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Encyclopedia > Nazareth
Nazareth

Hebrew נָצְרַת (Natz'rat or Natzeret)
Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira)
Government City
District North
Population 64,800[1]
Metropolitan Area: 185,000 (2006)
Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14.2 km²)
Mayor Ramiz Jaraisy

Nazareth (IPA: /ˈnæzərəθ/) (Hebrew: נָצְרַת‎, Hebrew Natz'rat or Natzeret, Arabic: الناصرةan-Nāṣira or an-Naseriyye) is the capital and largest city in the North District of Israel. It also serves as an Arab capital for Israel's Arab citizens who make up the vast majority of the population there.[2] In the New Testament, the city is described as the childhood home of Jesus, and as such is a center of Christian pilgrimage, with many shrines commemorating biblical associations. Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Jerusalem Tel Aviv-Jaffa Haifa Rishon LeZion Ashdod Beersheba Petah Tikva Netanya Holon Bnei Brak Bat Yam Ramat Gan Ashkelon Rehovot The following list of cities in Israel is based on the current index of the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). ... Map of the districts of Israel Population density by geographic region, sub-district and district (thicker border indicates higher tier). ... The North District of Israel, highlighted. ... A dunam or dönüm, dunum, donum is a unit of area. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Cities in Israel, by district Northern District Afula עפולה Akko (Acre) עכו Bet Shean בית שאן Karmiel כרמיאל Maalot-Tarshiha מעלות-תרשיחא Migdal HaEmeq מגדל העמק Nahariyya נהריה Nazareth נצרת Nazerat Illit נצרת עילית Sakhnin סחנין Shefa-Amr (Shfaram) שפרעם Tiberias טבריה Zefat (Safed) צפת Qiryat Shemona... The North District of Israel, highlighted. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs of Israel or Arab population of Israel are terms used by Israeli authorities and Israeli Hebrew-speaking media to refer to non-Jewish Arabs who are citizens of the State of Israel. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Childhood (song) Childhood is a broad term usually applied to the phase of development in humans between infancy and adulthood. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ...

Contents

Etymology

see also: Gennesaret (Ya-Nezareth)

The etymology of Nazareth from as early as Eusebius up until the 20th century has been said to derive from netser, a "shoot" or "sprout", while the apocryphal Gospel of Phillip derives the name from Nazara meaning "truth".[3] There is speculation and biblical indication that Nazarene meaning "of the village of Nazareth", was confused with "Nazir," meaning a "separated" Jew who had taken a vow of holiness.[citation needed] Gennesaret (a garden of riches) was a town of Naphtali, called Chinnereth (Joshua 19:35), sometimes in the plural form Chinneroth (Joshua 11:2). ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ... The Gospel of Phillip is one of the texts of the New Testament apocrypha. ... Not to be confused with Nazarene. ...


Geography and population

Coordinates: 32°42′07″N, 35°18′12″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Map showing the North District of Israel
Map showing the North District of Israel

Modern-day Nazareth is nestled in a natural bowl which reaches from 1,050 feet (320 m) above sea level to the crest of the hills about 1,600 feet (490 m).[4] It is located between hills that form the most southerly points of the Lebanon mountain range.[5] Nazareth is about 25 km from the Sea of Galilee (17 km as the crow flies) and about 9 km west from Mount Tabor. The Nazareth Range, in which the town lies, is the southernmost of several parallel east-west hill ranges that characterize the elevated tableau of Lower Galilee.[6] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (262x727, 43 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (262x727, 43 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... Mount Tabor may refer to a number of places: Mount Tabor is a hill in the Holy Land near Nazareth. ...


According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Nazareth had a population of approximately 65,000 in 2005. The vast majority of its residents are Arab citizens of Israel, 31.3% of whom are Christians and 68.7% of whom are Muslims.[7] Nazareth forms a metropolitan area with the Arab local councils of Yafa an-Naseriyye to the south, Reineh, Mashhad and Kafr Kanna to the north, Iksal and the adjacent city of Nazareth Illit to the east which has a population of 40,000 Jews and Elot to the west. Together, the Nazareth metropolis area has a population of approximately 185,000 of which over 145,000 are Arabs.[8] Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה) is a state organization for the creation and maintenance of numeric data related to populations vis-à-vis the ethnic makeup of Israel and its cities. ... Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs of Israel or Arab population of Israel are terms used by Israeli authorities and Israeli Hebrew-speaking media to refer to non-Jewish Arabs who are citizens of the State of Israel. ... Palestinian Christians make up 6% of the worlds Palestinian population, according to Bernard Sabella. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Israel, a local council is a locality similar to a city in structure and way of life, that has not yet achieved a status of a city, which requires a minimum number of residents, among other things. ... Yafa an-Naseriyye or Yafi (Arabic: , Hebrew: ) is an Israeli-Arab local council located in the Lower Galilee and is a part of the metropolitan area of Nazareth, also an Arab locality. ... Reineh, or Reine is an Israeli Arab village in the Galilee, located between Nazareth and Qana of Galilee. ... Kafr Kanna (Hebrew: , Arabic: ), known as Kfar Kana in Hebrew and Kafr Kana in Arabic, is an Israeli-Arab town in the Northern District of Israel. ... Iksal, as seen from Upper Nazareth Iksal (Arabic: إكسال; Hebrew: אכסאל) is an Arab town in northern Israel, about 1 kilometer east of Upper Nazareth. ... Nazerat Illit (נצרת עילית; sometimes spelled Nazareth Illit) is a city in the North District in Israel. ...


History

Earliest history & archaeological evidence

A Nazareth neighborhood at sunset
A Nazareth neighborhood at sunset

Archaeological research has revealed a funerary and cult center at Kfar HaHoresh, about two miles (3 km) from Nazareth, dating back roughly 9000 years (to what is known as the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B era).[9] The remains of some 65 individuals were found, buried under huge horizontal headstone structures, some of which consisted of up to 3 tons of locally-produced white plaster. Decorated human skulls uncovered there have led archaeologists to believe that Kfar HaHoresh was a major cult center in that remote era.[10] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1381 KB)[edit] Summary Me, my digital camera, no current URL, [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1381 KB)[edit] Summary Me, my digital camera, no current URL, [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is a division of the Neolithic developed by Dame Kathleen Kenyon during her archaeological excavations at Jericho in the southern Levant region. ...


Chad Emmet authored a sociological study on modern Nazareth entitled "Beyond the Basilica: Christians and Muslims in Nazareth." This book attempts to "better understand how Christians and Muslims have managed to live together for centuries in relative peace in a region known for its ethnic and religious conflicts, and to determine to what degree they have remained segregated in religious-based quarters."[11] Emmett claims that archaeological excavations in the vicinity of the present-day Basilica of the Annunciation and St. Joseph have revealed pottery dating from the Middle Bronze Age (2200 to 1500 BCE) and ceramics, silos and grinding mills from the Iron Age (1500 to 586 BCE).[11] However, excavations conducted prior to 1931 in the Franciscan venerated area revealed "no trace of a Greek or Roman settlement" there,[12] and according to studies written between 1955 and 1990, no archaeological evidence from Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Hellenistic or Early Roman times have been found.[13] [14] Bagatti, the principal archaeologist at the venerated sites in Nazareth, unearthed quantities of later Roman and Byzantine artefacts,[15] attesting to unambiguous human presence there from the 2nd century AD onward. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Saint Joseph, also referred to as Joseph the Betrothed and as Joseph of Nazareth, was the foster-father of Jesus, according to the New Testament (Matthew 1:16; Luke 3:23). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... blah ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Persia redirects here. ... The term Hellenistic, established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen, is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of various ethnicities, and from the political dominance of the city-state to that of larger monarchies. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


Emmett also claims that "homes and tombs built of stone masonry with back rooms of natural or rock-hewn caves were also found that date to the Roman era (63 BCE to 324 CE)."[16] However, this familiar claim that the Nazarenes were troglodytes (cave dwellers) is impossible, for "the caves of Galilee are wet or damp from December to May, and can only be used during the summer and autumn."[17] Stone masons have existed since the dawn of civilization, constructing some of the most long lasting ancient monuments, artifacts and cities. ... The Roman Era is a period in Western history, when ancient Rome was the center of power of the world around the Mediterranean Sea, where Latin was the lingua franca. ...

The Church of the Annunciation
The Church of the Annunciation

Finally, Emmett claims that "In light of the archaeological data, there is speculation that Nazareth's first inhabitants could have been Canaanites, then Israelites and Galilean Jews."[16] Indeed, the Bronze-Iron Age inhabitants must have been Canaanites (pre-Israelite inhabitants of the land), but lack of archaeological evidence from Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Hellenistic or Early Roman times (see above), at least in the major excavations between 1955 and 1990, show that Israelite presence in the basin is unsubstantiated. This article is about the land called Canaan. ... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Galileans (or Galilæans) were members of a fanatical sect (Zealots), followers of Judas of Galilee, who fiercely resented the taxation of the Romans, and whose violence contributed to induce the latter to vow the extermination of the whole race. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... blah ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Persia redirects here. ... The term Hellenistic, established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen, is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of various ethnicities, and from the political dominance of the city-state to that of larger monarchies. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


James Strange, an American archaeologist notes that “Nazareth is not mentioned in ancient Jewish sources earlier than the third century AD. This likely reflects its lack of prominence both in Galilee and in Judaea.”[18] Strange first estimates Nazareth’s population at the time of Christ to be “roughly 1,600 to 2,000 people”, and in a subsequent publication at “a maximum of about 480.” [19]Some have argued that the absence of textual references to Nazareth in the Old Testament and the Talmud, as well as the works of Josephus, suggest that a town called 'Nazareth' did not exist in Jesus' day.[20] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and...


Many writers suppose that ancient Nazareth was built on the hillside, as required by scripture: [And they led Jesus] "to the brow of the hill on which their city was built, that they might throw him down headlong" (Gospel of Luke 4:29). However, the hill in question (the Nebi Sa'in) is far too steep for ancient dwellings and averages a 14% grade in the venerated area.[21] Bagatti has shown that this area was, however, clearly used for tombs and agricultural work in the Bronze and Iron Ages, as well as in later Roman times.[22] The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ...

The inside of St Joseph's Church
The inside of St Joseph's Church

In the mid-1990s, shopkeeper Elias Shama discovered tunnels under his shop near Mary’s Well in Nazareth. The tunnels were eventually recognized as a hypocaust (a space below the floor into which warm air was pumped) for a bathhouse. The surrounding site was excavated in 1997-98 by Y. Alexandre, and the archaeological remains exposed were ascertained to date from the Roman, Crusader, Mamluk and Ottoman periods. [23][24][25] Ruins of the hypocaust under the floor of a Roman villa. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Mamluk Sultanate, 1250]] History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman... Ottoman redirects here. ...


A tablet currently at the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, dating to 50 AD, was sent from Nazareth to Paris in 1878. It contains an inscription known as the "Ordinance of Caesar" that outlines the penalty of death for those who violate tombs or graves. However, it is suspected that this inscription came to Nazareth from somewhere else (possibly Sepphoris). Bagatti writes: “we are not certain that it was found in Nazareth, even though it came from Nazareth to Paris. At Nazareth there lived various vendors of antiquities who got ancient material from several places.”[26] C. Kopp is more definite: "It must be accepted with certainty that [the Ordinance of Caesar]... was brought to the Nazareth market by outside merchants."[27]Jack Finegan describes additional archaeological evidence related to settlement in the Nazareth basin during the Bronze and Iron Ages, and adds that "Nazareth was a strongly Jewish settlement in the Roman period."[28] The critical question now under scholarly debate is when in the Roman period Nazareth came into existence, that is, whether settlement there began before or after 70 AD (the First Jewish War).[29] This article is about the capital of France. ... Tzippori, also known by several other names & spellings including Sepphoris, is one of the oldest Jewish settlements to be uncovered by archaeologists, and one of the richest in what has been found there. ...


New Testament times and associations

St. Mary's Well - This shrine, commemorating the Virgin Mary, is a symbol of Nazareth located at an ancient spring dating from New Testament times.
St. Mary's Well - This shrine, commemorating the Virgin Mary, is a symbol of Nazareth located at an ancient spring dating from New Testament times.

According to Luke, Nazareth was the home of Joseph and Mary and the site of the Annunciation, when Mary was told by the Angel Gabriel that she would have Jesus as her son. Nazareth is also where Jesus grew up from some point in his childhood after returning to Israel from Egypt until his public ministry began at age 30 (Mt 1:18-2:23). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 674 KB)Ancient spring in Nazareth, called Marys Spring. This picture was taken by me File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 674 KB)Ancient spring in Nazareth, called Marys Spring. This picture was taken by me File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Saint Joseph (disambiguation). ... According to the New Testament, Mary (Judeo-Aramaic מרים Maryām Bitter; Arabic مريم (Maryam); Septuagint Greek Μαριαμ, Mariam, Μαρια, Maria; Geez: ማሪያም, Māryām; Syriac: Mart, Maryam, Madonna), was the mother of Jesus of Nazareth, who at the time of his conception was the betrothed wife of Saint Joseph (cf. ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


In John 1:46, Nathaniel asks, "Can anything good come out of Nazareth?" The meaning of this cryptic question is debated. Some commentators suggest that it means Nazareth was very small and unimportant. But the question does not speak of Nazareth’s size but of its goodness. In fact, Nazareth was described negatively by the evangelists, for it did not believe in Jesus and “he could do no mighty work there” (Gospel of Mark 6:5). In all four gospels we read the famous saying, “A prophet is not without honor except in his own country, and among his own kin, and in his own house” (Gospel of Matthew 13:57; Mk 6:4; Lk 4:24; Gospel of John 4:44). In one passage the Nazarenes even attempt to kill Jesus by throwing him off a cliff (Lk 4:29). Many scholars since W. Wrede (in 1901)[30] have noted the so-called “Messianic secret,” whereby Jesus’ true nature and mission were unseen by many, including by his inner circle of disciples (Mk 8:27-33; cf. only those to whom the Father reveals Jesus will be saved, Jn.6:65; 17:6, 9, etc.). Nazareth, being the home of those near and dear to Jesus, apparently suffered negatively in relation to this doctrine. Thus, Nathanael’s question, “Can anything good come out of Nazareth?” is consistent with a negative view of Nazareth in the canonical gospels, and with the fact that even Jesus’ brothers did not believe him (Jn 7:5). For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... In the New Testament, Nathanael is a Galilean called by Christ to be a disciple, see John 1:45-50 and 21:2. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ...


Non-biblical textual references to Nazareth do not occur until around 200 AD, when Sextus Julius Africanus, cited by Eusebius (Church History 1.7.14), speaks of “Nazara” as a village in "Judea" and locates it near an as-yet unidentified “Cochaba.” [31] This curious description does not fit the traditional location of Nazareth in Lower Galilee.[32] In the same passage Africanus writes of desposunoi, or relatives of Jesus, who he claims “kept the records of their descent with great care.” Later texts referring to Nazareth include one from the tenth century that writes of a certain martyr named Conon who died in Pamphylia under Decius (249-251), and declared at his trial: "I belong to the city of Nazareth in Galilee, and am a relative of Christ whom I serve, as my forefathers have done." [33] This Conon has been shown to be legendary.[34] Sextus Julius Africanus, a Christian traveller and historian of the 3rd century, was probably born in Libya, and may have served under Septimius Severus against the Osrhoenians in AD 195. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... The Desposyni (from Greek (desposynos) of or belonging to the master or lord[1]) was a sacred name reserved for the blood relatives of Jesus mentioned in Mark 3:21 and Mark 3:31. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Conon was an Athenian general at the end of the Peloponnesian War, in charge during the decisive loss of the navy at the battle of Aegospotami. ... Pamphylia, in ancient geography, was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus. ... Bust of Traianus Decius. ...


In 1962, a Hebrew inscription found in Caesarea, dating to the late 3rd or early 4th century, mentions Nazareth as one of the places in which the priestly family of Hapizzez was residing after Bar Kokhba's revolt (132-135 AD).[35] From the three fragments that have been found, it is possible to show that the inscription was a complete list of the twenty-four priestly courses (cf. 1 Chronicles 24:7-19; Nehemiah 11;12), with each course (or family) assigned its proper order and the name of each town or village in Galilee where it settled. An interesting aspect of this inscription is that the name for Nazareth is not spelled with the "z" sound (as one would expect from the Greek gospels) but with the Hebrew tsade (thus "Nasareth" or "Natsareth").[36] Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Commanders Hadrian Simon Bar Kokhba Strength  ?  ? Casualties Unknown 580,000 Jews (mass civilian casualties), 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed (per Cassius Dio). ... (Redirected from 1 Chronicles) The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... Nehemiah or Nechemya (נְחֶמְיָה Comforted of/is the LORD (YHWH), Standard Hebrew Nəḥemya, Tiberian Hebrew Nəḥemyāh, ) is a major figure in the post-exile history of the Jews as recorded in the Bible, and is believed to be the primary author of the Book of Nehemiah. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... Tsade (also spelled or Tzadi or Sadhe) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its oldest sound value is probably IPA: , although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. ...


Epiphanius writes in the Panarion (c. 375 AD)[37] of a certain elderly Count Joseph of Tiberias, a wealthy Jew who converted to Christianity in the time of Constantine. Count Joseph claimed that as a young man he built churches in Sepphoris and other towns that were inhabited only by Jews.[38] Nazareth is mentioned, though the wording is not clear.[39] In any case, Joan Taylor writes: "It is now possible to conclude that there existed in Nazareth, from the first part of the fourth century, a small and unconventional church which encompassed a cave complex."[40] The town was Jewish until the sixth century.[41] Epiphanius (ca 310–20 – 403) was a Church Father, a heresiologist who was a strong defender of orthodoxy, known for tracking down deviant teachings (heresies) wherever they could be traced, during the troubled era in the Christian Church following the Council of Nicaea. ... Of early Christian heresiology, the Panarion (Greek: Πανάριον, Medicine Chest), also known as Adversus Haereses (Latin: Against Heresies), is the most important of the works of Epiphanius (d. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Tzippori, also known by several other names & spellings including Sepphoris, is one of the oldest Jewish settlements to be uncovered by archaeologists, and one of the richest in what has been found there. ...


In the 6th century, legends about Mary began to spark interest in the site among pilgrims, who founded the Church of the Annunciation at the site of a freshwater spring, today known as Mary's Well. In 570, the Anonymous of Piacenza reports travelling from Sepphoris to Nazareth and refers to the beauty of the Hebrew women there, who say that St. Mary was a relative of theirs, and records: "The house of St. Mary is a basilica."[42] Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... The Church of the Annunciation is a church in Nazareth that was established in the place in which, according to the Christian tradition, was the house of Mary, the mother of Jesus and in which the angel Gabriel told Mary the Annunciation. ... Mary’s Well is reputed to be the site where the Angel Gabriel appeared to the Virgin Mary, and announced that she would bear the Son of God - an event known as the Annunciation. ...


Jerome, writing in the 5th century, says Nazareth was a viculus or mere village. The Jewish town profited from the Christian pilgrim trade which began in the fourth century, but latent anti-Christian hostility broke out in 614 AD when the Persians invaded Palestine. At that time, the Jewish residents of Nazareth helped the Persians slaughter Christians in the land. [43] When the Byzantine emperor Heraclius ejected the Persians from Palestine in 630 AD, he singled out Nazareth for special punishment. At this time the town ceased to be Jewish. For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ...


Islamic rule

The Muslim conquest of Palestine in 637 AD during the early medieval period eventually led to the First Crusade, which began an extended period of conflict. Control over Galilee and Nazareth shifted frequently during this time, with corresponding impact on the religious makeup of the population. Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim...


In 1099 AD, the Crusader Tancred captured Galilee and established his capital in Nazareth. The ancient diocese of Scythopolis was also relocated under the Archbishop of Nazareth. The town returned to Muslim control in 1187 AD following the victory of Saladin in the Battle of Hattin. Tancred (1072 - 1112) was a leader of the First Crusade, and later became regent of the Principality of Antioch and Prince of Galilee. ... Bet Shean (Hebrew בית שאן unofficially also spelled Beit Shean, Beth Shean; Arabic بيسان Baysān) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... The Archbishop of Nazareth was one of the major suffragans of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem during the crusades. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Guy of Lusignan Raymond III of Tripoli Strength Est. ...


Christian control of the area resumed in 1229 AD as part of the events of the Sixth Crusade, but ended in 1263 AD with the destruction of all Christian buildings by the Sultan Baibars and the expulsion of the Christian population until Fakhr-al-Din II permitted their return in 1620 AD. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (Arabic: ) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. ... Fakhr-al-Din II also the Great (1572–April 13, 1635) (Arabic: فخر الدين الثاني بن قرقماز) was a Lebanese prince, son of Prince Qurqumaz from the Maan Druze dynasty and Princess Nassab. ...


1947-1948

Arab citizens of Israel
Politics

Balad (al-Tajamu) · Hadash (al-Jabha)
United Arab List (Hezb al-Democraty al-Arabi)
Avoda · Kadima · Likud
Abnaa el-Balad
Internally Displaced Palestinians
The Koenig Memorandum · Land Day
October 2000 events
Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs of Israel or Arab population of Israel are terms used by Israeli authorities and Israeli Hebrew-speaking media to refer to non-Jewish Arabs who are citizens of the State of Israel. ... There have been (non-Jewish) Arab members of the Knesset since the first Knesset Assembly, elected in 1949. ... Balad (Hebrew acronym for Brit Leumit Demokrati (National Democratic Assembly), (in Arabic Al-Tajamu Al-Watani Al-Dīmūqrati; balad (بلد) is also Arabic for country) is a political party in Israel representing the Israeli Arab minority. ... Hadash (חדש) is a far left wing, largely Arab [1], popular front group in Israel made up of the Communist Party of Israel and other left-leaning political groups. ... United Arab List (RAAM, Hebrew. ... The Israeli Labor Party (‎, Mifleget HaAvoda HaYisraelit), generally known in Israel as Avoda (‎) is a center-left political party in Israel. ... Kadima (Hebrew: קדימה, Forward) is a political party in Israel. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ... Abnaa el-Balad is an Israeli Arab political organization. ... Internally displaced Palestinians is a term used to refer to Palestinians and their descendants, who as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war or al-Nakba, became internally displaced refugees within what became the state of Israel. ... The Koenig Memorandum (also known as The Koenig Report) was a confidential and internal government document authored in April 1976 by Yisrael Koenig, a member of the Labor Party who served as the Northern District Commissioner of the Ministry of the Interior for 26 years. ... Land Day (Arabic: يوم الأرض transliterated yawm al-ard), March 30, is a day on which Israeli Arabs yearly protest Israeli expropriation of land. ... The October 2000 events is a term used to describe several days of protests in northern Israel that soon escalated into clashes between Arab citizens of Israel and Israel Police. ...

Religion

Al-Aqsa Mosque · Dome of the Rock
Basilica of the Annunciation · Mary's Well
St. George's Orthodox Church
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mary’s Well is reputed to be the site where the Angel Gabriel appeared to the Virgin Mary, and announced that she would bear the Son of God - an event known as the Annunciation. ... The Church of Saint George is the major shrine for the fourth century martyr Saint George (el-Khader in Arabic) and is located in Lod, Israel. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ...

Culture

Music · Dance · Cuisine
Palestinian Arabic · Negev Bedouins
For other uses of Palestinian, see Definitions of Palestine and Palestinian. ... Palestinian music ;Arabic,موسيقى فلسطينية is one of many regional sub-genres of Arabic music. ... Dabke (Arabic: ; also transliterated as debke, dabka, and dabkeh) is the traditional folk dance of the Levant, going back generations, and is also the national dance of Lebanon, Jordon, Syria and Palestine, its found also in Iraq and northern Saudi Arabia but with a different name (Chobi). ... Palestinian cuisine or foods from or commonly eaten in the Palestinian territories and the Arab population of Israel. ... Palestinian Arabic is a Levantine Arabic dialect subgroup spoken by Palestinian Arabs. ... The Negev Bedouins (Arabic: Badawit an-Naqab) are traditionally pastoral semi-nomadic Arab tribes indigenous to the Negev region, who hold close ties to the Bedouins of the Sinai. ...

Major Population Centers

Nazareth · Umm al-Fahm · Rahat · Tayibe
Shefa-'Amr · Baqa-Jatt · Shaghur · Tamra
Sakhnin · Carmel City · Tira · Arraba
The list of Arab localities in Israel includes all mostly Arab populated towns in the State of Israel. ... Umm al-Fahm (Arabic أم الفحم, Hebrew אום אל-פחם) is a city in the Haifa District in Israel. ... Rahat is also a name for the Turkish Delight Lokum. ... |} Tayibe (Arabic: ‎ , Hebrew: ‎; also spelled Taibeh or Tayiba) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Shefa-Amr (Arabic شفا عمر , Hebrew שְׁפַרְעָם , unofficially also spelled Shfaram) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Hebrew באקה-גת Arabic باقة جتّ Government City District Haifa Population 31,000 (2005) Jurisdiction 18,100 dunams (18. ... Shaghur or Shagor (Hebrew: , Arabic: ) is an Israeli-Arab city in the North District of Israel located east of the coastal city of Acre (Akka). ... Tamra is also an alternative spelling of the female given name Tamara. ... Sakhnin (Arabic: سخنين; Hebrew: סחנין) is an Arab town in northern Israel. ... Carmel City (Hebrew: Ir HaKarmel) is a city in the Haifa District of Israel, located around Mount Carmel. ... Tira (טירה) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Arraba (Hebrew: ; Arabic: ) is Israels fourth largest local council and largest Israeli Arab local council. ...

Notable Personalities

Hiam Abbass · Hany Abu-Assad ·
Mohammed Bakri · Azmi Bishara ·
Emile Habibi · Samih al-Qasim
Abbas Suan · Elia Suleiman
Ali Suliman · Amos Yarkoni ·
See also: Template:Palestinians Hiam Abbass (Arabic: ‎; also known as Hiam Abbas, Hiyam Abbas) (born 30 November 1960 in the Galilee village of Dir Hanna, Israel) is an Israeli Arab actress. ... Hany Abu-Assad (b. ... Mohammad Bakri (Arabic: , Hebrew: ; also spelled Mohammed or Muhammad) is an Israeli Arab actor, film producer and film director. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Emile Habibi (August, 1921 - May 3, 1996) was a Palestinian-Israeli writer and politician. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Abbas Suan (sometimes spelled Suwan or Swan) (Arabic: , ‎, born January 27, 1976) is an Arab Israeli footballer born in the Arab city of Sakhnin of the Galilee. ... Elia Suleiman (born July 28, 1960 in Nazareth) is a Palestinian film director and actor. ... Ali Suliman in Paradise Now Ali Suliman is a Palestinian actor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

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Nazareth was in the territory allotted to the Arab state under the 1947 UN Partition Plan.[44] The town was not a field of battle during 1948 Arab-Israeli War before the first truce on June 11, although some of the villagers had joined the loosely organized peasant resistance forces, and troops from the Arab Liberation Army had entered Nazareth. During the ten days of fighting which occurred between the first and second truce, Nazareth capitulated July 16 to Israeli troops during Operation Dekel, after little more than token resistance. The surrender was formalized in a written agreement, where the town leaders agreed to cease hostilities in return for promises from the Israeli officers, including brigade commander Ben Dunkelman, (the leader of the operation), that no harm would come to the civilians of the town. A few hours later Chaim Laskov gave order to Dunkelman to evacuate the civilian population of Nazareth. Dunkelman refused to obey these orders. In sharp contrast to the surrounding towns, the Arab inhabitants in Nazareth were therefore never forced out.[45] On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Arab Liberation Army (Jaysh al-Inqadh al-Arabi, or Arab Salvation Army, also referred to in some accounts as the Arab Peoples Army) was an army of volunteers from Arab countries led by Iraqi soldier Fawzi al-Qawuqji. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Dekel (palm tree) was the largest offensive in the north of Palestine during the first and second truce of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... Ben Dunkelman (1913–1997) was a Canadian Jew who became a war hero for his efforts in World War II, when he enlisted with the Queens Own Rifles and fought on some of the worst battlefields of the war during the allied Operation Overlord, including Caen, Falaise, and the... Chaim Laskov (1919-1983) was an Israeli public figure and the fifth Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces. ... Israeli Arabs, or 1948 Palestinians, are those Arabs who remained inside the borders of what would become Israel after 1948, when most Arabs fled the country in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War (see also Nakba). ...


Current events

Preparations for the Pope's visit to Nazareth in 2000 triggered highly publicized tensions related to the Basilica of the Annunciation. The 1997 permission for construction of a paved plaza to handle the expected thousands of Christian pilgrims caused Muslim protests and occupation of the proposed site, which is considered the grave of a nephew of Saladin. This site used to be the home of a school built during the Ottoman rule. The school was named al-Harbyeh (in Arabic means military), and many elderly people in Nazareth still remember it as the school site, nevertheless, the same site still contains,the Shihab-Eddin shrine, along with several shops owned by the waqf (Muslim community ownership). The school building continued to serve as a government school until it was demolished to allow for the plaza to be built. For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... The Church of the Annunciation is a church in Nazareth that was established in the place in which, according to the Christian tradition, was the house of Mary, the mother of Jesus and in which the angel Gabriel told Mary the Annunciation. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... This article is about the religious endowment. ...

Arab children play on the streets of Nazareth
Arab children play on the streets of Nazareth

The initial argument between the different political factions in town (represented in the local council), was on where the borders of the shrine and shops starts and where it ends. The initial government approval of subsequent plans for a large mosque to be constructed at the site led to protests from Christian leaders worldwide, which continued after the papal visit. Finally, in 2002, a special government commission permanently halted construction of the mosque. [46] [47] In March 2006, public protests that followed the disruption of a Lenten prayer service by an Israeli Jew and his Christian wife and daughter, who detonated incendiary devices inside the church, [48] succeeded in dismantling a temporary wall that had been erected around the public square that had been constructed but had yet to be unveiled, putting an end to the entire controversy.


On July 19, 2006 a rocket fired by the Lebanese Shia militant group Hezbollah as part of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict killed two children in Nazareth. No holy sites were damaged.[49] is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13...


A group of Christian businessmen declared in 2007 their plans to build the largest cross in the world (60 m high) in Nazareth as the childhood town of Jesus Christ.[50] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Nazareth's soccer team, Maccabi Akhi Nazareth, plays in the Nationwide League. Soccer redirects here. ... Maccabi Ahi Nazareth (Hebrew: מכבי אחי נצרת) is an Israeli football club, and is based at Ilut, Nazareth. ... The Liga Artzit (Hebrew: ליגה ארצית) is the third-highest division overall in the Israeli football league system after Ligat haAl (Premier League) and the Liga Leumit (National League). ...


Religious shrines

The minaret of the White Mosque and the clock tower next to the Basilica of the Annunciation as seen from Nazareth's Old Market
The minaret of the White Mosque and the clock tower next to the Basilica of the Annunciation as seen from Nazareth's Old Market

Nazareth is home to many centuries old churches, most of which are located in the city's Old Market, (Arabic: السوق القديمي‎, Il suq il-qadeemi)). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 600 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 600 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The minaret of the White Mosque and the clock tower next to the Basilica of the Annunciation as seen from Nazareths Old Market The White Mosque is the oldest mosque in Nazareth,[1] and is located in Harat Alghama or the Mosque Quarter in the center of Nazareths... The Church of the Annunciation is a church in Nazareth that was established in the place in which, according to the Christian tradition, was the house of Mary, the mother of Jesus and in which the angel Gabriel told Mary the Annunciation. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A souk (سوق, also sook, souq, or suq) is a commercial quarter in an Arab city. ...

  • The Church of the Annunciation is the largest Christian church building in the Middle East. In Roman Catholic tradition, it marks the site where the Archangel Gabriel announced the future birth of Jesus to the Virgin Mary (Luke 1:26-31).
  • The Eastern Orthodox Church constructed St. Gabriel's Church at an alternative site for the Annunciation.
  • The Melkite Greek Catholic Church owns the Synagogue Church, which is located at the traditional site of the synagogue where Jesus preached (Luke 4)
  • The Church of St. Joseph's Carpentry occupies the traditional location for the workshop of Saint Joseph
  • The Mensa Christi Church, run by the Franciscan religious order, commemorates the traditional location where Jesus dined with the Apostles after his Resurrection
  • The Basilica of Jesus the Adolescent, run by the Salesian religious order, occupies a hill overlooking the city.

The Church of the Annunciation is a church in Nazareth that was established in the place in which, according to the Christian tradition, was the house of Mary, the mother of Jesus and in which the angel Gabriel told Mary the Annunciation. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... According to the New Testament, Mary (Judeo-Aramaic מרים Maryām Bitter; Arabic مريم (Maryam); Septuagint Greek Μαριαμ, Mariam, Μαρια, Maria; Geez: ማሪያም, Māryām; Syriac: Mart, Maryam, Madonna), was the mother of Jesus of Nazareth, who at the time of his conception was the betrothed wife of Saint Joseph (cf. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The Melkite Greek Catholic Church (Arabic: , ) is an Eastern Rite sui juris particular Church of the Catholic Church in communion with the Pope. ... For other uses, see Saint Joseph (disambiguation). ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... This article is about the religious order. ...

Contrary views

Some historians have called the city's traditional association with the life of Jesus into question, suggesting instead that what was originally a title (Nazarene) was corrupted into the name of his hometown (alternately, Nazara or Nazaret or Nazareth). Alfred Loisy, for example, in The Birth of the Christian Religion, argues that Iesous Nazarene meant not "from Nazareth", but rather that his title was "Nazarene." [51] Alfred Firmin Loisy (1857-1940) was a French Roman Catholic priest, professor and theologian who became the intellectual standard bearer for Biblical Modernism. ... Nazarene may refer to: an artist in the Nazarene movement a member of the Church of the Nazarene. ...


Alternatively, there is biblical indication that Nazarene was a mistranslation of Nazarite, a person who had taken a vow of holiness and was thus 'separated out' from the masses. Matthew 2:23 says of Iesous (Jesus), "And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene." There no word translated ‘Nazarene’, as well as no reference to a city of 'Nazareth' in the Hebrew Scriptures, but reference Bibles state that the prophecy cited in Matt. 2:23 is in reference to Judges 13:5 concerning Samson's description as a Nazarite. A Nazarite or Nazirite, Nazir in Hebrew, was a Jew who took an ascetic vow described in the Book of Numbers at 6:1-21. ... Samson and Delilah, by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) This article is about Biblical figure. ...


Frank Zindler, editor of American Atheist Magazine, has asserted that Nazareth did not exist in the first century.[52] His arguments include the following:

  • No "ancient historians or geographers mention [Nazareth] before the beginning of the fourth century [AD]."[53]
  • Nazareth is not mentioned in the Old Testament, the Talmud, nor in the Apocrypha and it does not appear in any early rabbinic literature.
  • Nazareth was not included in the list of settlements of the tribes of Zebulun (Joshua 19:10-16) which mentions twelve towns and six villages
  • Nazareth is not included among the 45 cities of Galilee that were mentioned by Josephus (37AD-100AD).
  • Nazareth is also missing from the 63 towns of Galilee mentioned in the Talmud.

Zindler's view is historically possible if Nazareth came into existence at the same time that the New Testament gospels were being written and redacted. Most scholars place the writing of the gospels that do mention Nazareth between the two Jewish-Roman wars (70 AD-132 AD). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... Jewish-Roman War can refer to several revolts by the Jews of Judea against the Roman Empire: The First Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the First Jewish Revolt. ...


Sister cities

Hague redirects here. ...

See also

The list of Arab localities in Israel includes all mostly Arab populated towns in the State of Israel. ...

References

  1. ^ cbs.gov
  2. ^ Laurie King-Irani (Spring, 1996). Review of "Beyond the Basilica: Christians and Muslims in Nazareth" 103-105.
  3. ^ GosPh 56.12; 62.8, 15; 66.14. See J. Robinson (ed.), The Nag Hammadi Library in English, Harper & Row 1977, pp. 131-151.
  4. ^ Map Survey of Palestine, 1946. 1:5,000 OCLC: 17193107. Also, Chad Fife Emmett (1995). Beyond the Basilica:Christians and Muslims in Nazareth. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226207110. Fig. 11, 31.
  5. ^ Mariam Shahin (2005). Palestine: A Guide.. Interlink Books., 171. 
  6. ^ In order from south to north, these ranges (ridges) are the Nazareth, Tir'an, Yodfat, Shezor, and Mount Haluz. The valleys between them are the Tir'an, Bet Netofa, Saknin, and Bet Ha-Kerem. See E. Orni and E. Efrat, Geography of Israel (Jerusalem, 1964).
  7. ^ http://www.cbs.gov.il/publications/local_authorities2005/pdf/207_7300.pdf
  8. ^ [1]Israeli localities with populations 1000+
  9. ^ Goring-Morris, A.N. “The quick and the dead: the social context of Aceramic Neolithic mortuary practices as seen from Kfar HaHoresh.” In: I. Kuijt (ed.), Social Configurations of the Near Eastern Neolithic: Community Identity, Hierarchical Organization, and Ritual (1997).
  10. ^ Pre-Christian Rituals at Nazareth. Archaeology: A Publication of the Archaeological Institute of America (November/December 2003).
  11. ^ a b Chad Fife Emmett (1995). Beyond the Basilica:Christians and Muslims in Nazareth. University of Chicago Press, xvi. ISBN 0226207110. 
  12. ^ R. Tonneau, Revue Biblique XL (1931), p. 556. Reaffirmed by C. Kopp (op. cit.,1938, p. 188).
  13. ^ C. Kopp, “Beiträge zur Geschichte Nazareths.” Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society, vol. 18 (1938), p. 188. F. Fernandez, Ceramica Comun Romana de la Galilea. Madrid: Ed. Biblia y Fe, 1983, p. 63. N. Feig, “Burial Caves in Nazareth,” ‘Atiqot 10 (1990), pp. 67-79 (Hebrew).
  14. ^ B. Bagatti, “Ritrovamenti nella Nazaret evangelica.” Liber Annuus 1955, pp. 5-6, 23. B. Bagatti, “Nazareth,” Dictionnaire de la Bible, Supplement VI. Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1960, col. 318. Bagatti, B. Excavations in Nazareth Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, vol. 1 (1969), pp. 254, 319. “Nazareth” in Encyclopedia Judaica, New York: Macmillan, 1972, col. 900.
  15. ^ B. Bagatti, Excavations in Nazareth, vol. 1 (1969), pp. 272-310.
  16. ^ a b Chad Fife Emmett (1995). Beyond the Basilica:Christians and Muslims in Nazareth. University of Chicago Press, 16. ISBN 0226207110. 
  17. ^ M. Aviam, Jews, Christians and Pagans in the Galilee. Rochester: University Press, 2004, p. 90.
  18. ^ Article “Nazareth” in the Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
  19. ^ E. Meyers & J. Strange, Archaeology, the Rabbis, & Early Christianity Nashville: Abingdon, 1981; Article “Nazareth” in the Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
  20. ^ T. Cheyne, “Nazareth.” Encyclopedia Biblica. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1899, Col. 3360. R. Eisenman, James the Brother of Jesus. New York: Penguin Books, 1997, p. 952. F. Zindler, The Jesus the Jews Never Knew New Jersey: American Atheist Press, 2003, pp. 1-2.
  21. ^ B. Bagatti, Excavations in Nazareth, Plate XI, top right.
  22. ^ B. Bagatti, Excavations in Nazareth, pp. 237-310.
  23. ^ Alexandre, Y. “Archaeological Excavations at Mary’s Well, Nazareth,” Israel Antiquities Authority bulletin, May 1, 2006.
  24. ^ Cook, Jonathon (22 October 2003). Is This Where Jesus Bathed?. The Guardian.
  25. ^ Cook, Jonathan. (17 December 2002.). Under Nazareth, Secrets in Stone.. International Herald Tribune..
  26. ^ Bagatti, B. Excavations in Nazareth, vol. 1 (1969), p. 249.
  27. ^ C. Kopp, “Beiträge zur Geschichte Nazareths.” Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society, vol. 18 (1938), p. 206, n.1.
  28. ^ The Archaeology of the New Testament, Princeton University Press: Princeton, 1992: pages 44-46.
  29. ^ Zindler, F. "Where Jesus Never Walked," American Atheist, Winter 1996-97, p. 35. [2]
  30. ^ W. Wrede, Das Messiasgeheimnis in der Evangelien(1901), English translation, The Messianic Secret, Cambridge: J. Clarke, 1971
  31. ^ "A few of the careful, however, having obtained private records of their own, either by remembering the names or by getting them in some other way from the registers, pride themselves on preserving the memory of their noble extraction. Among these are those already mentioned, called Desposyni, on account of their connection with the family of the Saviour. Coming from Nazara and Cochaba, villages of Judea, into other parts of the world, they drew the aforesaid genealogy from memory and from the book of daily records as faithfully as possible." (Eusebius Pamphili, Church History, Book I, Chapter VII,§ 14)
  32. ^ Several possible Cochabas have been identified: one fifteen kilometers north of Nazareth (on the other side of Sepphoris); one in the region of Bashan (to the East of the Jordan River); and two near Damascus. See J. Taylor, Christians and the Holy Places. Oxford: 1993, pp. 36-38 (with map).
  33. ^ Clemens Kopp, Die heiligen Stätten der Evangelien [The Holy Places of the Gospels]. Regensburg: Friedrich Pustet, 1959, p. 90.
  34. ^ Joan Taylor, Christians and the Holy Places. Oxford: 1993, p. 243.
  35. ^ It is often supposed that the Hapizzes went to Nazareth after the First Jewish Revolt (70 AD), but R. Horsley has pointed out that "the date of resettlement may well be well into the second (or even the third) century [AD]." History and Society in Galilee, 1996, p. 110. It was in 131 AD that the Roman Emperor Hadrian forbade Jews to reside in Jerusalem (then Aelia Capitolina), thus forcing them elsewhere.
  36. ^ M. Avi-Yonah. "A List of Priestly Courses from Caesarea." Israel Exploration Journal 12 (1962):138.
  37. ^ Pan. I.136. Panarion in Greek. The text was translated into Latin with the title Adversus Haereses.
  38. ^ Pan. 30.4.3; 30.7.1.
  39. ^ Compare Pan.30.11.10 and 30.12.9. (Migne Patrologia Graeco-Latina vol. 41:426-427; Williams, F. The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis, Book I. E. J. Brill 1987, pp. 128-29).
  40. ^ Taylor, J. Christians and the Holy Places. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993, p. 265.
  41. ^ Taylor 229, 266; Kopp 1938:215.
  42. ^ P. Geyer, Itinera Hierosolymitana saeculi, Lipsiae: G. Freytag, 1898: page 161.
  43. ^ C. Kopp, “Beiträge zur Geschichte Nazareths.” Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society, vol. 18 (1938), p. 215. Kopp is citing the Byzantine writer Eutychius (Eutychii Annales in Migne's Patrologia Graeca vol. 111 p. 1083).
  44. ^ http://domino.un.org/maps/m0103_1b.gif
  45. ^ Peretz Kidron (1988). Blaming the Victims. Verso Books, 86-87. 
  46. ^ Final Bar on Controversial Nazareth Mosque. Catholic World News (March 4, 2002).
  47. ^ Nazareth mosque will not be built next to the Basilica of the Annunciation. Israel Insider (March 4, 2002).
  48. ^ Thousands of Israeli Arabs protest attack. USA Today (March 4, 2006).
  49. ^ Rocket attacks kill two Israeli Arab children. Reuters (July 19, 2006).
  50. ^ Christian Today Magazine
  51. ^ Loisy, Alfred; L. P. Jacks. The Birth of the Christian Religion. London: George Allen & Unwin, 413. OCLC 2037483. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. 
  52. ^ Zindler, F. "Where Jesus Never Walked," American Atheist, Winter 1996-97, pp. 33-42.[3]
  53. ^ Zindler, F. "Where Jesus Never Walked," American Atheist, Winter 1996-97, p. 34.[4]

Liber annuus (ISSN 0081-8933) is a theological journal published in Latin by the Franciscans (Studium Biblicum Franciscanum) in Jerusalem. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 13,000? Casualties Unknown 600,000–1,300,000 (mass civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called The Great... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ... Blaming the Victims: Spurious Scholarship and the Palestinian Question, is a collection of esseys, co-edited by Edward Said and Christopher Hitchens, and first published by Verso in 1988 ( ISBN 0-86091-887-4). ... Verso Books is a radical publishing house based in London and New York City, founded in 1970 by the staff of New Left Review. ... Alfred Firmin Loisy (1857-1940) was a French Roman Catholic priest, professor and theologian who became the intellectual standard bearer for Biblical Modernism. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Nazareth
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The North District of Israel, highlighted. ... A City council (‎) is the official designation of a city within Israels system of local government. ... Afula (עפולה; Hebrew: ; ; Arabic: ‎ ) is a city in the North District of Israel, often known as the Capital of the Valley, Jezreel Valley. ... For other uses, see Akko (disambiguation). ... Map of the Decapolis showing the location of Bet Shean (here called by its Greek name, Scythopolis) Bet Shean (Hebrew בית שאן unofficially also spelled Beit Shean, Beth Shean; Arabic بيسان Baysān) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Karmiel Karmiel is a city in northern Israel. ... Qiryat Shemona (קרית שמונה; unofficially also spelled Kiryat Shmona) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Maalot-Tarshiha (Standard Hebrew: מַעֲלוֹת-תַּרְשִׁיחָא, ; Arabic: معالوت ترشيحا, ) is a twin city in the North District in Israel, some 20 km east of Nahariya. ... Migdal HaEmeq (מגדל העמק; unofficially also spelled Migdal HaEmek) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Nahariyya (נהריה; unofficially also spelled Nahariya or Naharia) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Nazerat Illit (נצרת עילית; sometimes spelled Nazareth Illit) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Sakhnin (Arabic: سخنين; Hebrew: סחנין) is an Arab town in northern Israel. ... Shaghur or Shagor (Hebrew: , Arabic: ) is an Israeli-Arab city in the North District of Israel located east of the coastal city of Acre (Akka). ... Shefa-Amr (Arabic شفا عمر , Hebrew שְׁפַרְעָם , unofficially also spelled Shfaram) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Tamra is also an alternative spelling of the female given name Tamara. ... Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... Yokneam (Hebrew: יקנעם) (also transliterated Yoqneam) is a town in a scenic hilly region of the lower Galilee in northern Israel that has developed a reputation for itself as a technology center. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (262x727, 43 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... In Israel, a local council is a locality similar to a city in structure and way of life, that has not yet achieved a status of a city, which requires a minimum number of residents, among other things. ... Hebrew אבו סנאן Arabic أبو سنان Government Local council District North Population 10 800 (2003) Jurisdiction 4 750 dunams (4. ... Arraba (Hebrew: ; Arabic: ) is Israels fourth largest local council and largest Israeli Arab local council. ... Beit Jann is a Druze village on top of Mt. ... Bir al-Maksur or Beer el-Maksura (Arabic: , Hebrew: ) is an Israeli-Arab local council in Israels North District located 15km northwest of Nazareth. ... Buqata (Arabic: بقعاتة) is a Druze town in the northern Golan Heights, currently occupied by Israel. ... Daburiyya ( ; Arabic: , Hebrew: ) is a local council in Israels North District. ... Deir Hanna is a local council in the North District of Israel, located on the hills of the Lower Galilee, 30 km NE of Nazareth. ... Eilabun (Arabic: , ‎) is an Israeli Arab local council in Israels North District, located in the Bet Netofa Valley. ... Fassuta is a local council in the Northern District of Israel. ... Ghajar (or al-Ghajar) is an Alawite village on the Lebanese-Israeli border. ... Hatzor HaGlilit is a small city (development town) in northern Israel, near Safed (Tzfat). ... Ibillin (Hebrew: , Arabic: ‎) is a local council in the Northern District of Israel. ... Iksal, as seen from Upper Nazareth Iksal (Arabic: إكسال; Hebrew: אכסאל) is an Arab town in northern Israel, about 1 kilometer east of Upper Nazareth. ... Jadeidi-Makr or Makr-Jadeidi is an Israeli Arab local council formed by the merger of the two Arab towns of Makr and Jadeidi in 1990. ... Jish (Arabic: , Hebrew: ‎, Gush Halav) is an Israeli-Arab local council located 13km north of Safed in Israels North District. ... Julis (Hebrew: ) is an Arab village and local council in the North District of Israel. ... Kabul (Arabic: , Hebrew: ) is a local council in the North District of Israel, located east of Acre and north of Shefa-Amr. ... Kafr Kanna (Hebrew: , Arabic: ), known as Kfar Kana in Hebrew and Kafr Kana in Arabic, is an Israeli-Arab town in the Northern District of Israel. ... Hebrew כפר מנדא Arabic كفر منده Founded in 11th century Government Local council (from 1973) Also Spelled Kefar Manda (officially) Kfar Menda (unofficially) District North Population 15,000 (2005) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Ibrahim Abd al-Halim Kafr Manda or Kfar Menda (Arabic: , Hebrew: ) is an Israeli-Arab local council located in the... Kafr Yasif (Hebrew: ; Arabic: ) is an Israeli-Arab local council in the North District of Israel. ... Qatzrin (קצרין) the capital of the Golan, Israel. ... Kfar-Kama is located in the Galilee, Israel. ... Kfar Tavor (כפר תבור) is a town in the Lower Galilee region of northern Israel, at the foot of Mount Tabor. ... Kfar Vradim is a small town in northern Israel, occupied by 5500 inhabitants 2004. ... Maghar from the south Maghar (Arabic مغارِ, Hebrew מראר, מעאר, or מגאר, also spelled as Mrar or Mghar; lit. ... Majdal Shams, an Arab Druze village in the Golan Heights Majdal Shams (Arabic مجدل شمس) is a Druze village in the northern part of the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. ... For the location in Lebanon, see Mazraa Mazraa is an Arab town (local council) in northern Israel. ... Metula is a local municipality in the North District of Israel. ... This article deals with the modern settlement, for the ancient village, see Magdala Migdal (Hebrew: ) is the name of a local council in the northern district of Israel. ... Nahf is an Arab town in northern Israel. ... Pekiin or Buqeia (‎, Arabic: ), is a local council in the Northern District of Israel located eight kilometres east of Maalot-Tarshiha in the Upper Galilee . ... Hebrew ראמה Arabic الرامه Founded in 13th century Government Local council (from 2005) Also Spelled ar-Rama (officially) Raama (unofficially) District North Population 7,500 (2005) Jurisdiction 6,118 dunams Rame (Arabic: , Hebrew: ; also spelled Raama or ar-Rama) is a local council in the North District of Israel. ... Reineh, or Reine is an Israeli Arab village in the Galilee, located between Nazareth and Qana of Galilee. ... Rosh Pinna is a town (local council) of approximately 2,300 people located in the Upper Galilee on the eastern slopes of Mount Knaanin, the Northern District of Israel. ... Sajur (Hebrew: , Arabic: ‎) is a predominantly Druze town (local council) in the Galilee region of northern Israel, with an area of 3,000 dunams (3 km²). It achieved recognition as an independent local council in 1992. ... Shaab (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Arab town (local council) in the North District of Israel. ... Hebrew שלומי Government Local council District North Population 5 100 (2003) Jurisdiction 6 000 dunams (6 km²) Shlomi (‎, sometimes spelt Shelomi) is a town in the Northern District of Israel, built on the village land of al-Bassa. ... Shibli-Umm al-Ghanam (Arabic: , ‎) is an Israel-Arab Bedouin local council at the base of Mount Tabor in Israels North District. ... Tuba-Zangariyye (Arabic: طوبه زنغرية) is an Israeli Arab local council in the North District. ... Turan (Arabic: , Hebrew: ‎) is an Israeli-Arab local council in the North District of Israel. ... Yafa an-Naseriyye or Yafi (Arabic: , Hebrew: ) is an Israeli-Arab local council located in the Lower Galilee and is a part of the metropolitan area of Nazareth, also an Arab locality. ... Located in the Hula Valley, Yesod HaMaala is the first modern Jewish community in the Hula Valley. ... Yirka (Arabic:يركه) is an Israeli-Arab town in the North District of Israel. ... Zarzir or Bet Zarzir (Arabic:زرزير)is an Israeli-Arab local council located 10km west of the city of Nazareth in Israels North District. ... The Israeli Ministry of Interior recognizes three types of local government in Israel: cities, regional councils, and local councils. ... The Al-Batuf Regional Council Hebrew: is located on the southern fringe of the Netofa Valley in the North District of Israel. ... Council emblem The Beit Shean Valley Regional Council (‎, Moetza Azurit Bekaat Beit Shean) is a regional council in northern Israel that encompasses most of the settlements in the Beit Shean Valley. ... The Bustan al-Marj Regional Council is a regional council in northern Israel. ... The Emek Hayarden Regional Council (Hebrew: ), lit. ... The Golan Regional Council (Hebrew: ) is the regional council consolidating virtually all the Jewish Israeli settlements located on the Golan Heights, made up of 19 moshavim and 10 kibbutzim, and other villages. ... The Jezreel Valley Regional Council is a regional council in northern Israel that encompasses most of the settlements in the Jezreel Valley. ... The Lower Galilee Regional Council is a regional council in northern Israel that encompasses most of the settlements in the Lower Galilee. ... The Upper Galilee is a mountainous area in northern Israel, its borders are the Litani river in Lebanon at the north, the Mediterranean Sea at the west, the Bet HaKerem valley in the south and the Jordan river at the east. ... The Ma’ale Yosef Regional Council (Hebrew: מועצה אזורית מעלה יוסף) is a regional council in the Upper Galilee, part of the North District of Israel, situated between the towns of Maalot-Tarshiha and Shelomi. ... The Matte Asher Regional Council (Hebrew: ) is a regional council in the western Galilee of northern Israel and named after the Tribe of Asher which had been allotted the region. ... The Megiddo Regional Council (Hebrew: מועצה אזורית מגידו) is a regional council in northern Israel. ... The Merom HaGalil Regional Council (Hebrew: ) is a regional council in the northern Galilee of northern Israel. ... Mevoot HaHermon Regional Council (‎) is a Regional Council in the North District of Israel. ... The Misgav Regional Council is a regional council in the Galilee region in the north of Israel. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nazareth College (63 words)
Nazareth College Hosts Rochester Settlement House Conference, Sept. 27
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Nazareth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1951 words)
Nazareth (Arabic الناصرة an-Nāṣirah; Hebrew נָצְרַת, Standard Hebrew Náẓərat, Tiberian Hebrew Nāṣəraṯ) is an ancient town in the North District in Israel.
Nazareth is not mentioned in Jewish ancient texts, such as the Hebrew Bible, Talmud, nor in Josephus.
According to the New Testament, Nazareth was the home of Joseph and Mary and the site of the Annunciation, according to the New Testament, when Mary was told that she would have Jesus by the Angel Gabriel.
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