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Encyclopedia > Navy
A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. In four descending columns, from left to right: MM Maestrale (F 570), De Grasse (D 612); USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74), Charles De Gaulle (R 91), Surcouf (F 711); USS Port Royal (CG-73), HMS Ocean (L 12), USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67), HNLMS Van Amstel (F 831); and ITS Luigi Durand de la Penne (D 560).
A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. In four descending columns, from left to right: MM Maestrale (F 570), De Grasse (D 612); USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74), Charles De Gaulle (R 91), Surcouf (F 711); USS Port Royal (CG-73), HMS Ocean (L 12), USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67), HNLMS Van Amstel (F 831); and ITS Luigi Durand de la Penne (D 560).

A navy is the branch of a country's military forces principally designated for naval warfare and amphibious warfare namely lake- or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions. It includes operations conducted by surface ships, amphibious ships, submarines, and seaborne aviation, as well as ancillary support, communications, training, and other fields; recent developments have included space related operations. The strategic offensive role of a Navy is projection of force into areas beyond a country's shores (for example, to protect sea-lanes, ferry troops, or attack other navies, ports, or shore installations). The strategic defensive purpose of a Navy is to frustrate sea-borne projection-of-force by enemies. The strategic task of the navy also may incorporate nuclear deterrence by use of nuclear missiles. Navy is the branch of a countrys military forces principally designated for naval warfare. ... Look up naval in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Fleet_5_nations. ... Image File history File links Fleet_5_nations. ... Combatants United States, Poland, France, Canada, Pakistan, India, Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines (in the Philippines theatre only), Northern Alliance, Italy, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ethiopia, Somalia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Portugal, Bulgaria, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Georgia Taliban, al-Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf, Jemaah... Maestrale class is the most important frigate class for the Marina Militare (Italian Navy) of the late 20th century. ... The De Grasse is a F67 type large high-sea frigates of the French Marine Nationale specialised in anti-submarine warfare, though it also has anti-air and anti-surface capabilities. ... USS (CVN-74) is a nuclear-powered supercarrier in the United States Navy named for a Senator from Mississippi. ... The Charles De Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ... The Surcouf (F711) is a La Fayette-class frigate of the French Navy. ... USS Port Royal (CG 73) is a United States Navy Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, the 27th and final in the class. ... HMS Ocean (centre right) in a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... USS (CV-67) (or Big John) is a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier. ... Hr. ... The Durand de la Penne class destroyers are two guided missile destroyers operated by the Italian Navy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... “Fights” redirects here. ... An open surface with X-, Y-, and Z-contours shown. ... For online phenomenon of shipping, see Shipping (fandom). ... It has been suggested that Landing operation be merged into this article or section. ... For online phenomenon of shipping, see Shipping (fandom). ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Naval aviation of the United States. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ...

Contents

History

Main article: Naval warfare
HMS Victory, the oldest warship still in commission in the world.
HMS Victory, the oldest warship still in commission in the world.

Naval warfare developed when humans first fought from water-borne vessels. Prior to the introduction of the cannon and ships with sufficient capacity to carry the large guns, navy warfare primarily involved ramming and boarding actions. In the time of ancient Greece and the Roman Empire, naval warfare centered on long, narrow vessels powered by banks of oarsmen (such as triremes and quinqueremes) designed to ram and sink enemy vessels or come alongside the enemy vessel so its occupants could be attacked hand-to-hand. Naval warfare continued in this vein through the Middle Ages until cannon became commonplace and capable of being reloaded quickly enough to be reused in the same battle. The Chola Dynasty of medieval India was known as a one of the greatest naval powers of its time in the Indian Ocean. In ancient China, large naval battles were known since the Qin Dynasty (also see Battle of Red Cliffs, 208), employing the war junk during the Han Dynasty. However, China's first official standing navy was not established until the Southern Song Dynasty in the 12th century, a time when gunpowder was a revolutionary new application to warfare This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 159 KB) Naval ships from this decade and nearby periods: xfer from de:Bild:Victory Portsmouth um 1900. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 159 KB) Naval ships from this decade and nearby periods: xfer from de:Bild:Victory Portsmouth um 1900. ... For other ships of the same name, see HMS Victory (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Rowing in the Amstel River by a student rowing club. ... A Greek trireme. ... A quinquireme was a galley, a warship propelled by oars, developed from the earlier trireme. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Chola redirects here. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... For the film also known as The Battle of Red Cliff, see Red Cliff (film). ... hello my name is marco u ... A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as...


The mass and deck space required to carry a large number of cannon made oar-based propulsion impossible and ships came to rely primarily on sails. Warships were designed to carry increasing numbers of cannon and naval tactics evolved to bring a ship's firepower to bear in a broadside, with ships-of-the-line arranged in a line of battle. A deck is a permanent covering over a compartment or a hull[1] of a ship. ... A gaff-rigged cutter flying a mainsail, staysail and genoa jib For other uses, see Sail (disambiguation). ... Naval tactics in the Age of Sail were used from the early 1600s when sailing ships replaced oared galleys to the 1860s when steam-powered ironclad warships rendered sailing line of battle ships obsolete. ... USS Iowa Broadside (1984) A broadside is the side of a ship; the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their simultaneous (or near simultaneous) fire in naval warfare. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... British and Danish ships in line of battle at the Battle of Copenhagen (1801). ...


The development of large capacity, sail-powered ships carrying cannon led to a rapid expansion of European navies, especially the Spanish and Portuguese navies which dominated in the 16th and early 17th centuries, and ultimately helped propel the age of exploration and colonialism.The repulsion of the Spanish Armada (1588) by the English fleet revolutionized naval warfare by the success of a guns-only strategy and caused a major overhaul of the Spanish navy, partly along English lines, which resulted in even greater dominance by the Spanish. From the beginning of the 17th century the Dutch cannibalized the Portuguese Empire in the East and, with the immense wealth gained, challenged Spanish hegemony at sea. From the 1620s, Dutch raiders seriously troubled Spanish shipping and, after a number of battles which went both ways, the Dutch Navy finally broke the long dominance of the Spanish Navy in the Battle of the Downs (1639). For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The so-called Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships were traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Belligerents England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 30 Dutch flyboats 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties and losses 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 6,000... Year 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Spanish Navy (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... The eastern hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Look up hegemony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events and Trends Permanent Dutch settlement of New York Bay and the Hudson River. ... Royal Netherlands Navy Jack The Koninklijke Marine (Royal Netherlands Navy ) is the navy of the Netherlands. ... The Spanish Navy (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military. ... Combatants Iberian Union United Provinces Commanders Antonio DOquendo Maarten Tromp Strength 77 ships 117 ships Casualties 6,000 dead 43 ships destroyed or captured 1000 dead 10 ship burned Dutch Revolt Oosterweel – Rheindalen – Heiligerlee – Jemmingen – Jodoigne – Brielle – Haarlem – Flushing – Borsele – Zuiderzee – Alkmaar – Leiden – Reimerswaal – Mookerheyde – Gembloux – Maastricht – 1st Breda... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ...


England emerged as a major naval power in the mid-17th century in the first Anglo-Dutch war with a technical victory but successive decisive Dutch victories in the second and third Anglo-Dutch Wars confirmed the Dutch mastery of the seas during the Dutch Golden Age, financed by the expansion of the Dutch Empire. The French Navy won some important victories near the end of the 17th century but a focus upon land forces led to the French Navy's relative neglect, which allowed the Royal Navy to emerge with an ever-growing advantage in size and quality, especially in tactics and experience, from 1695. Throughout the 18th century the Royal Navy gradually gained ascendancy over the French Navy, with victories in the War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714), inconclusive battles in the War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748), victories in the Seven Years' War (1754-1763), a partial reversal during the American War of Independence (1775-1783), and consolidation into uncontested supremacy during the 19th century from the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. These conflicts saw the development and refinement of tactics which came to be called the line of battle. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The painting Dutch attack on the Medway, June 1667 by Pieter Cornelisz van Soest, painted c. ... The painting Dutch attack on the Medway, June 1667 by Pieter Cornelisz van Soest, painted c. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. ... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Jan. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748). ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... Thomas Jefferson. ... Naval tactics in the Age of Sail were used from the early 1600s when sailing ships replaced oared galleys to the 1860s when steam-powered ironclad warships rendered sailing line of battle ships obsolete. ... British and Danish ships in line of battle at the Battle of Copenhagen (1801). ...

U.S. Navy supercarrier USS Nimitz (CVN-68)
U.S. Navy supercarrier USS Nimitz (CVN-68)

The next stage in the evolution of naval warfare was the introduction of metal plating along the hull sides. The increased mass required steam-powered engines, resulting in an arms race between armor and weapon thickness and firepower. The first armored vessels, the French FS Gloire and British HMS Warrior, made wooden vessels obsolete. Another significant improvement came with the invention of the rotating turrets, which allowed the guns to be aimed independently of ship movement. The battle between the CSS Virginia and the USS Monitor during the American Civil War is often cited as the beginning of this age of maritime conflict. A further step change in naval firepower occurred when the United Kingdom launched HMS Dreadnought, but naval tactics still emphasized the line of battle. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 700 pixel, file size: 108 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 700 pixel, file size: 108 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... USS Enterprise, a supercarrier, and the conventionally-sized aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle USS A supercarrier is a ship belonging to the largest class of aircraft carrier, and generally has a displacement greater than 75,000 tons. ... USS Nimitz (CVN-68) is a supercarrier in the United States Navy, the lead ship of its class. ... For other uses, see Armour (disambiguation). ... The French Navys La Gloire (Glory) was the first ocean-going ironclad warship in history. ... HMS Warrior was the first iron-hulled, armour-plated warship, built for the Royal Navy in response to the first ironclad warship, the French La Gloire, launched only a year earlier. ... CSS Virginia was an ironclad warship of the Confederate States Navy during the American Civil War (built using the remains of the scuttled USS Merrimack). ... USS Monitor was the first ironclad warship commissioned by the United States Navy. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The sixth HMS Dreadnought of the Royal Navy was a revolutionary battleship which entered service in 1906. ... The development of the steam ironclad firing explosive shells in the mid 19th century rendered sailing tactics obsolete. ...


The first practical military submarines were developed in the late 19th century and by the end of World War I had proven to be a powerful arm of naval warfare. During World War II the German Navy's submarine fleet of U-boats almost starved the United Kingdom into submission and inflicted tremendous losses on US coastal shipping. The German battleship Tirpitz, a sister ship of the Bismarck, was almost put out of action by miniature submarines known as X-Craft. The X-Craft severely damaged her and kept her in port for some months. For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... The second happy time was a phase in the Second Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping along the east coast of North America. ... Tirpitz was the second Bismarck class battleship of the German Kriegsmarine, sistership of Bismarck. ... The German battleship Bismarck is one of the most famous warships of the Second World War. ... The X class was a World War II midget submarine class built for the Royal Navy during 1943–44. ...


A major paradigm shift in naval warfare occurred with the introduction of the aircraft carrier. First at Taranto in 1940 and then in Pearl Harbor in 1941, the carrier demonstrated its ability to strike decisively at enemy ships out of sight and range of surface vessels. The Battle of Leyte Gulf (1944) was arguably the largest naval battle in history; it was also the last battle in which battleships played a significant role. By the end of World War II, the carrier had become the dominant force of naval warfare. Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... This article is about the 1940 battle. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants  United States  Australia Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Takeo Kurita (Centre Force) Shoji Nishimura â€  (Southern Force) Kiyohide Shima (Southern Force) Jisaburo Ozawa (Northern Force) Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer escorts... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The title of largest naval battle in history depends on criteria that may include the number of people and ships involved, the total tonnage of vessels, the size of the battlefield, and the duration of the action. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


World War II also saw the United States become by far the largest Naval power in the world with over 70% of the world's total numbers and total tonnage of naval vessels of 1000 tons or greater.[1] Throughout the rest of the 20th century The United States Navy would maintain a tonnage greater than that of the next 17 largest navies combined.[2] USN redirects here. ...


Operations

Three carrier-based naval aircraft
Three carrier-based naval aircraft
Riverboat of the U.S. brownwater navy firing napalm at an onshore target during the Vietnam War.
Riverboat of the U.S. brownwater navy firing napalm at an onshore target during the Vietnam War.

Historically a national navy operates from one or more bases that are maintained by the country or an ally. The base is a port that is specialized in naval operations, and often includes housing for off-shore crew, an arsenal depot for munitions, docks for the vessels, and various repair facilities. During times of war temporary bases may be constructed in closer proximity to strategic locations, as it is advantageous in terms of patrols and station-keeping. Nations with historically strong naval forces have found it advantageous to obtain basing rights in areas of strategic interest. A U.S. riverboat deploying napalm during the Vietnam War from U.S. Naval War College Museum File links The following pages link to this file: Napalm Brown water navy Categories: U.S. Navy images ... A U.S. riverboat deploying napalm during the Vietnam War from U.S. Naval War College Museum File links The following pages link to this file: Napalm Brown water navy Categories: U.S. Navy images ... A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by and/or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... This article is about armaments factories. ...


Navy ships normally operate with a group, which may be a small squadron of comparable ships, or a larger naval fleet of various specialized ships. The commander of a fleet travels in the flag ship, which is usually the most powerful vessel in the group. Prior to the invention of radio, commands from the flag ship were communicated by means of flags. At night signal lamps could be used for a similar purpose. Later these were replaced by the radio transmitter, or the flashing light when radio silence was needed. A Squadron is a small unit or formation of cavalry, aircraft (including balloons), or naval vessels. ... A rare occurance of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... A flagship is the ship used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships. ...


A "blue water navy" is designed to operate far from the coastal waters of its home nation. These are ships capable of maintaining station for long periods of time in deep ocean, and will have a long logistical tail for their support. Many are also nuclear powered to save having to refuel. By contrast a "brown water navy" operates in the coastal periphery and along inland waterways, where larger ocean-going naval vessels can not readily enter. Regional powers may maintain a "green water navy" as a means of localized force projection. Blue water fleets may require specialized vessels, such as mine sweepers, when operating in the littoral regions along the coast. A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Riverboat of the U.S. brownwater navy deploying napalm during the Vietnam War Brown water navy is a term in American naval jargon referring to actions in near shore and riverine environments. ... A green-water navy is a naval term that refers to a naval force based around a coastal or littoral capability. ... USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ...


Traditions

Ship bell of ORP Iskra II - Polish Navy school tall ship
Ship bell of ORP Iskra II - Polish Navy school tall ship

A basic tradition is that all ships commissioned in a navy are referred to as ships rather than vessels. The prefix on a ship's name indicates that it is a commissioned ship. For example, USS is an acronym which expands to United States Ship; in the Royal Navy, HMS expands to Her Majesty's Ship (or when a King reigns, His Majesty's Ship), and so forth. fot. ... fot. ... ORP may refer to: Okręt Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (a traditional ship prefix in the Polish Navy meaning Vessel of the Polish Republic) Oxidation Reduction Potential (chemistry) Operational Ration Pack (the combat ration of the British Armed Forces) Open Runtime Platform (computer science) This page disambiguates a three-character combination which... Flag of the Polish Navy Polish Navy Ensign The Polish Navy (Marynarka Wojenna RP, MW RP) is the branch of Polands armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...


An important tradition on board British naval vessels (and later those of the U.S. and other nations) has been the ship's bell. This was historically used to mark the passage of time on board a vessel, including the duration of four-hour watches. They were also employed as warning devices in heavy fog, and for alarms and ceremonies. The bell was originally kept polished first by the ship's cook, then later by a person belonging to that division of the ship's personnel. Ships bells are a system to indicate the hour by means of bells, used aboard a ship to regulate the sailors duty watches. ...


Another important tradition is that of Piping someone aboard the ship. This was originally used to give orders on warships when shouted orders could not have been heard. The piping was done by the ship's boatswain and therefore the instrument is known as the boatswain's Pipe. The two tones it gives and the number of blasts given off, signify the order given. It is also used in a ceremonial way, i.e., to "pipe" someone aboard the ship - usually captains, including the ship's captain, and more senior officers.


In the United States, in a tradition that dates back to the Revolutionary War, the First Navy Jack is a flag that has the words, "Don't Tread on Me" on the flag. The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... US First Navy Jack In the fall of 1775, as the first ships of the Continental Navy readied in the Delaware River, Commodore Esek Hopkins issued, in a set of fleet signals, an instruction directing his vessels to fly a striped Jack and Ensign. ...


By European tradition, ships have been referred to as a "she". However, it was long considered bad luck to permit women to sail on board naval vessels. To do so would invite a terrible storm that would wreck the ship. The only women that were welcomed on board were figureheads mounted on the prow of the ship. In spite of these views, some women did serve on board naval vessels, usually as wives of crewmembers. Forecastle with figurehead Grand Turk Figurehead is a carved wooden decoration, often female or bestiary, found at the prow of ships of the 16th to the 19th century. ...


Even today, despite their acceptance in many areas of naval service, women are still not permitted to serve on board U.S. submarines. The major reasons cited by the U.S. Navy are the extended duty tours and close conditions which afford almost no privacy. [1] The UK Royal Navy has similar restrictions. Australia, Canada, Spain and Norway have opened submarine service to women sailors, however. [2] For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...


By ancient tradition, corpses on board naval vessels were buried at sea. In the past this involved sewing the body up in a shroud that had a weight at one end, often a cannonball. (During the age of sail, the final stitch was placed through the nose of the victim, just to make sure they were really dead.) The body was then placed on a pivoting table attached to the outer hull, and shrouded by a national ensign. After a solemn ceremony, the board was tilted and the body dropped into the deep. Later ceremonies employed the casket or crematory urn. Burial at Sea for two victims of a Japanese submarine attack on the US aircraft carrier Liscome Bay, November 1943 Burial at sea describes the procedure of disposing of human remains in the ocean. ... Different types of cannon balls recovered from the Vasa, sunk in 1628 Round shot is a type of projectile fired from guns or cannons. ...


The custom of firing cannon salutes originated in the British Royal Navy. When a cannon is fired, it partially disarms the ship, so firing a cannon for no combat reason showed respect and trust. The British, as the dominant naval power, compelled the ships of weaker nations to make the first salute. As the tradition evolved, the number of cannon fired became an indication of the rank of the official being saluted. This article is about the gesture. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


Naval organization

Navy ships

Ships of the multinational fleet Combined Task Force-150
Ships of the multinational fleet Combined Task Force-150
HMCS Vancouver and USS John C Stennis
HMCS Vancouver and USS John C Stennis

Historically, navy ships were primarily intended for warfare. They were designed to withstand damage and to inflict the same, but only carried munitions and supplies for the voyage (rather than merchant cargo). Often, other ships which were not built specifically for warfare, such as the galleon or the armed merchant ships in World War II, did carry armaments. In more recent times, navy ships have become more specialized and have included supply ships, troop transports, repair ships, oil tankers and other logistics support ships as well as combat ships. So long as they are commissioned, however, they are all "ships". Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x416, 796 KB) Ships assigned to Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) assemble in a formation for a photo exercise. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x416, 796 KB) Ships assigned to Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) assemble in a formation for a photo exercise. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x1960, 2648 KB) Halifax-class frigate HMCS Vancouver (FFH 331) At sea with USS (CVN 74) May 20, 2002 The Canadian frigate HMCS Vancouver (FFH 331) steams along side USS as ships from the Stennis Battle Group return from deployment in... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x1960, 2648 KB) Halifax-class frigate HMCS Vancouver (FFH 331) At sea with USS (CVN 74) May 20, 2002 The Canadian frigate HMCS Vancouver (FFH 331) steams along side USS as ships from the Stennis Battle Group return from deployment in... A Spanish galleon. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Modern navy combat ships are generally divided into seven main categories: aircraft carriers, cruisers, destroyers, frigates, corvettes, submarines, and amphibious assault ships. There are also support and auxiliary ships, including the minesweeper, patrol boat, and tender. During the age of sail, the ship categories were divided into the ship of the line, frigate, and sloop-of-war. Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate and larger than a coastal patrol craft. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... For the general article on amphibious ships, see Amphibious warfare ship. ... USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ... // This article is about the naval vessel. ... A516 Donau, an Elbe class tender of the German Navy. ... The age of sail is the period in which international trade and naval warfare were both dominated by sailing ships. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... USS Constellation, a United States Navy sloop-of-war. ...


Naval ship names are typically prefixed by an abbreviation indicating the national navy in which they serve. For a list of the prefixes used with ship names (HMS, USS, etc.) see ship prefix. HBMS redirects here. ... USN redirects here. ... A ship prefix is a combination of letters, usually abbreviations, used in front of the name of a civilian or naval ship. ...


Today ships are significantly faster than in former times, thanks to much improved propulsion systems. Also, the efficiency of the engines has improved a lot, in terms of fuel, and of how many sailors it takes to operate them. In World War II, ships needed to refuel very often. However, today ships can go on very long journeys without refueling. Also, in World War II, the engine room needed about a dozen sailors to work the many engines, however, today, only about 4-5 are needed (depending on the class of the ship). Today, naval strike groups on longer missions are always followed by a range of support and replenishment ships supplying them with anything from fuel and munitions, to medical treatment and postal services. This allows strike groups and combat ships to remain at sea for several months at a time.


Navy boats

Many people make the mistake of calling a ship a "boat". The term "boat" refers to small craft limited in their use by size and usually not capable of making independent voyages of any length on the high seas. The old navy adage to differentiate between ships and boats is that boats are capable of being carried by ships. (Submarines by this rule are ships rather than boats, but are customarily referred to as boats reflecting their previous smaller size.) The Navy uses thousands of boats, ranging from 9-foot dinghies to 135-foot landing craft. They are powered by either diesels, out-board gasoline motors, or waterjets. Most boats are built of aluminum, fiberglass, or steel. Newer Navy boats are designed and built using the International System of units (also known as SI or metric), but older craft were designed using the English units system (feet, inches etc.)


Standard Boats A standard boat is a small craft carried aboard a ship to perform various tasks and evolutions.


Landing Craft These boats, carried by various amphibious ships, are designed to carry troops, vehicles, or cargo from ship to shore under combat conditions, to unload, to retract from beach, and to return to the ship. They are especially rugged, with powerful engines, and they are armed. They are usually referred to by their designations such as LCPL (landing craft, personnel) LCM (landing craft mechanized) or LCU (landing craft, utility) rather than by full name. The most common in today's Navy are the LCMs. there are two types of LCMs. Both types have a power operated bow ramp, a cargo well, twin engines, and after structures that house enginerooms, pilot houses, and stowage compartments. The larger version, designated LCM-8 and often called "mike 8", is 74 feet long, has a 21-foot beam, and is capable of carrying a heavy tank or 60 tons of cargo. The LCM-6 ("mike 6") is 56 feet long, has a 14-foot beam and a cargo capacity of 34 tons. Landing craft Rapière LCU 1656 departs USS Bataan (LHD-5) well deck during Hurricane Katrina relief operations. ...


Landing Craft, Air Cushioned Known as LCAC also most commonly called a hover craft. Floats on a cushion of air that allows travel over water and land. It can deliver troops, equipment, and supplies. They are 81 feet long and carry a load more than 70 tons. Powered by four gas turbine engines, they are capable of speeds as high as 50 knots. Landing craft Rapière A landing craft is a type of boat used to convey infantry and vehicles on to a shore during an assault from sea to land. ...


Work Boats(WB) There are two types of WBs, the 35 foot and the 15 meter (or 50 foot). The 35 foot WB is a twin screw craft with a forward cargo well and a bow ramp. The 35 foot WB is normally carried on board salvage ships and is used to assist ships in salvage operations, underwater exploration,coastal survey, repair of other craft, and cargo transport between ship to shore. A portable "A frame" is used to assist with cargo handling. The 15 meter (50 foot) WB is a twin screw craft with steel hull construction and is a shallow draft craft cargo carrier. The 15 meter (50 foot) WB is intended for general purpose missions and transportation of cargo. the craft has a pilot house aft and forward cargo well deck.


Rigid hull Inflatable Boats Known as the RHIB they are versatile boats designed for service as a standard ship's boat. The seven meter (24 foot) RHIB is a turbocharged, diesel powered craft with a glass reinforced plastic (GRP) hull. The hull form is a combination of a rigid planing hull with an inflatable tube. The craft are manned by three man crew and are provided with a canvas canopy forward. Two RIBs at Castletown, Portland, England. ...


Personnel Boats (PE) These are fast, V bottomed, diesel powered boats with enclosed spaces specifically designed to transport officers, although smaller types are used for shore party boats, lifeboats, and mail boats. They come in 8,10, and 12 meter (26,33, and 40 foot) lengths. The 8 meter (26 foot) boats have one enclosed cabin. The 10 and 12 meter (33 and 40 foot) boats have enclosed cabins forward and aft, and open cockpits amidships where coxswains steer by wheel. Those designed for officers are painted haze gray with white cabins. Those assigned for use by commanding officers, chief of staff, and squadron, patrol, or division commanders are called gigs and have a red stripe added just above the waterline. Personnel boats assigned to flag officers (admirals) are called barges. They have black hulls and a white stripes just above the waterline.


Utility Boats These boats, varying in length from 18 feet to 15 meters (50 feet) are mainly cargo and personnel carrier or heavy duty work boats. Many have been modified for survey work, tending divers, and minesweeping operations. In ideal weather, a 15 meter(50 foot) UB will carry 146 people, plus crew. Utility boats are open boats, though many of the larger ones are provided with canvas canopies. The smaller utility boats are powered by outboard engines. The larger boats have diesel engines.


Punts These are open square enders, 14 feet long. They are either rowed or sculled, and are generally used in port by side cleaners. Punting while dressed for Cambridge graduation This article concentrates on the history and development of punts and punting in England, for other usages see the disambiguation pages at punt and punter. ...


Special Boats These boats, used by shore stations and for special missions, are not normally carried aboard ships a are the standard boats discussed above. They include line handling boats, buoy boats, aircraft rescue boats, torpedo retrievers, explosive ordnance disposal craft, utility boats, dive boats, targets, and various patrol boats. Many standard boats have been modified for special service.


Mark V Special operations craft (SOC) This craft is also used for insertion and extraction of special warfare personnel. The craft is 82 feet long, and has twain diesel engines driving waterjets. The craft is capable of speeds in excess of 50 knots and is air deployable. Mark V SOC The Mark V SOC (Special Operations Craft) is a small marine security/patrol/transport boat manufactured by Halter Marine Inc (Gulfport, Mississippi). ...


Patrol Boats, River (PBR) This is a 31 foot, 25 knots, twin diesel boats with a fiberglass hull and waterjet pump propulsion that permits it to operate in 15 inches of water. The PBR is highly maneuverable and can reverse course in its own length. It carries radar, communications equipment, and machine guns Patrol Boat PBR Mark II PBR Mark II forward . ...


Navy units

Naval forces are typically arranged into units based on the number of ships included, a single ship being the smallest operational unit. Ships may be combined into squadrons or flotillas, which may be formed into fleets. The largest unit size may be the whole Navy or Admiralty. A squadron, or naval squadron, is a small formation of large warships that may be part of a larger fleet. ... A flotilla (from Spanish, meaning a flota of small ships, and this from French flotte), or naval flotilla, is a formation of small warships that may be part of a larger fleet. ... A rare occurance of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ...


Naval ranks

Main article: Naval officer ranks

A navy will typically have two sets of ranks, one for enlisted personnel and one for officers. Navies have military rank systems that often are quite different from those of armies or air forces. ... In military service, an enlisted rank is generally any rating below that of a commissioned officer. ... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ...


Typical ranks for commissioned officers include the following, in ascending order (Commonwealth ranks are listed first on each line): The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...

"Flag officers" include any rank that includes the word "admiral" (or commodore), and are generally in command of a battle group or similar flotilla of ships, rather than a single ship or aspect of a ship. However, commodores can also be temporary positions. For example, during World War II, a Navy captain was assigned duty as a convoy commodore, which meant that he was still a captain, but in charge of all the merchant vessels in the convoy. The most senior rank employed by a navy will tend to vary depending on the size of the navy and whether it is wartime or peacetime, for example, few people have ever held the rank of Fleet Admiral in the U.S. Navy, the chief of the Royal Australian Navy holds the rank of Vice Admiral, and the chief of the Irish Naval Service holds the rank of Commodore. A Sub-Lieutenant is a junior naval commissioned officer, ranking below a Lieutenant. ... Ensign is a junior rank of commissioned officer in the militaries of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. ... Corvette Lieutenant is a rank in some navies, especially those of Spain and Latin America, roughly equivalent to a Royal Navy Acting Sub-Lieutenant or a US Navy Ensign. ... Sub-Lieutenant is a military rank. ... A Lieutenant, Junior Grade, is a division officer in the United States Navy. ... Frigate Lieutenant is a rank in some navies, especially those of Spain (Spanish: Capitán de Fragata) and Latin America, roughly equivalent to a Sub-Lieutenant in the Royal Navy or a Lieutenant Junior Grade in the US Navy. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Ship-of-the-Line Lieutenant is a common naval rank, equivalent to the naval rank of Lieutenant in the UK, Commonwealth and US. The name of the rank derives from the the name of the largest class of warship, the Ship-of-the-Line, as opposed to smaller types of... Captain-lieutenant was formerly a rank in the British Army; the senior subaltern rank, above lieutenant and below captain. ... In the Royal Navy, United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, a lieutenant commander (lieutenant-commander or Lt Cdr in the RN) is a commissioned officer superior to a lieutenant and inferior to a commander. ... Corvette Captain is a rank in many navies which theoretically corresponds to command of a corvette (small warship). ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... Frigate Captain is a naval rank. ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... A Ship-of-the-Line Captain is a common naval rank. ... Commodore is a military rank used in some navies for officers whose position exceeds that of a Captain, but is less than that of a Flag Officer. ... Flotilla Admiral is a rank above Captain in the modern navies of Belgium, Denmark, Germany and Sweden. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... A Fleet Admiral or a Admiral Of The Fleet, as it was first coined, is a military officer of very high rank and is a generic term for a senior admiral in command of a large group of ships, comprising a fleet or, in some cases, a group of fleets. ... Admiral of the Fleet is a supreme naval position that has existed in historical navies and still exists in several modern-day navies. ... German Grand Admiral Sleeve Insignia Grand Admiral Shoulder Insignia In the German Navy the rank of Grand Admiral (Großadmiral) was considered the highest Naval rank. ... The carrier battle group (CVBG or CARBATGRU) or carrier strike group (CVSG) is a fleet of ships in support of an aircraft carrier. ... The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... The Irish Naval Service (in Irish: Seirbhís Chabhlaigh na hÉireann or just An tSeirbhís Chabhlaigh for the Naval Service) is the navy of the Republic of Ireland and is one of the three standing branches of the Irish Defence Forces[1] (Óglaigh na hÉireann). ...


Marine troops

Main article: Marine (military)

During the era of the Roman empire, the naval forces included legionaries for boarding actions. These were troops primarily trained in land warfare, and did not need to be skilled at handling a ship. Much later during the age of sail, a component of marines served a similar role, being ship-borne soldiers who were used either during boarding actions, as sharp-shooters, or in raids along the shore. British Royal Marines in a Rigid Raider assault watercraft Marines (from the English adjective marine, meaning of the sea , from Latin language mare, meaning sea, via French adjective marin(e), of the sea) are, in principle, seaborne land soldiers that are part of a navy. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A Legionary is a member of a legion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Marine is an elite warrior whose primary function is to serve aboard a ship and/or assault the land from the sea in amphibious warfare. ...


The Spanish Infantería de Marina was formed in 1537, making it the oldest current marine corps in the world. The United States Marine Corps became a separate arm in the United States military, with their own equipment. However the U.S. Navy SEALs and the British Royal Marines now serve a similar function, being a ship-based force specially-trained in commando-style operations and tactics as part of the navy. The Royal Marines also have their own special forces, the SBS (Special Boat Service); similar to the US Navy SEALs and the Boat Troops of the SAS. The Infantería de Marina or Spanish Navy Marines is a branch of the Spanish Armed Forces responsible for providing amphibious warfare from the sea utilizing the mobility of the Spanish Navy. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... The Special Boat Service (SBS) is the British Royal Navys special forces unit. ...


Etymology

"Navy" came via Old French from Latin navigium = "fleet of ships" from navis = "ship" and agere = "to drive" (as in driving a herd of animals) or "to get something done".


"Naval" came from Latin navalis = "pertaining to ship" (which it means in the biological name Teredo navalis), but due to resemblance became changed to "pertaining to navy". Genera See text. ...


Additional reading

  • Non-fiction:
    • Braudel, Fernand, The Mediterranean in the Ancient World
    • Corbett, Sir Julian, Some Principles of Maritime Strategy, 1911.
    • Mahan, Alfred Thayer, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783, 1918, Little Brown, Boston.
    • Starr, Chester G., The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History, 1989, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-505666-3 .
    • Hughes, Jr., Wayne P., Fleet Tactics and Coastal Combat, 1999, Naval Institute Press, ISBN 1-55750-392-3
    • Trafalgar 200 Through the Lens, ISBN 0-9553004-0-1
    • Combat Fleets of the World: Their Ships, Aircraft and Systems - Naval Institute Press. Published annually. Comprehensive.

Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ... Sir Julian Stafford Corbett (1854-1922) was a prominent British naval historian and geostrategist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, whose works helped shape the Royal Navys reforms of that era. ... Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan (September 27, 1840–December 1, 1914) was a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the member of the Irish folk band The Clancy Brothers, see Tom Clancy (singer) and for the American Celticist, see Thomas Owen Clancy. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... Red Storm Rising is a 1986 techno-thriller novel by Tom Clancy and Larry Bond about a Third World War in Europe between NATO and Warsaw Pact forces, set around the mid-1980s, probably in 1986 or 1987. ... Horatio Hornblower is a fictional character, an officer in the British Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, originally the protagonist of a series of novels by C. S. Forester, and later the subject of films and television programs. ... The cover of the 1974 paperback edition of one of Foresters non-fiction titles: Hunting The Bismarck Cecil Scott Forester was the pen name of Cecil Louis Troughton Smith (August 27, 1899 – April 2, 1966), an English novelist who rose to fame with tales of adventure with military themes. ... The Aubrey–Maturin series, also known as the Aubreyad,[1] consists of a sequence of 20 completed and one unfinished historical novels by Patrick OBrian, set during the Napoleonic Wars and centering on the friendship between Captain Jack Aubrey of the Royal Navy and his ships surgeon Stephen... Patrick OBrian (12 December 1914 – 2 January 2000; born as Richard Patrick Russ) was an English novelist and translator, best known for his Aubrey–Maturin series of novels set in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars and centered on the friendship of Captain Jack Aubrey and the Irish... Richard Bolitho is a fictional Royal Navy officer who is the main character in a series of novels written by Douglas Reeman (using the pseudonym Alexander Kent). ... Douglas Edward Reeman (born 15 October 1924, Thames Ditton) is a British author who has written many historical fiction books on the Royal Navy, many set during World War II or during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Alan Lewrie is the hero and main character of Dewey Lambdins naval adventure series of novels. ... Dewey Lambdin (1945-) is an American nautical historical novelist with his famous series about capt. ...

See also

This is a list of navies, present and historical. ... This list of naval battles is a chronological list delineating important naval fleet battles. ... It is tempting to regard modern naval combat as the purest expression of tactics. ... A rare occurance of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ships from seven countries sailing together during the RIMPAC exercise in 2006. ...

References

  1. ^ | Weighing the US Navy Defense & Security Analysis, Volume 17, Issue 3 December 2001 , pages 259 - 265
  2. ^ Work, Robert O. "Winning the Race:A Naval Fleet Platform Architecture for Enduring Maritime Supremacy". Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments Online. Accessed April 8, 2006.

is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


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