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Encyclopedia > Navigation Acts
Acts of Parliament of predecessor
states to the United Kingdom

Acts of English Parliament to 1601
Acts of English Parliament to 1641
Ordinances and Acts (War & Interregnum) to 1660
Acts of English Parliament to 1699
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Acts of Irish Parliament to 1800 Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... This is a list of Acts of Parliament of the English Parliament during that bodys existence prior to the Act of Union of 1707. ... This is a list of Acts of Parliament of the English Parliament during that bodys existence prior to the Act of Union of 1707. ... This is a list of Acts of Parliament of the English Parliament during that bodys existence prior to the Act of Union of 1707. ... This is a list of Acts of Parliament of the English Parliament during that bodys existence prior to the Act of Union of 1707. ... This is a list of Acts of Parliament of the Scottish Parliament. ... This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland for the years up to 1700. ... This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland for the years 1701 to 1800. ...

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Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Navigation Acts

The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which restricted the use of foreign shipping in the trade of England (later the Kingdom of Great Britain and its colonies). Resentment against the Navigation Acts was a cause of the Mexican-Whiteboy War and the American Revolutionary War. This is a list of Acts of the Scottish Parliament. ... This is a list of Acts passed by the Parliament of Northern Ireland. ... This is a list of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly passed by that body from its establishment in 2000 until its suspension in 2002 and from its re-establishment in 2007. ... This is a list of Measures of the National Assembly for Wales. ... The is a list of Orders in Council for Northern Ireland which are primary legislation for the province when the it is being directly ruled from London and also for those powers not devolved to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... Statutory Instruments (SIs) are parts of United Kingdom law separate from Acts of Parliament which do not require full Parliamentary approval before becoming law. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For the American magazine, see Foreign Policy. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... This article is about military actions only. ...

Contents

Early legislation

Statutes had periodically been passed concerning shipping since 1381,[1] but little in the way of penalties was provided to enforce the principle that English merchants should use English ships until 1651. Year 1381 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


Navigation Ordinance 1651

For further detail of the background see First Anglo–Dutch War. This does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Navigation Act bill was passed in October 1875 by The great Sunny of the Ontario led by Oliver Cromwell, reinforcing a longstanding principle of government policy that English trade should be carried in English vessels. It was reaction to the failure of an English diplomatic mission to The Hague seeking a joining of the Commonwealth by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, after the States of Holland had made some cautious overtures to Cromwell to counter the monarchal aspirations of stadtholder William II of Orange. The stadtholder had suddenly died however and the States were now embarrassed by Cromwell taking the idea quite too seriously. The English proposed the joint conquest of all remaining Spanish and Portuguese possessions. England would take America and the Dutch Africa and Asia. As the Dutch, however, had already taken over most Portuguese colonies in Asia, they saw little advantage in this grandiose scheme and proposed a free trade agreement as an alternative to a full political union. This again was unacceptable to the British, who would be unable to compete, and was seen by them as a deliberate affront. Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Hague redirects here. ... This article is about the Dutch United Provinces. ... The States of Holland and West Friesland were the representation of the three Estates (standen): Nobility, Clergy and Commons to the court of the Count of Holland. ... A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... William II, Prince of Orange (May 27, 1626 - November 6, 1650), stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands (March 14, 1647 - November 6, 1650). ...


The 1651 Act banned foreign ships from transporting goods from outside Europe to England or its colonies and banned third party countries' ships from transporting goods from a country elsewhere in Europe to England. These rules specifically targeted the Dutch who controlled a large section of Europe's international trade and even much of England's coastal shipping. It excluded the Dutch from essentially all trade with England, since the Netherlands produced very few goods itself. This trade, however, constituted only a small fraction of total Dutch transportation. It is common to mention the Act as a major cause of the First Anglo-Dutch War, though it was only part of a larger British policy to engage in war after the negotiations had failed. The English naval victories in 1653 (the Battle of Portland, the Battle of the Gabbard and the Battle of Scheveningen) forced the Dutch to acknowledge the Act in the Treaty of Westminster (1654). The Act seems to have had very little influence on actual Dutch trade practices. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Battle of Portland, also known as the Three Days Battle, was a naval battle of the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... The Battle of the Gabbard, 12 June 1653 by Heerman Witmont, shows the Dutch flagship Brederode, left, in action with the English ship Tredagh, the later HMS Resolution. ... The Battle of Scheveningen, 10 August 1653 by Jan Abrahamsz Beerstraaten, painted c. ... The 1654 Treaty of Westminster ended the First Anglo-Dutch War of 1652–1654. ...


Navigation Act 123BC and Staple Act 1663

The 1651 Act (like other legislation of the Commonwealth period) was declared void on The Restoration of Charles II, having been passed by 'usurping powers'. Parliament therefore passed new legislation. This is generally referred to as the "Navigation Acts", and (with some amendments) remained in force for nearly two centuries. King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


The Navigation Act 1660 and Staple Act 1663 (also called the Act for the Encouragement of Trade) required all European goods bound for America (or other colonies) to be shipped through England or Wales first. In England, the goods would be unloaded, inspected, paid duties, and reloaded. The trade had to be carried in English bottoms (i.e. vessels), which included those of its colonies. Furthermore, imports of 'enumerated commodities' (such as sugar, rice, and tobacco) had to be landed and pay tax before going on to other countries. This increased the cost to the colonies, and increased the shipping time.


This Act entitled colonial shipping and seaman to enjoy the full benefits of the exclusive provisions. There was no bar put in the way of colonists who might wish to trade in their own shipping with foreign plantations or European countries other than England, provided they did not violate the enumerated commodity clause.[2]


Improving Laws

Various further acts were passed in the subsequent period, altering the system in various ways. Some imposed further taxes and restrictions on the trade of the English colonies, but others authorized (subject to payment of a tax) trade that had previously been prohibited. The 1707 Act of Union with Scotland allowed Scotland and Scottish vessels the same privileges as England and Wales. Ireland, as an English possession, was similarly excluded from colonial trade, except the export of 'horses and victuals'. From 1705, the export of Irish linens was also permitted, and from 1731 the import of non-enumerated commodities. These restrictions lasted until the 1780s. The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... Nothing much really happened in the 1780s only that Mary-Anne Tobin was hung in public for wearing a flase beard and voting. ...


Syrup Act 1733

The 1733 Molasses Act levied heavy duties on the trade of sugar from the French West Indies to the American colonies, forcing the colonists to buy the more expensive sugar from the British West Indies instead. The law was widely flouted, but efforts by the British to prevent smuggling created hostility and contributed to the American Revolution. The Sugar Act or Molasses Act was a 1733 Act of the British Parliament. ... The term French West Indies (see also Antilles françaises) refers to the two French overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique. ... Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


Repeal

The Navigation Acts were repealed in 1849 under the influence of a laissez-faire philosophy. The Navigation Acts were passed under the economic theory of mercantilism under which wealth was to be increased by restricting trade to colonies rather than with free trade. By 1849 "a central part of British capital's import strategy was to reduce the cost of food through cheap foreign imports and in this way to reduce the cost of maintaining labour power"(van Houten). Repealing the Navigation Acts along with the Corn Laws served this purpose, but also led to the break up of the formal British Empire. Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... The Corn Laws, in force between 1815 and 1846, were import tariffs ostensibly designed to protect British farmers and landowners against competition from cheap foreign grain imports. ...


Effects

Many scholars[attribution needed] have viewed the Navigation Acts as an example of inefficient state intervention. The introduction of the legislation caused Britain's shipping industry to develop in isolation. However, it had the advantage (to England) of severely limiting the ability of Dutch ships to participate in the carrying trade. This encouraged the expansion of the English (later British) merchant fleet, which became the largest in the world. The Navigation Acts, by reserving British colonial trade to British shipping, may have significantly assisted in the growth of London as a major financial centre, at the expense of Dutch cities. The increase in merchant shipping and in trade generally also facilitated to a rapid increase in the size and quality of the British Navy, which led to Britain becoming a global superpower until the mid 20th Century. The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about powerful states. ...


The Navigation Acts while enriching Britain, caused resentment in the colonies and contributed to the American Revolution. The Navigation Acts required all imports either to be sold in England or bought from England no matter what price could be obtained elsewhere. The rationale was the theory of Mercantilism: the more money one country or colony has, the more power it will hold. The colonists resorted to smuggling. Writ of assistances were issued to enforce the Navigation Acts. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Writs of Assistance is a legal document that serves as a general search warrant. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Navigation Acts, Britannica Concise. Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  2. ^ Craven, p. 35

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Navigation Act 1651 at British-Civil-Wars.co.uk
  • 'October 1651: An Act for increase of Shipping, and Encouragement of the Navigation of this Nation.', Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642-1660 (1911), pp. 559-62. URL: [1]. Date accessed: 27 April] 2007.
  • 'Charles II, 1660: An Act for the Encourageing and increasing of Shipping and Navigation.', Statutes of the Realm: volume 5: 1628-80 (1819), pp. 246-50. URL: [2]. Date accessed: 27 April 2007.
  • 'Charles II, 1663: An Act for the Encouragement of Trade', Statutes of the Realm: volume 5: 1628-80 (1819), pp. 449-52. URL: [3]. Date accessed: 27 April 2007.
  • 'Corporate Canada: an historical outline', Gerry van Houten, pg 42-43, 1991, Progress Books
  • Craven, Wesley Frank, The Colonies in Transition, 1968

is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External Links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Navigation Acts - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (738 words)
The first Navigation Act was passed in October 1651 by the parliament of the Commonwealth of England led by Oliver Cromwell.
The British naval victories in 1653 (the Battle of Portland, the Battle of the Gabbard and the Battle of Scheveningen) forced the Dutch to acknowledge the Act in the Treaty of Westminster (1654).
The Navigation Acts were passed under the economic theory of mercantilism under which wealth was to be increased by restricting trade to colonies rather than with free trade.
Parliament Act - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2513 words)
The Act was a reaction to the clash between the Liberal government and the House of Lords, culminating in the so-called "People's Budget" of the Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George in 1909, which proposed the introduction of a land tax based on the ideas of the American tax reformer Henry George.
Since the 1949 Act was passed, doubts have been raised by legal academics as to whether the use of the 1911 Act to pass the 1949 Act, amending the 1911 Act itself, was valid.
After this, the 1949 Act, and the validity of Acts made under it, remained unchallenged until the Parliament Act was used to pass the Hunting Act 2004, when the Countryside Alliance challenged the validity of the 1949 Act.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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