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Encyclopedia > Nazi
Part of the Politics series on
Nazism

Nazi organizations Politics is a process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Image File history File links Nazi_Swastika. ...


National Socialist German Workers' Party
Sturmabteilung
Schutzstaffel
Hitler Youth
Lebensborn
National-Socialist German Workers Party (German: ), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... The seal of SA The (SA, German for Storm Division, usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ... The infamous double-sig rune SS insignia. ... The Hitler Youth (German: Hitler-Jugend, abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that existed from 1922 to 1945. ... Lebensborn was one of several programs initiated by Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler to secure the racial heredity of the Third Reich. ...


Nazism in history


Early Nazi Timeline
Hitler's rise to power
Nazi Germany
Night of the Long Knives
Nuremberg Rallies
Kristallnacht
The Holocaust
Nuremberg Trials
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Historians such as Ian Kershaw note the links between the Nazis and the German political and economic establishment, as well as the significance of the Night of the Long Knives in which Hitler purged much of the left-leaning elements (such as the Strasserites and Ernst Röhm) in the... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Night of the Long Knives (June 30 and Sunday July 1, 1934) (German, Nacht der langen Messer), also known as Reichsmordwoche, Operation Hummingbird or the Blood Purge, was a lethal purge of Adolf Hitlers potential political rivals in the Sturmabteilung (SA; also known as storm troopers or brownshirts). ... The Nazi partys 1936 Nuremberg Rally was its largest. ... Dots represent large cities where synagogues were destroyed. ... Selection at the Auschwitz camp in 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ... A German newspaper announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ...


Nazi concepts


Glossary of the Third Reich
Hitler's political beliefs
Gleichschaltung
Racial policy of Nazi Germany
Führerprinzip
Lebensraum
Positive Christianity
Volk
This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans that were specifically used in Nazi Germany. ... Historians and biographers note some difficulty in attributing the political beliefs of Adolf Hitler. ... The German word Gleichschaltung Ⓗ Ⓘ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... The Racial Policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, and including measures aimed primarily against Jews. ... Adolf Hitler made believe he was the incarnation of the Führerprinzip The Führerprinzip, the German name for the leader principle, refers to a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure. ... Lebensraum, the German term for habitat (used both in ecological and sociological contexts; literally, living space) is used in English to refer to a motivation for Nazi Germanys expansionist policies, to provide extra space for the growth of the German population. ... A Sun cross, adopted as the sign of the German Faith Movement because it resembles both a cross and a swastika Positive Christianity is a term used in Nazi ideology to refer to a form of Christianity consistent with Nazism. ... Volk is a German (and Dutch) word meaning people or folk. It is commonly used as prefix in words such as Volksentscheid (plebiscite) or Völkerbund (League of Nations), or the car manufacturer Volkswagen (literally, peoples car). A number of völkisch movements were set up in Germany after...


Nazi political parties and movements outside Germany


Canadian National Socialist Unity Party
German-American Bund
Nasjonal Samling
Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging
National Socialist Bloc
National Socialist League. The Parti national social chrétien was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. ... The German-American Bund, or German American Federation, was an American Nazi organization established in the 1930s. ... Nasjonal Samling (Norwegian for National Gathering or National Unification) was a fascist party in Norway before and during World War II, founded on May 17, 1933 by Vidkun Quisling and Johan Bernhard Hjort. ... The Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging (NSB, National Socialist Movement) was a Nazi political party in the Netherlands during the 1930s and during the German occupation in World War II, when it was the only allowed political party. ... National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket), a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local nazi units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in Umeå. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB. The leader... The National Socialist League was a short lived political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War. ...


Nazi Eugenics


Nazi eugenics
Aryan race
Doctors' Trial
German Blood Certificate
Lebensborn
Life unworthy of life
Mischling
Nazi physicians
Nazi human experimentation
Nazism and race
Nordic theory
Nur für Deutsche
Nuremberg Trials
Racial policy of Nazi Germany
Racial purity
Reich Citizenship Law
Scientific racism
T-4 Euthanasia Program
Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys nazism and race social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the centre of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as Life Unworthy of Life, including but not limited to: criminal, degenerate, dissident, feeble-minded, homosexual, idle... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Karl Brandt at the Doctors Trial The Doctors Trial (or, officially, United States of America v. ... German Blood Certificate A German Blood Certificate (Genehmigung) was a document provided to Mischlinge (those with partial Jewish heritage) during the Second World War that allowed exemption from Germanys racial laws. ... Lebensborn was one of several programs initiated by Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler to secure the racial heredity of the Third Reich. ... Life unworthy of life (in German: Lebensunwertes Leben) was a Nazi term for those human beings who, by reason of their racial or genetic background, the Nazis believed had no right to life and should be murdered. ... Mischling is a term coined during the Third Reich era in Germany to denote persons deemed to have partial Jewish ancestry. ... Nazi human experimentation occurred during World War II, the Nazi regime in Germany conducted human medical experimentation on large numbers of people held in its concentration camps. ... Nazism and race Nazis claimed to scientifically measure a strict hierarchy among races; at the top was the Aryan race (minus the Slavs, who were seen as below Aryan), then lesser races. ... Nordic theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of racial supremacy prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, which claimed that North European peoples constitute a “master race” because of their supposed innate racial capacity for leadership. ... Nur für Deutsche (German: For Germans only): during World War II, in many German-occupied countries, signs bearing this admonition were posted at entrances to parks, cafes, cinemas, theaters and other facilities reserved for Germans only. ... A German newspaper announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... The Racial Policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, and including measures aimed primarily against Jews. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with miscegenation. ... The Reich Citizenship Law was formed in Germany during World War II while Adolf Hitler was dictator. ... Scientific racism is racist propaganda disguised as science. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmark is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ...


Related subjects


Nazism and religion
Nazi mysticism
Nazi architecture
Hitler salute
Mein Kampf
Swastika
Völkisch movement
Anti-Semitism
Führer
Neo-Nazism
Fascism
The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... Nazi architecture was an integral part of the Nazi partys plans to create a cultural and spiritual rebirth in Germany as part of the Third Reich. ... The Hitler salute (Hitlergruß), also known in German during World War II as the Deutscher Gruß (German Greeting), and in English as the Nazi salute, is a variant of the Roman salute adopted by the Nazi party as a sign of loyalty to its leader Adolf Hitler. ... Cover of Mein Kampf Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle, My Battle or My Fight) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... A right-facing Swastika in decorative Hindu form For the town in Ontario, see Swastika, Ontario. ... The hard-to-translate word völkisch has connotations of folksy, folkloric, and populist. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... (Fuehrer in English when umlauts are not used) is a proper noun meaning leader or guide in the German language. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Relevant lists


List of Nazi Party leaders and officials
List of fascists
List of Adolf Hitler books
List of Adolf Hitler speeches
Nazi Party (NSDAP) leaders and officials Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Gunter dAlquen Ludolf von Alvensleben Max Amann Benno von Arent Heinz Auerswald... This is a list of persons who self-identify as fascists or adherents to a variant of fascism or related ideology (e. ... Adolf Hitlers Mein Kampf. ... List of Adolf Hitler speeches is an attempt to aggregate all of Adolf Hitlers speeches. ...

Politics Portal   v d e 
"National Socialism" redirects here. For other uses, see National Socialism (disambiguation).

Nazism was the ideology held by the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, commonly called NSDAP or the Nazi Party). The word Nazism is most often used in connection with the government of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 (the "Third Reich"). Nazism combines racism, nationalism, anti-Semitism and anti-communism. The Nazis believed in the superiority of an Aryan master race, advocated individual leadership in a strong, centralized government, and claimed to be defending Germany and the entire Western world against communism and Jewish subversion. Since the rise of Adolf Hitler in the 1930s, and particularly since World War II, the term National Socialism almost always refers to Nazism and, in particular, the Nazi Party as well as derivatives such as modern neo-Nazism. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... National-Socialist German Workers Party (German: ), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... An African-American man drinks out of the colored only water cooler at a racially segregated street car terminal in the United States in 1939. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is a form of identity that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Anti-communism is an ideology of opposition to communist organization, government and ideology. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... The master race (German: Herrenrasse, ) is a concept in Nazi ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic people represent an ideal and pure race.The pure race is generally pictured as a person with blonde hair and blue eyes in this concept. ... Adolf Hitler made believe he was the incarnation of the Führerprinzip The Führerprinzip, the German name for the leader principle, refers to a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... This article describes some ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity; for a consideration of the Jewish religion, refer to the article Judaism. ...


Nazi ideology was overwhelmingly shaped by one man, Adolf Hitler, who joined the Nazi party when the ideology was young, and went up the ranks to be leader of the movement. Thus, Nazism is almost identical to Hitler's political beliefs. The link between Hitler and Nazism is so strong that Nazism itself is sometimes considered merely a collection of one man's often contradictory ideas rather than a coherent ideology. Hitler redirects here. ... Historians and biographers note some difficulty in attributing the political beliefs of Adolf Hitler. ...


Nazism has been outlawed in modern Germany (including all types of its propaganda), yet remnants and revivalists, known as "Neo-Nazis", continue to operate in Germany and abroad. The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ...


Originally, the term Nazi was coined as a quick way of referring to Hitler's party, which had a particularly long official name. It was derived from the first four letters of the first word in that official name, Nationalsozialistische (German for "National Socialist", often abbreviated NS or Nazi, pronounced NOT-see in both German and English). The word Nazi was also meant to mirror the term Sozi (a common and slightly derogatory term for the Nazis' main opponents, the socialists in Germany). However, the Nazis from the era of the Third Reich rarely referred to themselves as "Nazis", preferring the official term "National Socialists" instead. Nazi was most commonly used as a pejorative term, but its use became so widespread that, currently, some Neo-Nazis also use it to describe themselves. The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party ( German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ...


In both popular thought and academic scholarship, Nazism is generally considered a type of fascism - with "fascism" defined so as to include most of the other authoritarian, nationalist, totalitarian, and right-wing movements that developed in Europe at about the same time as Nazism. The Nazis themselves, however, rejected the notion that they were part of any larger movement - fascist or otherwise. Nazism claimed to be unique and exclusively German, unrelated to other ideologies or other cultures. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ...


Following World War II and the Holocaust, the term "Nazi" and most other words and symbols associated with Nazism (such as the swastika) acquired extremely negative connotations in Europe and North America. Calling someone a "Nazi" or even suggesting that one has something in common with Nazism is considered an insult. People of all political persuasions often attempt to draw parallels between their opponents and the Nazis in order to put their opponents in a negative light. This is a fallacy called reductio ad Hitlerum. See also Godwin's law and fascist (epithet). Combatants Allies: Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France/Free France, United States, China, Canada, India, Australia, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, Greece, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma, Slovakia Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8... Selection at the Auschwitz camp in 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ... A right-facing Swastika in decorative Hindu form For the town in Ontario, see Swastika, Ontario. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... An insult is a statement or action which affronts or demeans someone. ... A fallacy is a component of an argument that is demonstrably flawed in its logic or form, thus rendering the argument invalid (except in the case of begging the question) in whole. ... The term reductio ad Hitlerum (sometimes rendered reductio ad Hitlerem; whimsical Latin for reduction to Hitler) was originally coined by University of Chicago professor and ethicist Leo Strauss. ... Godwins Law (also Godwins Rule of Nazi Analogies) is a mainstay of internet culture, an adage formulated by Mike Godwin in 1990. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with fascism (epithet). ...

Contents


Nazi theory

According to Mein Kampf (My Struggle), Adolf Hitler first began to develop his views through observations he made while living in Austria. He concluded that there was a racial, religious, and cultural hierarchy, and he placed "Aryans" at the top as the superior race and Jews, "Gypsies" (the Roma) and Slavic people at the bottom. He closely examined and questioned the policies of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, where as a citizen by birth, Hitler lived during the Empire's last throes of life. He believed that its ethnic and linguistic diversity had weakened the Empire and helped to create dissention. Further, he saw democracy as a destabilizing force because it placed power in the hands of ethnic minorities who, he claimed, "weakened and destabilized" the Empire by dividing it against itself. Cover of Mein Kampf Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle, My Battle or My Fight) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and someone who engages in this study is called a linguist. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ...


Nazi thought, an extension of various philosophies, came together at a critical time for Germany; The nation had just lost World War I and was in the midst of a period of great economic depression and instability. The Dolchstosslegende, which held that the war effort was sabotaged internally, brought to question the extent of profiteering and the supposed "lack of patriotism" displayed during the war. In the realm of politics, these charges were directed towards the Social Democrats and the Weimar government, as the latter had been accused of "selling out" the country. Additionally, the Dolchstosslegende encouraged many to look at "non-German" Germans critically, especially those with potential "extra-national loyalties", such as the Jews. Such an appeal capitalized on anti-Semitic sentiments. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First World War, also known as... In economics, a depression is a term commonly used for a sustained downturn in the economy. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende or Dolchstosslegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda and belief among bitter post-World War I German... The act of price gouging in an undersupplied market. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


Nazi rationale also invested heavily in the militarist belief that great nations grow from military power and maintained order, which in turn grow "naturally" from "rational, civilized cultures". The Nazi Party appealed to German nationalists and national pride, capitalizing on irredentist and revanchist sentiments as well as aversions to various aspects of modernist thinking. Many ethnic Germans still had heartfelt ties to the goal of creating a greater Germany and some felt that the use of military force was necessary to achieve it. Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Irredentism is an international relations term that involves advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... Revanchism (from French revanche, revenge) is a term used since the 1870s to describe political campaigns to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country during previous wars and strifes, sometimes quite distant in time. ... Modernism is a cultural movement that generally includes the progressive art and architecture, music, literature and design which emerged in the decades before 1914. ... Grossdeutschland (literally Greater Germany) is a term that has been used in two separate contexts over history. ...


Alfred Rosenberg's racial philosophy wholly embraced the Aryan Invasion Theory, which traced Aryan peoples in ancient Iran invading the Indus Valley Civilization, and carrying with them great knowledge and science that had been preserved from the antediluvian world. This "antediluvian world" referred to Thule, the speculative pre-Flood/Ice Age origin of the Aryan race, and is often tied to ideas of Atlantis. Most of the leadership and the founders of the Nazi Party were made up of members of the "Thule Gesellschaft" (the Thule Society), which romanticized the Aryan race through theology and ritual. Alfred Rosenberg Alfred Rosenberg (January 12, 1893, Reval (Tallinn) Estonia, then part of the Russian Empire–October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1500 BCE) was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and Northern India. ... According to the Bible, the only survivors from the antediluvian period were Noah and his family. ... Thule as Tile on the Carta Marina by Olaus Magnus. ... Atlantis is an island whose existence and location have never been confirmed. ...


Hitler also claimed that a nation was the highest creation of a race, and great nations (literally large nations) were the creation of homogeneous populations of great races, working together. These nations developed cultures that naturally grew from races with "natural good health, and aggressive, intelligent, courageous traits". The weakest nations, Hitler said, were those of impure or mongrel races, because they had divided, quarrelling, and therefore weak cultures. Worst of all were seen to be the parasitic Untermensch (Subhumans), mainly Jews, but also Gypsies, homosexuals, the disabled and so called anti-socials, all of whom were considered lebensunwertes Leben ("Life-unworthy life") owing to their perceived deficiency and inferiority, as well as their wandering, nationless invasions ("the International Jew"). The persecution of homosexuals as part of the Holocaust has seen increasing scholarly attention since the 1990s. One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... For other senses of this word, see race (disambiguation). ... The term Untermensch (German for under man, sub-man) is the term from Nazi racial ideology used to describe inferior nations. ... Prior to the Third Reich, Berlin was considered a liberal city, with many gay bars, nightclubs and cabarets. ... Selection at the Auschwitz camp in 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ...


According to Nazism, it is an obvious mistake to permit or encourage multilingualism and multiculturalism within a nation. Fundamental to the Nazi goal was the unification of all German-speaking peoples, "unjustly" divided into different Nation States. Hitler claimed that nations that could not defend their territory did not deserve it. Slave races he thought of as less worthy to exist than "master races". In particular, if a master race should require room to live (Lebensraum), he thought such a race should have the right to displace the inferior indigenous races. The term multilingualism can refer to rather different phenomena. ... Multiculturalism is a public policy approach for managing cultural diversity in a multiethnic society, officially stressing mutual respect and tolerance for cultural differences within a countrys borders. ... The term Germanic tribes applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... A nation-state is a specific form of state (a political entity), which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation (a cultural entity), and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... Lebensraum, the German term for habitat (used both in ecological and sociological contexts; literally, living space) is used in English to refer to a motivation for Nazi Germanys expansionist policies, to provide extra space for the growth of the German population. ... The term has no universal, standard or fixed definition. ...


"Races without homelands", Hitler proclaimed, were "parasitic races", and the richer the members of a "parasitic race" were, the more "virulent" the parasitism was thought to be. A "master race" could therefore, according to the Nazi doctrine, easily strengthen itself by eliminating "parasitic races" from its homeland. This was the given rationalization for the Nazis' later oppression and elimination of Jews, Gypsies, Czechs, Poles, the mentally and physically handicapped, homosexuals and others not belonging to these groups or categories that were part of the Holocaust. Hitler and his living space doctrine found immense popularity among the largely condensed German population of over sixty million. The Wehrmacht, Waffen-SS and other German soldiers as well as civilian paramilitary groups in occupied territories were responsible for the deaths of an estimated eleven million men, women, and children in concentration camps, prisoner-of-war camps, labor camps, and death camps such as Auschwitz and Treblinka. The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... German cavalry and motorized units entering Poland from East Prussia during the Polish Campaign of 1939 Wehrmacht (Defence force) was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... Auschwitz, Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau, KL Auschwitz is the name used to identify the largest of the Nazi German extermination camps, along with a number of concentration camps, comprising three main camps and 40 to 50 sub-camps. ... Treblinka was a Nazi Germany extermination camp, part of the Holocaust, the systematic murder of Jews and others. ...


Hitler extended his rationalizations into a religious doctrine, underpinned by his criticism of traditional Catholicism. In particular, and closely related to Positive Christianity, Hitler objected to Catholicism's ungrounded and international character - that is, it did not pertain to an exclusive race and national culture. At the same time, and somewhat contradictorily, the Nazis combined elements of Germany's Lutheran community tradition with its Northern European, organic pagan past. Elements of militarism found their way into Hitler's own theology, as he preached that his was a "true" or "master" religion, because it would "create mastery" and avoid comforting lies. Those who preached love and tolerance, "in contravention to the facts", were said to be "slave" or "false" religions. The man who recognized these "truths", Hitler continued, was said to be a "natural leader", and those who denied it were said to be "natural slaves". "Slaves" – especially intelligent ones, he claimed – were always attempting to hinder their masters by promoting false religious and political doctrines. Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... In Christianity, the term Catholicism (from Greek: καθολικός (katholikos), meaning general or universal) has two main ecclesiastical meanings, described in Websters Dictionary as: The whole orthodox Christian church, or adherence thereto. ... A Sun cross, adopted as the sign of the German Faith Movement because it resembles both a cross and a swastika Positive Christianity is a term used in Nazi ideology to refer to a form of Christianity consistent with Nazism. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Organic describes forms, methods and patterns found in living systems such as organisation of cells, to populations, communities, and ecosystems. ... Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning a country dweller or civilian) is a blanket term which has come to connote a broad set of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices of natural or polytheistic religions, as opposed to the Abrahamic monotheistic religions. ... The Chinese character for love (æ„›) —its parts indicating (top to bottom): That which gives breath (ie. ...


The ideological roots which became German "National Socialism" were based on numerous sources in European history, drawing especially from Romantic 19th Century idealism, and from a biological reading of Friedrich Nietzsche's thoughts on "breeding upwards" toward the goal of an Übermensch (Superhuman). Hitler was an avid reader and received ideas that were later to influence Nazism from traceable publications, such as those of the Germanenorden (Germanic Order) or the Thule society. He also adopted many populist ideas such as limiting profits, abolishing rents and generously increasing social benefits - but only for Germans. Romanticism was a secular and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Idealism is an approach to philosophical enquiry which asserts that direct and immediate knowledge can only be had of ideas or mental pictures. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (IPA:) (October 15, 1844–August 25, 1900), a German philologist and philosopher, produced critiques of contemporary culture, religion, and philosophy centered around a basic question regarding the positive and negative attitudes toward life of various systems of morality. ... An , (sometimes translated as Overman, or superman) is a concept exposited by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. ... Der Germanenorden war ein Geheimbund der von prominenten Okkultisten 1912 gegründet wurde. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the...


Hitler's theories were not only attractive to Germans: people in positions of wealth and power in other nations are said to have seen them as beneficial. Examples are Henry Ford, founder of the Ford Motor Company, and Eugene Schueller, founder of L'Oréal. Nevertheless, the support for these theories was highest among the general population of Germany. Further information: Ford Motor Company Time Magazine, January 14, 1935 Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company. ... The Ford Motor Company (usually called Ford; almost never called FoMoCo), (NYSE: F) is an American multinational corporation that manufactures automobiles and is the third largest automaker in the world. ... Eugène Schueller was a chemist and the founder of LOréal, the worlds leading company in cosmetics and beauty. ... The LOréal Group Euronext: FR0000120321, headquartered in Clichy, France, is the worlds leading cosmetics and beauty company. ...


It must be noted that Nazism, as a doctrine is far from being homogeneous and can indeed be divided into various sub-ideologies. During the 20s and 30s, there were two dominant NSDAP factions. There were the followers of Otto Strasser, the so-called Strasserites and the followers of Adolf Hitler or what could be termed Hitlerites. Look up Homogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


The Strasserite faction eventually fell afoul of Hitler, when Otto Strasser was expelled from the party in 1930, and his attempt to create an oppositional 'left-block' in the form of the Black Front failed. The remainder of the faction, which was to be found mainly in the ranks of the SA was purged in the Night of the Long Knives, which also saw the murder of Gregor Strasser, Otto's brother. After this point, the Hitlerite faction became dominant. Categories: Nazism ... Otto Strasser formed the Black Front after his expulsion from the NSDAP in 1930. ... The Night of the Long Knives (June 30 and Sunday July 1, 1934) (German, Nacht der langen Messer), also known as Reichsmordwoche, Operation Hummingbird or the Blood Purge, was a lethal purge of Adolf Hitlers potential political rivals in the Sturmabteilung (SA; also known as storm troopers or brownshirts). ... Gregor Strasser Gregor Strasser (May 31, 1892 - June 30, 1934) was an early leader of the German National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP) or Nazi Party. ...


In the post war era, Strasserism has enjoyed something of a revival with many neo-Nazi groups openly proclaiming themselves to be 'Strasserite'. Whether they genuinely eschrew Hitlerism in favour of Strasserism, or whether they simply think that by distancing Nazism from Hitler they can somehow make the ideology more acceptable is a matter of intense debate however.


The significance of homosexuals in the Nazi Party is considered minor by most historians. However, some tiny groups like the International Committee for Holocaust Truth, and authors Scott Lively and Kevin E. Abrams in The Pink Swastika: Homosexuality in the Nazi Party, argue that many homosexuals were involved in the inner circles of the Nazi party: Ernst Röhm of the SA (whose execution was thinly rationalized as being based on his homosexuality), Horst Wessel, Max Bielas, and others. This perspective is denounced as hateful propaganda by most human rights associations and groups, stirring heated debates and accusations of censorship and "hate-speech" from both sides. Most historians and scholars of fascism do not take the work of Lively and Abrams seriously, and dismiss it as part of a Christian Right campaign against gay rights. Conversely, some Nazi supporters argue that such claims are simply more attempts to discredit Nazi ideology. A photographic portrait of Ernst Röhm. ... Horst Wessel (September 9, 1907 in Bielefeld – February 23, 1930 in Berlin) was a German Nazi known for being the author of lyrics to the song Die Fahne hoch (Horst Wessel Lied) and for being glorified by the Nazi regime as a martyr of the early years of the movement. ... Christian Right is a term collectively referring to a spectrum of right-wing Christian political and social movements and organizations characterized by their strong support of social values they deem traditional in western countries. ...


Since World War II, in which Nazi Germany was allied with Fascist Italy, there has been a widely held view among historians and the general population that Nazism and Fascism are closely related. The term Fascism is often used in a very broad sense, to refer to a variety of authoritarian nationalist political movements that exist or existed in many countries. As such, Nazism is usually classified as a particular version of Fascism. Combatants Allies: Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France/Free France, United States, China, Canada, India, Australia, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, Greece, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma, Slovakia Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... World map Authoritarianism (red) Authoritarianism describes a form of government characterized by strict obedience to the authority of the state, which often maintains and enforces social control through the use of oppressive measures. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is a form of identity that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the...


However, if one restricts the definition of Fascism to those movements and governments that called themselves Fascist (e.g. Benito Mussolini's regime in Italy and the British Union of Fascists), a number of differences between Nazism and Fascism can be observed. Fascists tended to believe that all elements in society should be unified through Corporatism to form an "Organic State"; this meant that Fascists often had no strong opinion on the question of race, as it was only the State and nation that mattered. Nazism, on the other hand, emphasized the Aryan race or "Volk" over state to the point where the state simply became a means through which the Aryan race could realize its true destiny. Although they would later collaborate, tensions rose between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany over the increasing possibility of an Austria-Germany merger, which would create a more powerful Greater Germany. In 1934, the Austrofascist Chancellor of Austria, Englebert Dolfuss, was assassinated by Austrian Nazis, who acted on behalf of Hitler and the Party. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. ... The flag of the British Union of Fascists showing the Flash and Circle symbolic of action within unity The British Union of Fascists (BUF) was a political party of the 1930s in the United Kingdom. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian corporativismo) is a political system in which legislative power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, and professional groups. ... For other senses of this word, see race (disambiguation). ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... Aryan is an English language word derived from the Vedas which was written in India. ... For information on the military unit see Großdeutschland Division. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Supporters of the Austrian Christian Social Party in 1934 Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... Engelbert Dollfuss Engelbert Dollfuss (German: Dollfuß) (October 4, 1892 - July 25, 1934) was an Austrian politician and dictator. ...


Key elements of the Nazi ideology

The National Socialist Program, also referred to as the 25-point program, was developed to formulate the party policies of, first, the Austrian German Workers Party (or DAP) and was copied later by Adolf Hitlers Nazi party. ... An African-American man drinks out of the colored only water cooler at a racially segregated street car terminal in the United States in 1939. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Selection at the Auschwitz camp in 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ... The master race (German: Herrenrasse, Herrenvolk) is a concept in Nazi ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic people represent an ideal and pure race. It derives from nineteenth century racial theory, which posited a hierarchy of races placing African Bushmen and Australian Aborigines at the bottom of the... Lebensborn was one of several programs initiated by Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler to secure the racial heredity of the Third Reich. ... Anti-Slavism was the movement that existed throughout World War II, parallel with the Anti-Semitism. ... Nordic theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... Marxism is the philosophy, social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German socialist philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary. ... Anti-communism is an ideology of opposition to communist organization, government and ideology. ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... The word homophobia means fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Freedom of speech. ... Adolf Hitler made believe he was the incarnation of the Führerprinzip The Führerprinzip, the German name for the leader principle, refers to a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία -ευ good, θανατος death) is the practice of ending the life of an individual or an animal who is suffering from a terminal disease or a chronically painful condition in a painless or minimally painful way either by lethal injection, drug overdose, or by the withdrawal of medical support. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... Environmental movement is a term often used for any social or political movement directed towards the preservation, restoration, or enhancement of the natural environment. ... Modern art is a general term used for most of the artistic production from the late 19th century until approximately the 1970s. ... Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... Lebensraum, the German term for habitat (used both in ecological and sociological contexts; literally, living space) is used in English to refer to a motivation for Nazi Germanys expansionist policies, to provide extra space for the growth of the German population. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Nazism and romanticism

According to Bertrand Russell, Nazism comes from a different tradition than that of either Liberalism or Marxism. Thus, to understand values of Nazism, it is necessary to explore this connection, without trivializing the movement as it was in its peak years in the 1930s and dismissing it as little more than racism. Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, and mathematician, working mostly in the 20th century. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... An African-American man drinks out of the colored only water cooler at a racially segregated street car terminal in the United States in 1939. ...


Some historians say that the anti-Semitic element, which did not exist in the sister fascism movements in Italy and Spain, was adopted by Hitler to gain popularity for the movement. [citation needed]Personal accounts by August Kubizek, Hitler's childhood friend, have varied, offering ambiguous claims that anti-Semitism did and did not date back to Hitler's youth.[1]Ironically, Germany had been a haven for many Jews over the years, including influencial families such as the Rothschilds, although World War I and the Dolchstosslegende helped to end that legacy. Likewise, although it had always existed, anti-Semitism was rife in the former German Empire. Historians universally accept that Nazism's mass acceptance depended upon nationalistic and anti-immigrantion appeals (which also could include xenophobia and anti-Semitism) and a patriotic flattery toward the wounded collective pride of defeated World War I veterans. Early support for the Nazis, displayed in various parades, came from the old conservative order that was the military. Others have focused on anti-Semitism (rather than general anti-immigration) claiming it to have been central to Hitler's Weltanschauung, or world view. August Kubizek was a childhood friend and one time room mate of Adolf Hitler. ... ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A world view, also spelled as worldview is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (look onto the world). The German word is also in wide use in English, as well as the translated form world outlook. ...


Many see strong connections to the values of Nazism and the irrationalist tradition of the romantic movement of the early 19th century. Strength, passion, frank declarations of feelings, and deep devotion to family and community were valued by the Nazis though first expressed by many Romantic artists, musicians, and writers. German romanticism in particular expressed these values. For instance, Hitler identified closely with the music of Richard Wagner, who harbored anti-Semitic views as the author of Das Judenthum in der Musik. Some claim that he was one of Hitler's role models, a comment of Kubizek's which is also disputed. Nevertheless, Wagner's most important operas, the Ring cycle, express Aryanist ideals, and contain what some people interpret as anti-Semitic caricatures. [citation needed] The Bayreuth Festival was also promoted by Hitler. Irrationality is talking or acting without regard of rationality. ... Romanticism was a secular and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up Artist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... In the philosophy, art, and culture of German-speaking countries, German Romanticism was the dominant cultural movement of much of the nineteenth century. ... Music is a form of expression in the medium of time using the structures of tones and silence. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – February 13, 1883) was an influential German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ... Das Judenthum in der Musik (Judaism in Music or Jewishness in Music) is an anti-Semitic article which was published in the Neue Zeitschrift. ... Sydney Opera House: one of the worlds most recognisable opera houses and landmarks. ... The Ring of the Nibelung or, in the original German, Der Ring des Nibelungen, is a series of four epic operas. ... Bayreuth Festspielhaus, as seen in 1882 The annual Bayreuth Festival in Bayreuth, Germany is devoted principally (but not exclusively) to performances of operas by the 19th century German composer Richard Wagner. ...


The idealization of tradition, folklore, classical thought, leadership (as exemplified by Frederick the Great), their rejection of the liberalism of the Weimar Republic and the decision to call the German state the Third Reich (which traces back to the medieval First Reich and the pre-Weimar Second Reich) has led many to regard the Nazis as reactionary. Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... Flag of Germany, 1919–1933 The Weimar Republic (German Weimarer Republik, IPA: []) is the historical name for the republic that governed Germany from 1919 to 1933. ... (help· info) (), is the German word for realm or empire, cognate with Scandinavian rike/rige, Dutch rijk and English ric as found in bishopric. ... The Holy Roman Empire should not be mistaken for the Roman Empire (31 B.C.–A.D. 476). ... Flag of Germany, 1919–1933 The Weimar Republic (German Weimarer Republik, IPA: []) is the historical name for the republic that governed Germany from 1919 to 1933. ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet typically applied to extreme ideological conservatism, especially that which wishes to return to a real or imagined old order of things, and which is willing to use coercive means to do so. ...


Nazi mysticism

Thule Society emblem

Nazi mysticism is a term used to describe a philosophical undercurrent of Nazism which denotes the combination of Nazism with occultism, esotericism, cryptohistory, and/or the paranormal. The esoteric Thule Society and Germanenorden were secret societies which while only a small part of the Völkisch movement, led into the Nazi party.[1] Thule-gesellschaft_emblem, I got it from [1], which states that it is public domain. ... The Thule-Gesellschaft (Thule Society) was founded August 17, 1918, by Rudolf von Sebottendorff. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. ... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... Esotericism is knowledge suitable only for an inner circle of the initiated, advanced or privileged. ... For a discussion of the political aspects of historical revisionism, see main article historical revisionism (political) In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism is the reexamination of the accepted facts and interpretations of history, with an... Anomalous phenomena are phenomena which are observed and for which there are no suitable explanations in the context of a specific body of scientific knowledge, e. ... The Thule-Gesellschaft (Thule Society) was founded August 17, 1918, by Rudolf von Sebottendorff. ... Der Germanenorden war ein Geheimbund der von prominenten Okkultisten 1912 gegründet wurde. ... A secret society is a social organization that requires its members to conceal certain activities—such as rites of initiation or club ceremonies—from outsiders. ... The hard-to-translate word völkisch has connotations of folksy, folkloric, and populist. ...


Dietrich Eckart, a member of Thule, actually coached Hitler on his public speaking skills, and while Hitler has not been shown to have been a member of Thule, he received support from the group. Hitler later dedicated Mein Kampf to Eckart. Dietrich Eckart Dietrich Eckart (March 23, 1868 - December 26, 1923) was one of the early key members of the National-Socialist German Workers Party and one of the participants in the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. ... Public speaking is speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner. ... Cover of Mein Kampf Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle, My Battle or My Fight) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ...


Heinrich Himmler showed a strong interest in such matters, although as Steigmann–Gall points out, Hitler and many of his key associates attended Christian services. Heinrich Himmler Heinrich Himmler (October 7, 1900 - May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ...


Nazi mysticism, however, plays a major role in some forms of contemporary Nazism, with a mythology including such ideas as interdimensional vril-powered UFO's, hyperborean supermen, and a Nazi Moon base, along with the more widely known myth of Hitler having escaped to the Antarctic. Vril is a word from a science-fiction novel by Edward Bulwer-Lytton titled Vril: The Power of the Coming Race and published in 1870. ... UFO can mean: Unidentified flying object United Future Organization, a Japanese-Brazilian electronic jazz band UFO, the rock band that previously featured Michael Schenker UFO, the Gerry Anderson TV series United Farmers of Ontario, a political party that formed the government in Ontario from 1919 to 1923 U.F.O... In Greek mythology, according to tradition, the Hyperboreans were a mythical people who lived to the far north of Greece. ... Esoteric Hitlerists and conspiracy theorists interested in Nazi mysticism and World War II have speculated that the Germans landed on the Moon as early as 1942. ... ...


Ideological competition

Nazism and Communism emerged as two serious contenders for power in Germany after the First World War, particularly as the Weimar Republic became increasingly unstable. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First World War, also known as... Flag of Germany, 1919–1933 The Weimar Republic (German Weimarer Republik, IPA: []) is the historical name for the republic that governed Germany from 1919 to 1933. ...


What became the Nazi movement arose out of resistance to the Bolshevik-inspired insurgencies that occurred in Germany in the aftermath of the First World War. The Russian Revolution of 1917 caused a great deal of excitement and interest in the Leninist version of Marxism and caused many socialists to adopt revolutionary principles. The 1918-1919 Munich Soviet and the 1919 Spartacist uprising in Berlin were both manifestations of this. The Freikorps, a loosely organized paramilitary group (essentially a militia of former World War I soldiers) was used to crush both these uprisings and many leaders of the Freikorps, including Ernst Röhm, later became leaders in the Nazi party. Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Marxism is the philosophy, social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German socialist philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary. ... This article is in need of attention. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Münchner Räterepublik, known as the Munich Soviet Republic or Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayerische Räterepublik), was a short-lived communist country, organized in Bavaria in the year 1919. ... This article is about the Spartacist League which existed in post-First World War Germany. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps, i. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organised in a military fashion. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A photographic portrait of Ernst Röhm. ...


Capitalists and conservatives in Germany feared that a takeover by the Communists was inevitable and did not trust the democratic parties of the Weimar Republic to be able to resist a communist revolution. Increasing numbers of capitalists began looking to the nationalist movements as a bulwark against Bolshevism. After Mussolini's fascists took power in Italy in 1922, fascism presented itself as a realistic option for opposing "Communism", particularly given Mussolini's success in crushing the Communist and anarchist movements which had destabilized Italy with a wave of strikes and factory occupations after the First World War. Fascist parties formed in numerous European countries. 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... Flag of Germany, 1919–1933 The Weimar Republic (German Weimarer Republik, IPA: []) is the historical name for the republic that governed Germany from 1919 to 1933. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ...


Many historians, such as Ian Kershaw and Joachim Fest, argue that Hitler's Nazis were one of numerous nationalist and increasingly fascistic groups that existed in Germany and contended for leadership of the anti-Communist movement and, eventually, of the German state. Further, they assert that fascism and its German variant, National Socialism, became the successful challengers to Communism because they were able to both appeal to the establishment as a bulwark against Bolshevism and appeal to the working class base, particularly the growing underclass of unemployed and unemployable and growingly impoverished middle class elements who were becoming declassed (the lumpenproletariat). The Nazis' use of pro-labor rhetoric appealed to those disaffected with capitalism by promoting the limiting of profits, the abolishing of rents and the increasing of social benefits (only for Germans) while simultaneously presenting a political and economic model that divested "Soviet socialism" of elements which were dangerous to capitalism, such as the concept of class struggle, "the dictatorship of the proletariat" or worker control of the means of production. Thus, Nazism's populist anti-Communism and anti-capitalism helped it become more powerful and popular than traditional conservative parties, like the DNVP. The simplicity of Nazi rhetoric, campaigns, and ideology also made its conservative allies underestimate its strength, and its ability to govern or even to last as a political party. Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 Oldham, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ... Joachim C. Fest (born December 8, 1926 in Berlin) is a German journalist and author, best known in English-speaking countries for his biography of Adolf Hitler. ... Anti-communism is an ideology of opposition to communist organization, government and ideology. ... The lumpenproletariat (German Lumpenproletariat, rabble-proletariat; raggedy proletariat) is a term originally defined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The German Ideology (1845), their famous second joint work, and later expounded upon in future works by Marx. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... The means of production are physical, non-human, inputs used in production. ... Anti-communism is an ideology of opposition to communist organization, government and ideology. ... An anti-capitalist poster printed by the Industrial Workers of the World in 1911. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... A political party is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ...


Support of anti-Communists for Fascism and Nazism

Various right-wing politicians and political parties in Europe welcomed the rise of fascism and the Nazis out of an intense aversion towards Communism. According to them, Hitler was the savior of Western civilization and of capitalism against Bolshevism. During the later 1930s and 1940s, the Nazis were supported by the Falange movement in Spain, and by political and military figures who would form the government of Vichy France. A Legion of French Volunteers against Bolshevism (LVF) and other anti-Soviet fighting formations were formed. In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Falange (or Phalange) is the name assigned to several political movements and parties dating from the 1930s, most particularly the original movement in Spain. ... Presidential flag of Vichy France For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... Soviet redirects here. ...


The British Conservative party and the right-wing parties in France appeased the Nazi regime in the mid- and late-1930s, even though they had begun to criticise its totalitarianism and in Britain especially, Nazi Germany's policies towards the Jews. However, Britain under both Conservative and Labour had appeased pre-Nazi Germany. Left-wing contemporary commentators suggested that these parties did in fact support the Nazis. Important reasons behind this appeasement included, first, the erroneous assumption that Hitler had no desire to precipitate another world war, and second, when the rebirth of the German military could no longer be ignored, a well-founded concern that neither Britain nor France was yet ready to fight an all-out war against Germany. In addition, some have argued that Nazi Germany was assisted in its development to create a front to counter early Bolshevik ambitions. Appeasement is a strategic maneuver, based on either pragmatism, fear of war, or moral conviction, that leads to the known acceptance of imposed conditions in lieu of armed resistance. ... Totalitarianism is a typology employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... The Labour Party has, since the early twentieth century, been the principal left wing political party in the United Kingdom (see British politics). ...


In 1936, Nazi Germany and Japan entered into the Anti-Comintern Pact, aimed directly at countering Soviet foreign policy. This later became the basis for the Tripartite Pact with Italy, the foundation of the Axis Powers. The three nations were united in their rabid opposition to Communism, as well as their militaristic, racist regimes, but they failed to coordinate their military efforts effectively. The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... Axis Power meeting with representatives of Imperial Japan, Fascist Italy, and Adolf Hitler. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


In his early years Hitler also greatly admired the United States of America. In Mein Kampf, he praised the United States for its race-based anti-immigration laws and for the subordination of the "inferior" black population. According to Hitler, America was a successful nation because it kept itself "pure" of "lesser races". However, his view of the United States became more negative as time passed. In his later estimations, the United States was becoming a mongrel nation, calling it "half Judaised, half Negrified".[citation needed] For other senses of this word, see race (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Economic practice

The Nazi Party utilized a right-facing swastika as their symbol, using the colors red and black to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). Black, white, and red were in fact the colors of the old North German Confederation flag, based on the Prussian colors black and white, combined with the red and white of the medieval Hanse cities. In 1871, with the foundation of the German Reich, the flag of the North German Confederation became the German Reichsflagge (Reich's flag). Black, white, and red subsequently became the colors of German nationalism (e.g. during World War I and the Weimar Republic and arguably, even today).
The Nazi Party utilized a right-facing swastika as their symbol, using the colors red and black to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). Black, white, and red were in fact the colors of the old North German Confederation flag, based on the Prussian colors black and white, combined with the red and white of the medieval Hanse cities. In 1871, with the foundation of the German Reich, the flag of the North German Confederation became the German Reichsflagge (Reich's flag). Black, white, and red subsequently became the colors of German nationalism (e.g. during World War I and the Weimar Republic and arguably, even today).

Nazi economic practice concerned itself with immediate domestic issues and separately with ideological conceptions of international economics. Image File history File links Nazi_Swastika. ... A right-facing Swastika in decorative Hindu form For the town in Ontario, see Swastika, Ontario. ... Flag of North German Confederation, 1867-1871 The North German Confederation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund), came into existence in 1867, following the dissolution of the German Confederation. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Carta marina of Baltic Sea (1539). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First World War, also known as... Flag of Germany, 1919–1933 The Weimar Republic (German Weimarer Republik, IPA: []) is the historical name for the republic that governed Germany from 1919 to 1933. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ...


Domestic economic policy was narrowly concerned with three major goals:

  • Elimination of unemployment.
  • Elimination of hyperinflation.
  • Expansion of production of consumer goods to improve middle and lower-class living standards.

All of these policy goals were intended to address the perceived shortcomings of the Weimar Republic and to solidify domestic support for the party. In this, the party was very successful. Between 1933 and 1936 the German GNP increased by an average annual rate of 9.5 percent, and the rate for industry alone rose by 17.2 percent. Flag of Germany, 1919–1933 The Weimar Republic (German Weimarer Republik, IPA: []) is the historical name for the republic that governed Germany from 1919 to 1933. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ...


This expansion propelled the German economy out of a deep depression and into full employment in less than four years. Public consumption during the same period increased by 18.7%, while private consumption increased by 3.6% annually. However, as this production was primarily consumptive rather than productive (make-work projects, expansion of the war-fighting machine, initiation of conscription to remove working age males from the labor force and thus lower unemployment), inflationary pressures began to rear their head again, although not to the highs of the Weimar Republic. These economic pressures, combined with the war-fighting machine created in the expansion (and concomitant pressures for its use), has led some to conclude that a European war was inevitable. (See Causes of war). WORLD OF WARCRAFT IS THE BEST GAME EVER INVENTED AND PLAY IT. IF YOU DONT PLAY WORLD OF WARCRAFT, YOU ARE A nOOb. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima (on August 6) immediately killed between 100,000 and 200,000 people and are the only known instances nuclear weapons have ever been used in war. ...


Some economists [citation needed] argue that the expansion of the German economy between 1933 and 1936 was not the result of measures adopted by the Nazi Party, but rather the consequence of economic policies of the prior Weimar Republic, which had begun to have an effect on factors such as hyperinflation. However, it was the policies of Nazi Germany that restored national confidence, arguably the key ingrediant to any successful economic policy. In economics, hyperinflation is inflation which is out of control, a condition in which prices increase rapidly as a currency loses its value. ...


Internationally, the Nazi Party believed that an international banking cabal was behind the global depression of the 1930s. Control of this cabal, which had grown to a position where it controlled both Europe and the United States, was identified with an elite and powerful group of Jews. However, a number of people believed that this was part of an ongoing plot by the Jewish people, as a whole, to achieve global domination. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which began their circulation in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century, were said to have confirmed this, already showing "evidence" that the Bolshevik takeover in Russia was in accordance with one of the protocols. Broadly speaking, the existence of large international banking or merchant banking organizations was well known at this time. Many of these banking organizations were able to exert influence upon nation states by extension or withholding of credit. This influence is not limited to the small states that preceded the creation of the German Empire as a nation state in the 1870s, but is noted in most major histories of all European powers from the 16th century onward. Nevertheless, after the Great Depression, this libelous and unverified manuscript took on an important role in Nazi Germany, thus providing another link in the Nazis ideological motivation for the destruction of that group in the Holocaust. A bank is an institution that provides financial service, particularly taking deposits and extending credit. ... A cabal is a number of persons united in some close design, usually to promote their private views and interests in a church, state, or other community by intrigue. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1992 Russian edition of the Protocols, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Flag of the German Empire, 1871–1918: black-white-red The German Empire is the name conventionally given in English to the German state from the time of the proclamation of Wilhelm I of Prussia as German Emperor (January 18, 1871) to the abdication of Wilhelm II (November 9, 1918). ... A nation-state is a specific form of state (a political entity), which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation (a cultural entity), and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the continent. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn, starting in 1929 and lasting through most of the 1930s. ... Selection at the Auschwitz camp in 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ...


Effects

These theories were used to justify a totalitarian political agenda of racialism, which grew to include the racist persecution of Jews while suppressing dissent. Totalitarianism is a typology employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... In any debate, sometimes the more powerful opponent will try to silence the other rather than trying to defeat their arguments. ...


Like other fascist regimes, the Nazi regime emphasized anti-communism, opposition to corporate interests not aligned with the state, uniting all workers to work for the common good, and the leader principle (Führerprinzip), a key element of fascist ideology in which the ruler is deemed to embody the political movement and the nation. Unlike some other fascist ideologies, Nazism was virulently racist. Some of the manifestations of Nazi racism were: Anti-communism is an ideology of opposition to communist organization, government and ideology. ... Adolf Hitler made believe he was the incarnation of the Führerprinzip The Führerprinzip, the German name for the leader principle, refers to a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure. ...

Anti-clericalism can also be interpreted as part of Nazi ideology, simply because the new Nazi hierarcy was not about to let itself be overode by the power that the Church traditionally held. In Austria, clerics had a powerful role in politics and ultimately responded to the Vatican. Although a few exceptions exist, Christian persecution was primarily limited to those who refused to accommodate the new regime and yield to its power. The Nazis often used the church to justify their stance and included many Christian symbols in the Third Reich (Steigmann–Gall). The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Selection at the Auschwitz camp in 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... The master race (German: Herrenrasse, Herrenvolk) is a concept in Nazi ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic people represent an ideal and pure race. It derives from nineteenth century racial theory, which posited a hierarchy of races placing African Bushmen and Australian Aborigines at the bottom of the... An , (sometimes translated as Overman, or superman) is a concept exposited by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία -ευ good, θανατος death) is the practice of ending the life of an individual or an animal who is suffering from a terminal disease or a chronically painful condition in a painless or minimally painful way either by lethal injection, drug overdose, or by the withdrawal of medical support. ... Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus, whom they regard as a/the Christ. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus, whom they regard as a/the Christ. ...


Backlash and Societal Effects

Perhaps the primary intellectual effect has been that Nazi doctrines discredited the attempt to use biology to explain or influence social issues, for at least two generations after Nazi Germany's brief existence. Sociobiology is a synthesis of scientific disciplines that attempts to explain behaviour in all species by considering the evolutionary advantages of social behaviours. ...


The Nazi descendants have been mute in the post-war democracies, with some exceptions, when interviewed by psychologists and historians. In Norway, a group of descendants have taken the official stigmatizing appellation "War children" in order to break the silence and to protest against the continuous demonization of their families. Some historical revisionists disseminate propaganda which minimizes the Holocaust and other Nazi acts in order to remove the stigma attached to National Socialism. Often, attempts are also made to put a spin on the policies of the Nazi regime and the events which occurred under it. These revisionists are often, however, involved in political matters and aligned with, or in the employ of, neo-Nazis. This fact itself often casts suspicion on their beliefs. A war child refers to a child born to a native parent and a parent belonging to a foreign military force (usually an occupying force, but also soldiers stationed at military bases on foreign soil). ... In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism is the reexamination of historical facts, with an eye towards updating histories with newly discovered, more accurate, or less biased information. ... It has been suggested that Propaganda in the United States be merged into this article or section. ...


People and history

Adolf Hitler walking out of the Brown House after the 1930 elections.
Adolf Hitler walking out of the Brown House after the 1930 elections.

The most prominent Nazi was Adolf Hitler, who ruled Nazi Germany from January 30, 1933, until his suicide on April 30, 1945, and led the German Reich into World War II. After the war, many prominent Nazis were convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials, where 21 were executed. Download high resolution version (460x620, 48 KB)Image of Adolf Hitler emerging from the Brown House (headquarters of the Nazi party during the last days of the Republic) after a post-election meeting in 1930. ... Download high resolution version (460x620, 48 KB)Image of Adolf Hitler emerging from the Brown House (headquarters of the Nazi party during the last days of the Republic) after a post-election meeting in 1930. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... (help· info) (), is the German word for realm or empire, cognate with Scandinavian rike/rige, Dutch rijk and English ric as found in bishopric. ... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France/Free France, United States, China, Canada, India, Australia, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, Greece, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma, Slovakia Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International_Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... A crime against humanity is a term in international law that refers to acts of murderous persecution against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... A German newspaper announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ...


A few scattered people, mostly not from Germany, converted to Nazism during or after World War II and contributed to further development of the ideology, especially in a spiritual or esoteric direction: Seán Russell of Ireland, Savitri Devi of India, Julius Evola of Italy, Miguel Serrano of Chile and Francis Parker Yockey, as well as George Lincoln Rockwell, within the United States. Combatants Allies: Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France/Free France, United States, China, Canada, India, Australia, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, Greece, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma, Slovakia Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8... Seán Russell (1893-14 August 1940) was an Irish republican and a chief of staff of the Irish Republican Army (IRA). ... Savitri Devi (September 30, 1905 - October 22, 1982) was a Franco-Greek woman who became enamored with Hinduism and National Socialism, linking the Aryan invasion theory to Adolf Hitler, and proclaiming him an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... Julius Evola, born Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola, aka Baron Giulio (May 19, 1898-June 11, 1974), was a controversial Italian esotericist, who wrote prolifically on matters political, philosophical, historical, and religious from a Traditionalist point of view. ... Miguel Serrano (born September 10, 1917) is a Chilean diplomat and author of poetry, books on his spiritual quest, and esoteric Hitlerism. ... Francis Parker Yockey Francis Parker Yockey, (September 18, 1917 – June 16, 1960), was an American philosopher and polemicist best known for his neo-Spenglerian book Imperium, published under the pen name Ulick Varange in 1948. ... George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 - August 25, 1967) was a U.S. Naval Commander and founder of the American Nazi Party. ...


The role of the nation

A Nazi symbol, the right-facing swastika or gamma cross.
A Nazi symbol, the right-facing swastika or gamma cross.

The Nazi state was founded upon a racially defined "German Volk". This is a central concept of Mein Kampf, symbolized by the motto Ein Volk, Ein Reich, Ein Führer (one people, one empire, one leader). The Nazi relationship between the Volk and the state was called the Volksgemeinschaft, a concept that defined a communal duty of citizens in service to the Reich. The term "National Socialism", arguably derives from this citizen-nation relationship, whereby the term socialism is invoked (despite the fact that socialism is traditionally defined as "worker's ownership over the means of production") and is meant to be realized through the common duty of the Volk to the Reich or German nation; all actions are to be in service of the Reich. This notion of the Reich, in turn, was a virulently nationalist ideology, a tendency which decisively defined its organizational thrust and overall immediate and long-term aims. In practice, the Nazis argued, their goal was to bring forth a nation-state as the locus and embodiment of the people's collective will, bound by the Volksgemeinschaft as both an ideal and an operating instrument, geared to serve the interests of the German people. Image File history File links The characters from the picture will make an image to become in lighint in the eyes of the beholders to impress a chemial thought to feed its mind so its soul may have a taste of what the characters from the picture that... A right-facing Swastika in decorative Hindu form For the town in Ontario, see Swastika, Ontario. ... Cover of Mein Kampf Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle, My Battle or My Fight) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... Volksgemeinschaft was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ...


In comparison, many socialist ideologies oppose the idea of nations, which they see as artificial divisions that support the status quo and oppression. They argue that one crucial consequence of national divisions is that they lead to wars of aggression, waged for the interest of the ruling class. The contested relationship between socialism and collectivism on the one hand, and the Nazi and Fascist movements on the other, is discussed at Fascism and ideology. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Oppression is the negative outcome experienced by people targeted by the arbitrary and cruel exercise of power in a society or social group. ... In Marxian political economics, the ruling class refers to that segment or class of society that has the most economic and political power. ... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ...


Factors which promoted the success of Nazism

An important question about Nazism is that of which factors promoted its success in Germany. These factors may have included:

  • Economic devastation all over Europe after World War I.
  • Humiliation of Germany at the Treaty of Versailles, and the widespread belief that the German military were not defeated on the battlefield but "stabbed in the back" by politicians and Jews.
  • A perception that there were a disproportionate number of rich Jewish bankers controlling Germany's finances.
  • Perceived Jewish involvement in war profiteering during WWI.
  • Appeal of nationalist rhetoric.
  • Rejection of Communism and the perception that Communism was a Jewish-inspired and Jewish-led movement; hence the Nazi use of the term Judeo-Bolshevik.
  • The split in the working class between Social Democrats (SPD) and Communists, exacerbated by the Communists' policy of treating the SPD as "Social Fascists"
  • The Great Depression.
  • Hitler's choice of taking power through legal political means rather than a violent coup after the failure of the Beer Hall Putsch.

Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First World War, also known as... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende or Dolchstosslegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda and belief among bitter post-World War I German... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... A war profiteer is any person or organization that makes profits (rightly or wrongly) from warfare or by selling weapons and other goods to one or even both of the parties at war in their own or in foreign countries. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is a form of identity that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... During the late 1920s and early 30s, Communist Party leaders linked to the Communist International (such as Rajani Palme Dutt and Joseph Stalin) argued that capitalist society had entered a third period in which social fascism posed a threat. ... The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn, starting in 1929 and lasting through most of the 1930s. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... It has been suggested that Beer Hall Putsch Supporters be merged into this article or section. ...

Nazi / Third Reich terminology in popular culture

The multiple atrocities and racist ideology that the Nazis followed have made them notorious in popular discourse as well as history. The term "Nazi" has become a genericised term of abuse. So have other Third Reich terms like "Führer" (often spelled "fuhrer" or less often, but more correctly, "fuehrer" in English-speaking countries), "Fascist", "Gestapo" (short for Geheime Staatspolizei, or Secret State Police in English) or "Hitler". The terms are used to describe any people or behaviours that are viewed as thuggish, overly authoritarian, or extremist. The Deaths Head emblem similar to Skull and crossbones, often used as the insignia of the Gestapo The (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei; secret state police) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


The terms are also used to describe anyone or anything seen as strict or doctrinaire. Phrases like "grammar nazi", "Feminazi", and "Open Source Nazi" are examples of those in use in the USA. These uses are offensive to some, as the controversy in the popular press over the Seinfeld "Soup Nazi" episode indicates, but still the terms are used so frequently as to inspire "Godwin's Law". Grammar nazi, spelling nazi, and language nazi are all terms used to describe a participant in a discussion, online or otherwise, who criticizes or corrects the language usage of another participant. ... Statue of Emmeline Pankhurst, a famous suffragette, in Victoria Tower Gardens next to the Houses of Parliament, Westminster. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... Seinfeld was an American television situation comedy set in New York City that ran from July 5, 1989, to May 14, 1998. ... Larry Thomas as the Soup Nazi Yev Kasem (a. ... Godwins Law (also Godwins Rule of Nazi Analogies) is a mainstay of internet culture, an adage formulated by Mike Godwin in 1990. ...


More innocent terms, like "fashion police", also bear some resemblance to Nazi terminology (Gestapo, Secret State Police) as well as references to Police states in general. A police state is a political condition where the government maintains strict control over society, particularly through suspension of civil rights and often with the use of a force of secret police. ...


Another similar effect can be observed in the usage of typefaces. Some people strongly associate the blackletter typefaces (e.g. fraktur or schwabacher) with Nazi propaganda (although the typeface is much older, and its usage, ironically, was banned by government order in 1941). A less strong association can be observed with the Futura typeface, which today is sometimes described as "germanic" and "muscular". A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Blackletter in a Latin Bible of AD 1407, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... The German word Fraktur (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ... The German word Schwabacher (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... A sample of Futura Futura is a typeface, the prototype of the family of geometric sans-serif typefaces. ...


In popular culture such as films like the Indiana Jones series, Nazis are often considered to be ideal villains whom the heroes can battle without mercy. Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones Dr. Henry Indiana Jones, Jr. ...


Video game website IGN declared Nazis to be the most memorable video game villains ever [2]. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of fictional characters or people portrayed as villains in various media. ...


Nazi sites

Nazism, both before and after World War II, was a quasi-religion to its followers, and like many world religions it had its own venerated locations or sites. Savitri Devi visited many of them during a tour of the sites in 1953. Savitri Devi (September 30, 1905 - October 22, 1982) was a Franco-Greek woman who became enamored with Hinduism and National Socialism, linking the Aryan invasion theory to Adolf Hitler, and proclaiming him an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... Pilgrimage is a book by Savitri Devi. ...

Devi also visited some sites, not directly connected to Nazism, but perceived to be of spiritual or German-national significance: Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ... The Berghof was Adolf Hitlers home in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden, Germany. ... Braunau am Inn is a city in the Innviertel (River Inn area) of Upper Austria (Ober sterreich), the north-western province of Austria. ... View from the Odeonsplatz on to the Feldherrnhalle and the Theatinerkirche The Feldherrnhalle The Feldherrnhalle (also written Feldherrenhalle, Hall of the Commanders) is a monumental building in Munich, Germany. ... The Hitler Putsch (also commonly referred to in English as the Beer Hall Putsch) occurred in the evening of Thursday, November 8 to early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923 when the nascent Nazi partys Führer Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders... Leonding is a town situated to the southwest of Linz, Austria in the state of Upper Austria. ... Map of Austria, locating Linz Linz is a city and Statutarstadt in northeast Austria, on the Danube river. ... Landsberg am Lech is a town in the southwest of Bavaria, Germany, about 50 kilometers west of Munich and 35 kilometers south of Augsburg. ... Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... Wewelsburg Wewelsburg is a Renaissance castle located in the northwest of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Wunsiedel is a place in the district,, Germany. ... Rudolf Hess. ...

Source: [3] Externsteine, Germany The Externsteine are a distinctive rock formation located in the Teutoburger Wald region of northwestern Germany, not far from the city of Detmold at Horn-Bad Meinberg. ... The Hermannsdenkmal The Hermannsdenkmal (German for Hermann monument) is located in North Rhine Westphalia in Germany in the Southern part of the Teutoburg Forest, which is southwest of Detmold in the district of Lippe. ... The Hermannsdenkmal Arminius or Hermann der Cherusker (born 16 BC – died 21 AD) was a war chief of the Germanic tribe of the Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, which marks the beginning of German military history. ... The Cherusci were a Germanic tribe inhabiting the Rhine valley and the plains and forests of northwestern Germany (between near modern Osnabrück and Hanover) during the 1st century BCE and 1st century CE. They were first allies and then enemies of Rome. ...


Notes

  1.   Peter Levenda, Unholy Alliance: A History of the Nazi Involvement With the Occult, 2002 2nd edition ISBN 0826414095
  1.   For an account of Hitler's apparent lack of early anti-Semitism, read August Kubizek, The Young Hitler I Knew, Greenhill Books, 2006 ed. ISBN 1853676942. Bear in mind, however, this post-war claim is rumored to be contradicted by the pre-war claim made in Kubizek's largely out of print, mid-war Reminiscences.

August Kubizek was a childhood friend and one time room mate of Adolf Hitler. ...

References

Richard Steigmann–Gall, The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity, 1919–1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).


David Redles. 2005. Hitler's Millennial Reich: Apocalyptic Belief and the Search for Salvation. New York University Press. ISBN 0814775241


Further reading

  • List of Adolf Hitler books
  • Robert O. Paxton (2005). The Anatomy of Fascism. London, Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0141014326.
  • Alfred Sohn-Rethel (1978). Economy and Class Structure of German Fascism. London, CSE Bks. ISBN 0906336007.
  • Fritzsche, Peter (1990). Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195057805.
  • Allen, W.S (1965). The Nazi Seizure of Power: The Experience of a Single German Town 1922-1945. Penguin. ISBN 0140239685.

Adolf Hitlers Mein Kampf. ... Robert Paxton (b 1932) is a historian who worked on Vichy France. ... Alfred Sohn-Rethel (born January 4, 1899 in Neuilly-sur-Seine near, today in Paris; died April 6, 1990 in Bremen, Germany) was an economist, a philosopher especially interested in epistemology. ...

External links

Forms of Government and Methods of Rule: Autocratic and Authoritarian

Autocratic: Absolute monarchy | Caliphate | Despotism | Dictatorship | Empire | Enlightened absolutism | Khanate | Other monarchical titles | Sultanate | Tyrant A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ... An Autocracy is a form of government in which unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... World map Authoritarianism (red) Authoritarianism describes a form of government characterized by strict obedience to the authority of the state, which often maintains and enforces social control through the use of oppressive measures. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Despotism is a form of government by a single authority, either a single person (ie. ... It has been suggested that Dictator be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent despotism or enlightened despotism) is a term used to describe the actions of absolute rulers who were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period of the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Authoritarian: Communist state | Fascism | Illiberal democracy | Maoism | Military dictatorship | Nazism | Police state | Single-party state | Stalinism | Totalitarianism This article is about one-party states governed by Communist parties. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Technically speaking, an illiberal democracy could be any democracy that is not a liberal democracy. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of the Chinese communist Mao Zedong. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A police state is a political condition where the government maintains strict control over society, particularly through suspension of civil rights and often with the use of a force of secret police. ... States in which a single party is constitutionally linked to power (or the provisions of its constitution are currently suspended while a single party rules) are coloured in brown. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Josef Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Totalitarianism is a typology employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...


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Code named "Aktion T 4," the Nazi euthanasia program to eliminate "life unworthy of life" at first focused on newborns and very young children.
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Nazi - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia (872 words)
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