Hitler, was sent by German army intelligence to investigate the DAP. While attending a party meeting, Hitler got involved in a heated political argument and made an impression on the other party members with his oratory skills. He was invited to join and, after some deliberation, chose to accept. Among the party's earlier members were Rudolf Hess, Hans Frank and Alfred Rosenberg, all later prominent in the Nazi regime. Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... Hans Frank (May 23, 1900 – October 16, 1946) was a lawyer for the Nazi party during the 1920s and a senior official in Nazi Germany. ... Alfred Rosenberg around 1935   (January 12, 1893 Reval (today Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ...


Hitler became the 55th member of the DAP,[6] but he later claimed to be member number seven (he was in fact the seventh executive member of the party's central committee). Over the following months, the DAP continued to attract new members, while remaining too small to have any real significance in German politics. On 24 February 1920, the party added "National Socialist" to its official name, becoming the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), although Hitler earlier suggested the party to be renamed the "Social Revolutionary Party"; it was Rudolf Jung who persuaded Hitler to follow the NSDAP naming.[7] is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rudolf Jung (April 16, 1882 - December 11, 1945) was an instrumental force and agitator of Austrian National Socialism and, later on, became a member of the daughter party German Nazi Party. ...


Hitler soon discovered that he had talent as an orator, and his ability to draw new members, combined with his characteristic ruthlessness, soon made him the dominant figure in a small party. This was recognised by Drexler, and Hitler became party chairman on 28 July 1921. When the party had been first established, it consisted of a Leadership Board elected by the members, which in turn elected a Board Chairman. Hitler soon scrapped this arrangement. He acquired the title Führer ("leader") and, after a series of sharp internal conflicts, it was accepted that the party would be governed by the Führerprinzip ("leader principle"): Hitler was the sole leader of the party and he alone decided its policies and strategy. Hitler at this time saw the party as a revolutionary organization, whose aim was the violent overthrow of the Weimar Republic, which he saw as controlled by the socialists, Jews and the "November criminals" who had betrayed the German soldiers in 1918. The SA (also known as "Brownshirts" or "storm troopers") were founded as a party militia in 1921 and began violent attacks on other parties. is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Nazi propaganda poster. ... Adolf Hitler made believe he was the incarnation of the Führerprinzip The Führerprinzip, the German name for the leader principle, refers to a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda theory popular in post-World War I Germany. ... The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ...


Unlike Drexler and other party members, Hitler was less interested in the "socialist" aspect of "national socialism". Himself of provincial lower-middle-class origins, he disliked the mass working class of the big cities, and had no sympathy with the notions of attacking private property or the business class (which some early Nazis espoused). For Hitler the twin goals of the party were always German nationalist expansionism and anti-Semitism. These two goals were fused in his mind by his belief that Germany's external enemies - Britain, France and the Soviet Union - were controlled by the Jews, and that Germany's future wars of national expansion would necessarily entail a war against the Jews.[8] Although the party's 1925 program made some rhetorical concessions to the socialist element, this was never central to the party's policies. For Hitler and his principal lieutenants, national and racial issues were always dominant. This was symbolised by the adoption as the party emblem of the swastika or Hakenkreuz, at the time widely used in the western world. In German nationalist circles, the swastika was considered a symbol of an "Aryan race". This article is about the symbol. ... Postcard sent in June 1910 The swastika (gammadion, fylfot) symbol became a popular symbol of luck in the Western world in the early 20th century. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ...


During 1921 and 1922 the Nazi Party grew significantly, partly through Hitler's oratorical skills, partly through the SA's appeal to unemployed young men, and partly because there was a backlash against socialist and liberal politics in Bavaria as Germany's economic problems deepened and the weakness of the Weimar regime became apparent. The party recruited former World War I soldiers, to whom Hitler as a decorated frontline veteran could particularly appeal, small businessmen and disaffected former members of rival parties. The Hitler Youth was formed for the children of party members, although it remained small until the late 1920s. The party also formed groups in other parts of Germany. Julius Streicher in Nuremberg was an early recruit. Others to join the party at this time were former army officer Ernst Röhm, who became head of the SA, World War I flying ace Hermann Göring and Heinrich Himmler. In December 1920 the party acquired a newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter. Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ... Julius Streicher (February 12, 1885 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to and during World War II. He was the publisher of the Nazi Der Stürmer newspaper, which was to become a part of the Nazi propaganda machine. ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... Ernst Julius Röhm, also known as Ernst Roehm in English (Munich November 28, 1887 – July 2, 1934) was a German military officer, and the commander and co-founder of the Nazi Sturmabteilung — the SA. // Röhm was one of three children of Julius Röhm and his wife Emilie...   (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, designated successor to Adolf Hitler, and commander of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force). ... Himmler redirects here. ... One of the last editions of the Völkischer Beobachter (April 20, 1945) hails Adolf Hitler as man of the century on the occasion of his 56th birthday, ten days before his suicide. ...


In 1922, a party with similar policies and objectives came into power in Italy, the National Fascist Party under the leadership of the charismatic Benito Mussolini. The Italian Fascists used a straight-armed Roman salute and wore black-shirted uniforms. Hitler was inspired by Mussolini and the Fascists and borrowed their use of the straight-armed salute as a Nazi salute. When the Fascists came to power in 1922 in Italy through their coup attempt called the "March on Rome", Hitler began planning his own coup which would materialize one year later. The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian fascism). ... Mussolini redirects here. ... The Oath of the Horatii (1784), by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down. ... For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ...


In January 1923 France occupied the Ruhr industrial region as a result of Germany's failure to meet its reparations payments. This led to economic chaos, the resignation of Wilhelm Cuno's government and an attempt by the Communist Party (KPD) to stage a revolution. The reaction to these events was an upsurge of nationalist sentiment. Nazi Party membership grew sharply, to about 20,000.[9] By November, Hitler had decided that the time was right for an attempt to seize power in Munich, in the hope that the Reichswehr (the post-war German army) would mutiny against the Berlin government and join his revolt. In this he was influenced by former General Erich Ludendorff, who had become a supporter though not a member of the Nazis. For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... World War I reparations refers to the payments and transfers of property and equipment that the German state was forced to make following its defeat during World War I. Article 231 of the Treaty (the war guilt clause) held Germany solely responsible for all loss and damage suffered by the... Dr. jur. ... Reichswehr flag (1921-1935). ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865–December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ...


On the night of 8 November, the Nazis used a patriotic rally in a Munich beer hall to launch an attempted putsch (coup d'état). The so-called Beer hall putsch attempt failed almost at once when the local Reichswehr commanders refused to support it. On the morning of 9 November the Nazis staged a march of about 2,000 supporters through Munich in an attempt to rally support. Troops opened fire and 16 Nazis were killed. Hitler, Ludendorff and a number of others were arrested, and were tried for treason in March 1924. Hitler and his associates were given very lenient prison sentences. While Hitler was in prison he wrote his semi-autobiographical political manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle").[10] is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Coup redirects here. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ...


Meanwhile the Nazi Party ceased to officially exist as it was banned, though with support of the nationalist Volkish Social Bloc, the Nazi party continued to operate under the name of the "German Party" (Deutsche Partei or DP) from 1924 to 1925.[11] The Nazis failed to remain unified in the German Party, as in the north, the right-wing Volkish nationalist supporters of the Nazis moved to the new German Volkish Freedom Party, leaving the north's left-wing Nazi members, such as Joseph Goebbels retaining support for the party.[12] REDIRECT Völkisch_movement ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ...


Rise to power: 1925–1933

Adolf Hitler was released in December 1924. In the following year he effectively re-founded and reorganized the Nazi Party, with himself as its undisputed Leader. The new Nazi Party was no longer a paramilitary organization, and disavowed any intention of taking power by force. In any case, the economic and political situation had stabilised and the extremist upsurge of 1923 had faded, so there was no prospect of further revolutionary adventures. The Nazi Party of 1925 was divided into the "Leadership Corps" (Korps der politischen Leiter), appointed by Hitler, and the general membership (Parteimitglieder). The party and the SA were kept separate and the legal aspect of the party's work was emphasized. In a sign of this, the party began to admit women. The SA and the SS (founded in April 1925 as Hitler's bodyguard, commanded by Himmler) were described as "support groups", and all members of these groups had first to become regular party members. SS redirects here. ...


The party's nominal Deputy Leader was Rudolf Hess, but he had no real power in the party. By the early 1930s the senior leaders of the party after Hitler were Himmler, Goebbels and Göring. Beneath the Leadership Corps were the party's regional leaders, the Gauleiter, each of whom commanded the party in his Gau ("region"). There were 98 Gaue for Germany and an additional seven for Austria, the Sudetenland (in Czechoslovakia), Danzig and the Saarland (then under French occupation). Joseph Goebbels began his ascent through the party hierarchy as Gauleiter of Berlin-Brandenburg in 1926. Streicher was Gauleiter of Franconia, where he published his anti-Semitic newspaper Der Stürmer. Beneath the Gauleiter were lower-level officials, the Kreisleiter ("county leaders"), Zellenleiter ("cell leaders") and Blockleiter ("block leaders"). This was a strictly hierarchical structure in which orders flowed from the top and unquestioning loyalty was given to superiors. Only the SA retained some autonomy. The SA was composed largely of unemployed workers, and many SA men took the Nazis' socialist rhetoric seriously. At this time the Nazi salute (borrowed from the Italian fascists) and the greeting "Heil Hitler!" were adopted throughout the party. Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. ... Gau can denote Gau, the German term for shire. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... For other uses, see Franconia (disambiguation). ... 1943 Stürmer issue: Satan Der Stürmer (literally, The Stormer) was a weekly Nazi newspaper published by Julius Streicher from 1923 to the end of World War II in 1945, with brief suspensions in circulation due to legal difficulties. ... A Blockleiter (block leader) was the lowest official of the NSDAP, responsible for the political supervision of a neighbourhood or (city) block and formed the link between the NSDAP and the general population. ... The Roman salute is a closed finger, flat-palm-down hand raised at an angle (usually 45 degrees) and was used by the Roman Republic. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...

NSDAP election poster in Vienna in 1930. Translation: "We demand freedom and bread".
NSDAP election poster in Vienna in 1930. Translation: "We demand freedom and bread".

The Nazis contested elections to the national parliament, the Reichstag, and to the state legislatures, the Landtags, from 1924, although at first with little success. The "National-Socialist Freedom Movement" polled 3% of the vote in the December 1924 Reichstag elections, and this fell to 2.6% in 1928. State elections produced similar results. Despite these poor results, and despite Germany's relative political stability and prosperity during the later 1920s, the Nazi Party continued to grow. This was partly because Hitler, who had no administrative ability, left the party organisation to the head of the secretariat, Philipp Bouhler, the party treasurer Franz Xaver Schwarz and business manager Max Amann. The party also had a very capable propaganda head in Gregor Strasser, who was promoted to national organisational leader in January 1928. These men gave the party efficient recruitment and organisational structures. The party also owed its growth to the gradual fading away of competitor nationalist groups, such as the DNVP. As Hitler became the recognised head of the German nationalists, other groups declined or were absorbed. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... A Landtag (Diet) is a representative assembly or parliament in German speaking countries with some legislative authority. ... The 4th German federal parliament elections of December 1924 (Weimar Republic). ... The 18th German federal election of 1928, under the Weimar Republic. ... Philipp Bouhler (born 11 September 1899 in Munich; died 19 May 1945 in Dachau (suicide)) was a Nazi German government official, head of the Führers Chancellery and leader of the euthanasia programme, the so-called Aktion T4. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Max Amann Max Amann (November 24, 1891 - March 30, 1957) was a Nazi official with the honorary rank of SS-Obergruppenführer, politician and journalist. ... Gregor Strasser Gregor Strasser (variant German spelling Straßer) (May 31, 1892, Geisenfeld, Germany - June 30, 1934, Berlin) was a politician of the German Nazi Party (NSDAP). ... The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ...

1932 election poster: "Wir Arbeiter sind erwacht -- Wir wählen Nationalsozialisten — Liste 2 "We labourers have awoken -- We vote National-Socialists -- List 2"

The party also expanded successfully in the 1920s beyond its Bavarian base. In fact Catholic Bavaria and Westphalia, along with working-class "Red Berlin", were always the Nazis' weakest areas electorally, and even during the Third Reich itself. The areas of strongest Nazi support were in rural Protestant areas, such as Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg, Pomerania and East Prussia. Depressed working-class areas such as Thuringia also gave a strong Nazi vote, while the workers of the Ruhr and Hamburg largely remained loyal to the SPD, the KPD or the Catholic Centre Party. Nuremberg remained a party stronghold, and the first Nuremberg rally was held there in 1927. These rallies soon became massive displays of Nazi paramilitary power, and attracted many recruits. The Nazis' strongest appeal was to the lower middle-class – farmers, public servants, teachers, small businessmen – who had suffered most from the inflation of the 1920s and who feared Bolshevism more than anything else. The small business class were receptive to Hitler's anti-Semitism, since they blamed Jewish big business for their economic problems. University students, disappointed at being too young to have served in World War I and attracted by the Nazis' radical rhetoric, also became a strong Nazi constituency. By 1929 the party had 130,000 members.[13] Image File history File links Nsdap1932. ... Image File history File links Nsdap1932. ... For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... The name Mecklenburg derives from a castle named Mikilenburg (Old German: big castle), located between the cities of Schwerin and Wismar. ... Pommern redirects here. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... The Centre Party aka Center Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... The Nuremberg Rally (officially, Reichsparteitag, meaning national party convention) was the annual rally of the NSDAP (Nazi Party) in the years 1923 to 1938 in Germany. ...


Despite these strengths, the Nazi Party might never have come to power had it not been for the Great Depression. By 1930 the German economy was beset with mass unemployment and widespread business failures. The SPD and the KPD parties were bitterly divided and unable to formulate an effective solution; this gave the Nazis their opportunity, and Hitler's message, blaming the crisis on the Jewish financiers and the Bolsheviks (also controlled by the Jews) resonated with wide sections of the electorate. At the September 1930 Reichstag elections the Nazis won 18.3% of the vote and became the second-largest party in the Reichstag after the SPD. Hitler proved to be a highly effective campaigner, pioneering the use of radio and aircraft for this purpose. His dismissal of Strasser and appointment of Goebbels as the party’s propaganda chief was a major factor. While Strasser had used his position to promote his own version of national socialism, Goebbels was totally loyal to Hitler and worked only to burnish Hitler's image. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The German election of 1930, under the Weimar Republic. ...


The 1930 elections changed the German political landscape by weakening the traditional nationalist parties, the DNVP and the DVP, leaving the Nazis as the chief alternative to the discredited SPD and the Zentrum, whose leader, Heinrich Brüning, headed a weak minority government. The inability of the democratic parties to form a united front, the self-imposed isolation of the KPD and the continued decline of the economy all played into Hitler's hands. He now came to be seen as de facto leader of the opposition, and donations poured into the Nazi Party's coffers. Some major business figures such as Fritz Thyssen were Nazi supporters and gave generously,[14] but many other businessmen were suspicious of the extreme nationalist tendencies of the Nazis and preferred to support the traditional conservative parties instead.[15] Heinrich Brüning on a Centre Party election poster (German Resistance Museum, Berlin) Dr. Heinrich Brüning ( ) (November 26, 1885 – March 30, 1970) was a German politician during the Weimer Republic. ... Friedrich (Fritz) Thyssen (November 9, 1873, Mülheim an der Ruhr – February 8, 1951, Martínez, San Isidro Partido, Greater Buenos Aires) was a German businessman born into one of Germanys leading industrial families. ...


During 1931 and into 1932 Germany's political crisis deepened. In March 1932 Hitler ran for President against the incumbent President Paul von Hindenburg, polling 30.1% in the first round and 36.8% in the second. By now the SA had 400,000 members and its running street battles with the SPD and KPD paramilitaries (who also fought each other) reduced some German cities to combat zones. Paradoxically, although the Nazis were among the main instigators of this disorder, part of Hitler's appeal to a frightened and demoralised middle class was his promise to restore law and order. Overt anti-Semitism was played down in official Nazi rhetoric, but was never far from the surface. Germans voted for Hitler primarily because of his promises to revive the economy (by unspecified means), to restore German greatness and overturn the Treaty of Versailles, and to save Germany from communism. Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . Left to right, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France...


At the July 1932 Reichstag election the Nazis made another leap forward, polling 37.4% and becoming the largest party in the Reichstag by a wide margin. Furthermore, the Nazis and the KPD between them won 52% of the vote and a majority of seats. Since both parties opposed the established political system and neither would join or support any ministry, this made the formation of a majority government impossible. The result was weak ministries governing by decree. Under Stalin's directives, the KPD maintained its policy of treating the SPD as the main enemy, calling them "social fascists", thereby splintering opposition to the Nazis. Later, both the SPD and the KPD accused each other of having facilitated Hitler's rise to power by their unwillingness to compromise. The German election of July 1932, under the Weimar Republic, saw the Nazis become the biggest party in the Reichstag, although without a majority of the seats. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... During the late 1920s and early 30s political Communist Party leaders linked to the Comintern (such as Rajani Palme Dutt and Joseph Stalin) argued that society had entered a third period in which social fascism posed a threat. ...


Chancellor Franz von Papen called another Reichstag election in November, hoping to find a way out of this impasse. The result was the same, with the Nazis and the KPD winning 50% of the vote between them and more than half the seats, rendering this Reichstag no more workable than its predecessor. But support for the Nazis fell to 33.1%, suggesting that the Nazi surge had passed its peak – possibly because the worst of the Depression had passed, possibly because some middle-class voters had supported Hitler in July as a protest but had now drawn back from the prospect of actually putting him into power. The Nazis interpreted the result as a warning that they must seize power before their moment passed. Had the other parties united, this could have been prevented, but their shortsightedness made a united front impossible. Papen, his successor Kurt von Schleicher and the nationalist press magnate Alfred Hugenberg spent December and January in political intrigues which eventually persuaded President Hindenburg that it was safe to appoint Hitler Reich Chancellor at the head of a cabinet which included only a minority of Nazi ministers, which he did on 30 January 1933. Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ...   (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... Alfred Hugenberg (June 19, 1865 - March 12, 1951) was an influential German businessman and politician. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Upon becoming Chancellor, Hitler immediately addressed rumours that were circulating that claimed that his government wished to restore the Hohenzollern monarchy.[16] Hitler responded with an aggressive rejection of the notion, even going so far as to claim that monarchists were "more dangerous than Communists!"[17] and warned monarchists "to keep their hands off" of Germany.[18] This demonstrated Hitler's determination to become the sole ruler of Germany.[citation needed] The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ...

Nazi Party Election Results
Date Votes (in thousands) Percentage Seats in Reichstag Background
May 1924 1,918.3 6.5 32 Hitler in prison
December 1924 907.3 3.0 14 Hitler is released from prison
May 1928 810.1 2.6 12  
September 1930 6,409.6 18.3 107 After the financial crisis
July 1932 13,745.8 37.4 230 After Hitler was candidate for presidency
November 1932 11,737.0 33.1 196  
March 1933 17,277.0 43.9 288 During Hitler's term as Chancellor of Germany

The 3rd German parliamentary federal elections in the Weimar Republic took place in May 1924. ... The 4th German federal parliament elections of December 1924 (Weimar Republic). ... The 18th German federal election of 1928, under the Weimar Republic. ... The German election of 1930, under the Weimar Republic. ... The German election of July 1932, under the Weimar Republic, saw the Nazis become the biggest party in the Reichstag, although without a majority of the seats. ... The 8th German federal election of November 1932 (Weimar Republic) saw support for the Nazi party drop significantly, due to increased support for the KPD and DNVP. Categories: Elections in Germany | 1932 elections ... The 9th and last German federal election of the Weimar Republic was held on March 5, 1933, and was significant in that it was the last election to be held in Germany before World War II. Due to the success of the Nazi Party in the poll, its leader, and...

In power: 1933–1945

The flag of the NSDAP, which became one of two official German national flags in 1933 (the other being the Imperial black-white-red tri-color). In 1935, the flag became Germany's sole national flag until 1945.
The flag of the NSDAP, which became one of two official German national flags in 1933 (the other being the Imperial black-white-red tri-color). In 1935, the flag became Germany's sole national flag until 1945.

On 27 February 1933, the Reichstag building was set on fire. This Reichstag fire was promptly blamed on a communist conspiracy, and used as an excuse by the Nazis to close the KPD's offices, ban its press and arrest its leaders. Furthermore, Hitler convinced President von Hindenburg to sign the "Reichstag Fire Decree", suspending most of the human rights provided for by the 1919 constitution of the Weimar Republic. A further decree enabled preventive detention of all communist leaders, amongst many thousands of others. Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... A German newspapers final issue, announcing its own prohibition (Verbot) by the police authorities on the basis of the Reichstag fire decree The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung in German) is the common name of the decree issued by German president Paul von Hindenburg in direct response to the Reichstag... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature...


Since the new government lacked a majority in parliament, Hitler held a new election in March of 1933. With the communists eliminated, the Nazis dominated the election with 43.9%, and with their Nationalist (DNVP) allies, achieved a parliamentary majority (51.8%). The 9th and last German federal election of the Weimar Republic was held on March 5, 1933, and was significant in that it was the last election to be held in Germany before World War II. Due to the success of the Nazi Party in the poll, its leader, and...


A further decisive step in the Nazi seizure of power (Gleichschaltung) was the "Enabling Act", which granted the cabinet (and therefore Hitler) legislative powers. The Enabling Act effectively abolished the separation of powers, which was a basic principle enshrined in the German Constitution. As such, the Act represented an amendment to the Constitution and required a two-thirds majority in parliament in order to pass. Hitler needed the votes of the Centre Party, which he obtained after promising certain guarantees to the Centre's chairman (Ludwig Kaas). The Centre Party's thirty-one votes, added to the votes of the fragmented middle-class parties, the Nationalists, and the NSDAP itself, gave Hitler the right to rule by decree and to further suspend many civil liberties. The communists were naturally opposed to the Enabling Act; but the KPD could not vote against it, since it had been banned. This left the SPD as the sole party in the Reichstag who stood against the Act, but their votes were not sufficient to block the Act's passing. As punishment for their dissent, the Social Democrats became the second party banned by the Nazis (on 22 June), following the move of their leadership to Prague. The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Monsignor Ludwig Kaas (23 May 1881-15 April 1952) was a Roman Catholic priest, and a prominent German politician during the Weimar Republic. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ...


The Enabling Act, termed for four years, gave the government the power to enact laws without parliamentary approval, to enact foreign treaties abroad and even to make changes to the Constitution. The Nazis did not keep their promises to their political allies, quickly banning all other parties just as they had banned the communists and socialists. Following this, the Nazi government banned the formation of new parties on 14 July 1933, turning Germany into a one-party state. Hitler kept the Reichstag as a rubber stamp parliament, while the Reichsrat, though never abolished, was stripped of any effective power. The legislative bodies of the German states soon followed in the same manner, with the German federal government taking over most state and local legislative powers. is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... Rubber stamp, is a political metaphor referring to an institution that has little power and rarely disagrees with more powerful organs, though usually it formally has much greater power. ... The Reichsrat was one of the two legislative bodies in Germany under the Weimar constitution, the other one being the Reichstag. ...


Hitler also tried to incorporate the Churches into his new regime. On 23 March 1933 he had called them "most important factors" for the maintenance of German well-being. In regard to the Roman Catholic Church, he proposed a Reichskonkordat between Germany and the Holy See, that was signed in July. In regard to the Protestant Church, he used church elections to push the Nazi-inspired "German Christians" to power. This, however, provoked the internal opposition of the "Confessing Church". is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Reichskonkordat is the concordat between the Holy See and the German Reich, signed in 1933. ... The Confessing Church (German: Bekennende Kirche) was a Christian resistance movement in Nazi Germany. ...


Membership of the Hitler Youth was made compulsory for German teenagers, and served as a conveyor belt to party membership. But the Nazi Party did not immediately purge the state administration of all opponents. The career civil service was left in place, and only gradually were its senior levels taken over by Nazis. In some places people who were opposed to the Nazi regime retained their positions for a long time. Examples included Johannes Popitz, finance minister of the largest German state, Prussia, until 1944 and an active oppositionist, and Ernst von Weizsäcker, under-secretary of state at the Foreign Ministry, who protected a resistance network in his ministry. The armed forces banned party membership and retained their independence for some years. Johannes Popitz Johannes Popitz (born 2 December 1884 in Leipzig; died 2 February 1945 in Berlin) was a Prussian finance minister and an opponent of the Third Reich. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Ernst Freiherr von Weizsäcker (born May 25, 1882 in Stuttgart, died August 4, 1951 in Lindau) was a German diplomat. ...


Nevertheless the period 1933–39 saw the gradual fusion of the Nazi Party and the German state, as the party arrogated more and more power to itself at the expense of professional civil servants. This led to increasing inefficiency and confusion in administration, which was compounded by Hitler’s deliberate policy of preventing any of his underlings accumulating too much power, and of dividing responsibility among a plethora of state and party bureaucracies, many of which had overlapping functions. This administrative muddle later had severe consequences. Many party officials also lapsed rapidly into corruption, taking their lead from Göring, who looted and plundered both state property and wealth appropriated from the Jews. By the mid-1930s the party as an institution was increasingly unpopular with the German public, although this did not affect the personal standing of Hitler, who maintained a powerful hold over the great majority of the German people until at least 1943.


The SA under Röhm's leadership soon became a major problem for the party. Many of the 700,000 members of this well-armed working-class militia took the "socialist" element of "national socialism" seriously, and soon began to demand that the Nazi regime broaden its attack from SPD and KPD activists and Jews to also include the capitalist system. In addition, Röhm and his associates saw the SA as the army of the new revolutionary Nazi state, replacing the old aristocratic officer corps. The army was still outside party control, and Hitler feared that it might stage a putsch if its leaders felt threatened with an SA take-over. The business community was also alarmed by the SA’s socialist rhetoric, with which, as noted earlier, Hitler had no sympathy.


In June 1934, therefore, Hitler, using the SS and Gestapo under Himmler's command, staged a coup against the SA, having Röhm and about 700 others killed. This Night of the Long Knives broke the power of the SA, while greatly increasing the power of Himmler and the SS, who emerged as the real executive arm of the Nazi Party. The business community was reassured and largely reconciled to Nazi rule. The army leaders were so grateful that the Defence Minister, Werner von Blomberg, who was not a Nazi, on his own initiative had all army members swear a personal oath to Hitler as "führer" of the German state. These events marked a decisive turning point in the Nazi take-over of Germany. The borders between the party and the state became increasingly blurred, and Hitler's personal will increasingly had the force of law, although the independence of the state bureaucracy was never completely eclipsed. The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... For other uses, see Night of the Long Knives (disambiguation). ... Werner von Blomberg. ...


The effect of the purge of the SA was to redirect the energies of the Nazi Party away from social issues and towards racial enemies, namely the Jews, whose civil, economic and political rights were steadily restricted, culminating in the passage of the Nuremberg Laws of September 1935, which stripped them of their citizenship and banned marriage and sexual relations between Jews and "Aryans". After a lull in anti-Semitic agitation during 1936 and 1937 (partly because of the 1936 Olympic Games), the Nazis returned to the attack in November 1938, launching the pogrom known as Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass"), in which at least 100 Jews were killed and 30,000 arrested and sent to concentration camps, and thousands of Jewish homes, businesses, synagogues and community facilities were attacked and burned. This satisfied the party radicals for a while, but the regional party bosses remained a persistent lobby for more radical action against the Jews, until they were finally deported to their deaths in 1942 and 1943. The Nuremberg Laws (German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom that occurred throughout Nazi Germany on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ...


Paradoxically, the more completely the Nazi regime dominated German society, the less relevant the Nazi Party became as an organization within the regime's power structure. Hitler's rule was highly personalised, and the power of his subordinates such as Himmler and Goebbels depended on Hitler's favour and their success in interpreting his desires rather than on their nominal positions within the party. The party had no governing body or formal decision-making process – no Politburo, no Central Committee, no Party Congresses. The "party chancellery" headed by Hess theoretically ran the party, but in reality it had no influence because Hess himself was a marginal figure within the regime. It was not until 1941, when Hess flew off on a quixotic "peace mission" to Britain, and was succeeded by Martin Bormann, that the party chancellery regained its power – but this was mainly because Hitler had a high opinion of Bormann and allowed him to act as his political secretary. Real power in the regime was exercised by an axis of Hitler's office, Himmler's SS and Goebbels's Propaganda Ministry. Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... Quixotism (IPA: [ˈkwɪksəˌtɪzm]) is the description of a person or an act that is caught up in the romance of noble deeds and the pursuit of unreachable goals. ... Martin Bormann Martin Bormann (June 17, 1900 - c. ...


War and eclipse

With the outbreak of war in 1939, the party to some extent came back into its own, particularly after 1941 as the war dragged on and the military situation began to turn against Germany. As Hitler withdrew from domestic matters to concentrate on military matters, leaving no one in a position to make decisions, civil administration ground to a halt and the German state became steadily more disorganized and ineffective. In these circumstances the Gauleiters, who were nearly all old-guard Nazis and fanatical Hitler loyalists, increasingly took control of rationing, labour direction, the allocation of housing, air-raid protection and the issuing of the multiplicity of permits Germans needed to carry on their lives and businesses. They served to some extent as ombudsmen for the citizenry against a remote and ineffective state. They also agitated for the removal of the remaining Jews from Germany, using the shortage of housing in German cities as a result of Allied bombing as a pretext. As the Allied armies closed in on Germany, the Gauleiters often took charge of last-ditch resistance: Karl Hanke's prolonged defence of Breslau was an outstanding example. In Berlin the teenagers of the Hitler Youth, under the direction of their fanatical leader Artur Axmann, fought and died in large numbers against the invading Soviet armies. For the Canadian television series, see Ombudsman (TV series). ... Karl August Hanke (24 August 1903 - 8 June 1945) was a Nazi Party official who served as Gauleiter of Lower Silesia from 1940 to 1945. ... Wrocław. ... 16. ...


The army was the last area of the German state to succumb to the Nazi Party, and it never did so entirely. The pre-1933 Reichswehr had banned its members joining political parties, and this was maintained for some time after 1933. Nazis of military age joined the Waffen SS, the military wing of the SS. But in 1938 both Defence Minister Blomberg and the army chief of staff, General Werner von Fritsch, were removed from office after trumped-up scandals. Hitler made himself Defence Minister, and the new army leaders, Generals Franz Halder and Walther von Brauchitsch, were in awe of Hitler and unable to openly oppose his will. Nevertheless Halder actively supported unsuccessful plans to stage a coup and remove Hitler from power during the 1938 crisis over Czechoslovakia, and again in 1939. Brauchitsch knew of these plans but would not support them. Only after 1939 the ban on Nazis joining the German Army -- traditionally a stronghold of Protestant monarchist conservatism opposed to any mass political movements -- was lifted, and a number of generals, notably Walther von Reichenau and Walter Model, became fanatical Nazis. It was not until 1944 that a group of officers opposed to the Nazi regime staged a serious attempt to overthrow Hitler in the July 20 plot, but they never had the full support of the officer corps. The German Navy however was always firmly loyal to Hitler and its commander, Karl Dönitz, was Hitler's designated successor in 1945. Recruitment poster of the Waffen-SS. (Enlistment at the fulfillment of the 17th year of age, meaning at the age of 18) The Waffen-SS (German for Armed SS, literally Weapons SS) was the combat arm of the Schutzstaffel (Protective Squadron) or SS. In contrast to the Wehrmacht, Germanys... Werner Freiherr von Fritsch (4 August 1880 in Benrath - 22 September 1939 Praga near Warsaw) was a prominent Wehrmacht officer, member of the German High Command, and the first German general to die in the Second World War. ... Franz Halder Franz Ritter Halder (June 30, 1884 – April 2, 1972) was a German General and the head of the Army General Staff from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler. ... Walther von Brauchitsch in 1939. ... Walther von Reichenau (August 16, 1884 - January 17, 1942), German military commander, was the son of a Prussian general and joined the German Army in 1902. ... Otto Moritz Walter Model (IPA: ) (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. He is noted for his defensive battles in the latter half of the war, mostly on the Eastern Front but also in the west, and for his... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ) (born 16 September 1891; died 24 December 1980) was a German naval leader, who commanded the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) during the second half of World War II. Dönitz was also President of Germany for 23 days after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ...


By 1945 the Nazi Party and the Nazi state were no longer capable of separation. When the German armies surrendered to the Allies in May 1945 and the German state ceased to exist, the Nazi Party, despite its 8.5 million nominal members and its nation-wide organisational structure, also ceased to exist. Its most fanatical members either killed themselves, fled Germany or were arrested. The rank-and-file burned their party cards and sought to blend back into German society as quickly as possible. By the end of the war Nazism had been reduced to little more than loyalty to the person of Adolf Hitler, and his death released most Nazis from their oaths and any desire to keep the party alive. In his Political Testament, Hitler appointed Bormann "Party Minister", but nominated no successor as leader of the party -- a recognition that a Nazi Party without Hitler had no basis for existence. The Nazi Party was formally banned by the Allied occupation authorities and an extensive process of denazification was carried out to remove former Nazis from the administration, judiciary, universities, schools and press of occupied Germany. There was virtually no resistance or attempt to organize a Nazi underground. By the time normal political life resumed in western Germany in 1949, Nazism was effectively extinct. In eastern Germany, the new Communist authorities took their vengeance on any former high-ranking Nazis that they could find, and the survival of any kind of Nazi movement was out of the question. Denazification (German: Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. ... West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ...


Since 1949 there have been several attempts to organise ultra-nationalist parties in Germany, but none of these parties were overtly Nazi or tried to use the symbols and slogans of the Nazi Party. The German Reich Party (Deutsche Reichspartei, DRP), containing many former Nazis, had five members in the first Bundestag elected in 1949, but they were defeated in 1953. By the 1960s its chairman Adolf von Thadden realised it had no future and it was wound up in 1964. Thadden (whose half-sister Elisabeth von Thadden was executed by the Nazis for her role in the German Resistance), then formed a new, broader party, the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD), which still exists, led today by Udo Voigt. The NPD has survived several attempts to have it banned by the Federal Constitutional Court as a neo-Nazi party. It has occasionally won seats in the Landtags of several German states, primarily in the territories of the former German Democratic Republic, but has never reached the 5% threshold needed to win seats in the Bundestag. The NPD had 5,300 registered party members in 2004, and its main platform is opposition to immigration. There is open debate on rather facism is rightwing or not. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226) Social Democratic Party of Germany (222) Free Democratic Party (61) The Left. ... Adolf von Thadden (July 7, 1921–July 16, 1996 in Bad Oeynhausen) was a leading far right German politician. ... Elisabeth Adelheid Hildegard von Thadden (born 29 July 1890 in Mohrungen, East Prussia, nowadays Morąg, Poland; died 9 September 1944 in Berlin, executed) was a German educator who founded a private school that nowadays bears her name, and an outspoken critic of the National Socialist (Nazi) régime. ... Bust of Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (Memorial to the German Resistance, Berlin) The German Resistance refers to those individuals and groups in Nazi Germany who opposed the regime of Adolf Hitler between 1933 and 1945. ... The National Democratic Party of Germany (German: , NPD) is a German nationalist political party. ... Udo Voigt (born 1952) is the political chief of the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD), which is a right-extremist political party. ... The Bundesverfassungsgericht The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) is a special court established by the German constitutional document, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... “East Germany” redirects here. ...


Party composition

General membership

The general membership of the Nazi Party, known as the Parteimitglieder, mainly consisted of the urban and rural lower middle classes. 7% belonged to the upper class, another 7% were peasants, 35% were industrial workers and 51% were what can be described as middle class. The largest occupational group were medical doctors.[citation needed] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Upper class is a concept in sociology that refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


When it came to power in 1933 the Nazi Party had over 2 million members. Once in power, it attracted many more members and by the time of its dissolution it had 8.5 million members. Many of these were nominal members who joined for careerist reasons,[citation needed] but the party nevertheless had an active membership of at least a million, including virtually all the holders of senior positions in the national government.


Military membership

Nazi members with military ambitions were encouraged to join the Waffen SS, but a great number enlisted in the Wehrmacht and even more were drafted for service after World War II began. Early regulations required that all Wehrmacht members be non-political, and therefore any Nazi member joining in the 1930s was required to resign from the Nazi Party. Recruitment poster of the Waffen-SS. (Enlistment at the fulfillment of the 17th year of age, meaning at the age of 18) The Waffen-SS (German for Armed SS, literally Weapons SS) was the combat arm of the Schutzstaffel (Protective Squadron) or SS. In contrast to the Wehrmacht, Germanys... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


This regulation was soon waived, however, and there is ample evidence that full Nazi Party members served in the Wehrmacht in particular after the outbreak of World War II. The Wehrmacht Reserves also saw a high number of senior Nazis enlisting, with such figures as Reinhard Heydrich and Fritz Todt joining the Luftwaffe, and Major Ronald von Brysonstofen of the Waffen SS, as well as Karl Hanke who served in the Army. Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (including the Gestapo, SD and Kripo Nazi police agencies) and Reichsprotektor (Reich Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia. ... Fritz Todt in the uniform of a major general of the Luftwaffe Fritz Todt (September 4, 1891 – February 8, 1942) was an German engineer and senior Nazi figure, the founder of Organisation Todt. ... Karl August Hanke (24 August 1903 - 8 June 1945) was a Nazi Party official who served as Gauleiter of Lower Silesia from 1940 to 1945. ...


Student membership

In 1926, the NSDAP formed a special division to engage the student population, known as the National Socialist German Students' League (NSDStB). The National Socialist German Students League (in German, Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Studentenbund; abbreviated NSDStB), was founded in 1926 as an organ of the NSDAP (NSDAP) with the mission of integrating University-level education and academic life within the framework of the National Socialist worldview. ...


Paramilitary groups

In addition to the NSDAP proper, several paramilitary groups existed which "supported" Nazi aims. All such members of these paramilitary organizations were required to become regular Nazi Party members first and could then enlist in the group of their choice. A vast system of Nazi party paramilitary ranks developed for each of the various paramilitary groups. Nazi party paramilitary ranks were pseudo-military titles which were used by the National Socialist German Workers Party between the years of 1920 and 1945. ...


The major Nazi Party paramilitary groups were as follows:

The Hitler Youth was a paramilitary group divided into an adult leadership corps and a general membership open to boys aged fourteen to eighteen. SS redirects here. ... The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... The National Socialist Flyers Corps (NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded in the early 1930s during the years when a German Air Force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. ... The National Socialist Motor Corps (Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrerkorps), also known as the National Socialist Drivers Corps, was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi party that existed between the years of 1931 and 1945. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ...


Party symbols

  • Nazi Flags: The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden ("blood and soil"). Black, white and red were in fact the colors of the old North German Confederation flag (invented by Otto von Bismarck, based on the Prussian colours black and white). In 1871, with the foundation of the German Reich, the flag of the North German Confederation became the German Reichsflagge ("Reich's flag"). Black, white and red became the colours of the nationalists through the following history (for example World War I and the Weimar Republic).
  • German Eagle: The Nazi party used the traditional German eagle, standing atop of a swastika inside a wreath of oak leaves. When the eagle is looking to its left shoulder, it symbolises the Nazi party, and was therefore called the Parteiadler. In contrast, when the eagle is looking to its right shoulder, it symbolises the country (Reich), and was therefore called the Reichsadler. After the Nazi party came to power in Germany, they forced the replacement of the traditional version of the German eagle with their modified party symbol throughout the country and all its institutions.

Slogans and songs

  • Nazi slogan: "Heil Hitler"

Sieg Heil is a German phrase, which literally means Hail [to] Victory. ... Adolf Hitler and others at a Nazi party rally in Nuremberg, Germany, performing the salute. ... Horst Wessel The Horst-Wessel-Lied (Horst Wessel Song), also known as Die Fahne hoch (The flag on high, from its opening line), was the anthem of the Nazi Party from 1930 to 1945. ...

See also

Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Ex-Nazis are those who were once Nazis and resigned from the party. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... The National Socialist Program, also referred to as the 25-point program or 25-point plan was developed to formulate the party policies of, first, the Austrian German Workers Party (or DAP) and was copied later by Adolf Hitlers Nazi party. ... The NSDAP/AO was the Foreign Organization of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). ... This article is about the symbol. ... Sino-German cooperation played a great role in Chinese history of the early and mid 20th century. ... The Socialist Reich Party (German: Sozialistische Reichspartei) was a German political party founded in the aftermath of the Second World War, in 1949, as an openly National Socialist and Hitler-admiring split from the Deutsche Rechtspartei. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Spector, Robert Melvin. World Without Civilization: Mass Murder And The Holocaust, History, And Analysis. University of America Press. Pp. 137.
  2. ^ Spector, Pp. 137.
  3. ^ Carlsten, F. L. The Rise of Fascism. University of California Press. Pp. 91
  4. ^ Carlsten, Pp. 91
  5. ^ Spector, Pp. 137.
  6. ^ Kershaw 2001, p. 127
  7. ^ Heiden 1933, p. 821
  8. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. 
  9. ^ Kershaw 2001, p. 179
  10. ^ Hitler 1998
  11. ^ Jablonsky, David. 1989. The Nazi Party in Dissolution: Hitler and the Verbotzeit, 1923-1925. Routledge. Pp. 57
  12. ^ Jablonsky, Pp. 57
  13. ^ Kershaw 2001, p. 310
  14. ^ Evans 2005, p. 372
  15. ^ Kershaw 2001, pp. 358–359
  16. ^ Zalampas, Michael. 1989. Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich in American Magazines. Popular Press. Pp.46.
  17. ^ Zalampas, Pp.46.
  18. ^ Zalampas, Pp.46.

This article is about the state. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

References

  • Evans, R. J. (2005), The Third Reich in power, 1933–1939, London: Penguin Books, ISBN 0-7139-9649-8 .
  • Hitler, Adolf (1998-09-15), Mein Kampf, Mariner Books, ISBN 0395925037 .
  • Heiden, Konrad (1933-09-15), “Les débuts du national-socialisme”, Revue d'Allemagne 7 (71) .
  • Kershaw, I. (2001), Hitler, New York: Longman, ISBN 0-582-47280-6 .

This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mariner Books, a division of Houghton Mifflin, was established in 1997 as a publisher of fiction, non fiction, and poetry in paperback. ... Konrad Heiden (7 August 1901-18 June 1966) was an influential journalist and historian of the Weimar Republic and Nazi eras, most noted for his biographies of German dictator Adolf Hitler. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the state. ... Longman is a firm of English publishers. ...

External links

  • Hitler's Mein Kampf (full text)
  • (German) Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) 1920–1933 at Lebendiges Museum Online.
  • (German) Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) 1933–1945 at Lebendiges Museum Online.
  • Organisationsbuch NSDAP An encyclopedic reference guide to the Nazi party, organisations, uniforms, flags etc. published by the party itself

This is a list of political parties in Germany. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... The Communist Party Opposition (in German, Kommunistische Partei-Opposition or KPD-Opposition - KPD-O, KPDO or KPO) was a communist organisation functioning in Germany from 1928 to 1939 or 40. ... The General German Workers Association, in German Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein, ADAV) was founded on 23 May 1863 by Ferdinand Lassalle and existed under this name until 1875, when it combined with August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknechts SDAP to form the Socialist Workers Party of Germany, what is now the... For the Independent Social Democratic Party of Romania, see Romanian Social Democratic Party (defunct). ... SPD redirects here. ... The Social Democratic Workers Party of Germany, in German Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SDAP, was a German left-wing political party founded in 1869 in Eisenach, Germany by, among others, Wilhelm Liebknecht and August Bebel. ... The Socialist Workers Party of Germany, in German Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SAP / SAPD, was the name of two political parties in Germany. ... The Bavarian Peoples Party (Bayerische Volkspartei) was the Bavarian branch of the Centre Party, which broke off from the rest of the party in 1919 to pursue a more conservative, Bavarian particularist, course. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... The German Democratic Party, or Deutsche Demokratische Partei (DDP), was founded by leaders of the former Progressive Peoples Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei) and the left wing of the National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) in the early days of the Weimar Republic. ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Historical liberal parties ... This page is about the German Peoples Party which existed between 1918 and 1933. ... The German Progress Party (Deutsche Fortschrittspartei or DFP) was the first modern political party with a programm in Germany, founded by the liberal members of the Prussian Lower House in 6 June 1861. ... The National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) was a German political party which flourished between 1867 and 1918. ... The Conservative Peoples Party (Konservative Volkspartei or KVP) was a short-lived German political party of the moderate right. ... The Free Conservative Party (Freikonservative Partei or FKP) was a German political party of the Second Reich, founded in 1866. ... The German Conservative Party (Deutsche Konservative Partei or DKP) was a German political party of the Second Reich, founded in 1876. ... 1924 electoral poster, using the Admiral Tirpitz as a figurehead The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... The German Workers Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, short DAP) was a briefly existing progenitor of the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party). ...


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