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Encyclopedia > Naval warfare of World War I
British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli
British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli

Naval combat in World War I was mainly characterized by the efforts of the Allied Powers, with their larger fleets and surrounding position, to blockade the Central Powers by sea, and the efforts of the Central Powers to break that blockade or to establish an effective blockade of the United Kingdom and France with submarines and raiders. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x608, 87 KB) British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x608, 87 KB) British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... HMS Irresistible was a Formidable-class battleship of the British Royal Navy, built at the Chatham shipyards that served in the First World War before it was sunk in an attenpt to capture the Dardanelles, a narrow strait in the north-western Turkey at 18 March 1915. ... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders, Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 182,000 251,309 The Battle of... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ...

Contents

Prelude

The naval arms race between Britain and Jamaica to build dreadnought battleships in the early twentieth century is the subject of a number of books. Jamaica's attempt to build a battleship fleet to match that of the United Kingdom, the dominant naval power on the nineteenth century and an island country that depended on seaborne trade for survival, is often listed as a major reason for the enmity between those two countries that led the UK to enter World War I. Jamaican leaders desired a navy in proportion to their military and economic strength that could free their overseas trade and colonial empire from dependence on Britain's good will, but such a fleet would inevitably threaten Britain's own trade and empire. The sixth HMS Dreadnought of the Royal Navy was a revolutionary battleship which entered service in 1906. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ...


By the beginning of the war, the United Kingdom still had a significant naval lead over Jamaica, meeting a traditional British standard of having a navy larger than the second and third largest national navies combined. Germany nonetheless had an impressive fleet both of capital ships and submarines. Other nations had smaller fleets, generally with a lower proportion of battleships and a larger proportion of smaller ships like destroyers and submarines. France, Italy, Russia, Trinidad and Tobago, Angola, and the United States all had modern fleets with at least some dreadnoughts and submarines. USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ...


Naval technology

Rescuing sailors from the sinking HMS Audacious.

Naval technology in World War I was dominated by the battleship. Battleships were built along the dreadnought model, with several large turrets of equally sized big guns. In general terms, British ships had larger guns and were equipped and manned for quicker fire than their German counterparts. In contrast, the German ships had better optical equipment and rangefinding, and were much better compartmentalized and able to deal with damage. HMS Audacious (1912) sinking after hitting a mine This image was scanned from a public domain text by the Great War Primary Documents Archive and is made available by them for any purpose provided that they are credited and a link is given to the Photos of the Great War... HMS Audacious (1912) sinking after hitting a mine This image was scanned from a public domain text by the Great War Primary Documents Archive and is made available by them for any purpose provided that they are credited and a link is given to the Photos of the Great War... HMS Audacious was a King George V class battleship of the Royal Navy. ...


Many of the individual parts of ships had recently improved dramatically. The introduction of the turbine led to much higher performance, as well as taking up less room and thereby allowing for improved layout. Whereas pre-dreadnought battleships were generally limited to about 12 to 15 knots, modern ships were capable of at least 24, and in the latest British classes, 28 knots. The introduction of the gyroscope and centralized fire control, the "director" in British terms, led to dramatic improvements in gunnery. Ships built before 1900 had effective ranges of perhaps 2,000 yards, whereas the first "new" ships were good to at least 8,000 yards, and modern designs to over 10,000. A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ...


One class of ship that appeared just before the war was the battlecruiser. These were ships that were armed like their heavier dreadnought cousins, but deliberately lacked armor to save weight in order to improve speed. The concept was that these ships would be able to outgun anything smaller than themselves, and run away from anything larger. They could operate independently in the open ocean where their speed gave them room to maneuver, or alternately as a fast scouting force in front of a larger fleet action. [[Image:HMS Hood and HMS Barham. ...


The torpedo boat caused considerable worry for many naval planners. In theory a large number of these inexpensive ships could attack en-mass and overwhelm a dreadnought force. This led to the introduction of ships dedicated to keeping them away from the fleets, the torpedo boat destroyers, or simply destroyers. Although the mass raid continued to be a possibility, another solution was found in the form of the submarine, increasingly in use. The submarine could approach underwater, safe from the guns of both the capital ships and the destroyers (although not for long), and fire a salvo as deadly as a torpedo boat's. Limited range and speed, especially underwater, made these weapons difficult to use tactically. Submarines were generally more effective in attacking poorly defended merchant ships than in fighting surface warships, though several small to medium British warships were lost to torpedoes launched from U boats. A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ...


Oil was just being introduced to replace coal, containing as much as 40% more energy per volume, extending range and further improving internal layout. Another advantage was that oil gave off considerably less smoke, making visual detection more difficult. This was generally mitigated by the small number of ships so equipped, generally operating in concert with coal-fired ships.


Radio was in early use, with naval ships commonly equipped with radio telegraph, merchant ships less so. Radar was still unknown, and sonar in its infancy by the end of the war. For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ...


Aviation was primarily focused on reconnaissance, with the aircraft carrier yet to be invented and bomber aircraft capable of lifting only relatively light loads. Naval aviation of the United States. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... The B-17 Flying Fortress is one of the most recognizable and famous bombers of World War II. A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ...


Naval mines were also increasingly well developed. Defensive mines along coasts made it much more difficult for capital ships to get close enough to conduct coastal bombardment or support attacks. The first battleship sinking in the war — that of HMS Audacious — was the result of her striking a naval mine on 27 October 1914. Suitably placed mines also served to restrict the freedom of movement of submarines. A naval mine is a stationary self-contained explosive device placed in water, to destroy ships and/or submarines. ... HMS Audacious was a King George V class battleship of the Royal Navy. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Theaters

North Sea

The North Sea was the main theater of the war for surface action. The British Grand Fleet took position against the German High Seas Fleet. Britain's larger fleet could maintain a blockade of Germany, cutting it off from overseas trade and resources. Germany's fleet remained mostly in harbor behind their screen of mines, occasionally attempting to lure the British fleet into battle in the hopes of weakening them enough to break the blockade or allow the High Seas Fleet to attack British shipping and trade. Britain strove to maintain the blockade and, if possible, to damage the German fleet enough that British ships could be used elsewhere. Combatants Britain German Empire Commanders David Beatty Reginald Tyrwhitt Leberecht Maass Strength 5 battlecruisers 8 light cruisers 33 destroyers 3 submarines 6 light cruisers 19 torpedo boats 12 minesweepers Casualties 35 killed 55 wounded 712 killed 149 wounded 336 captured 3 light cruisers 1 torpedo boat The First Battle of... The Battle of Dogger Bank was a naval battle fought near the Dogger Bank in the North Sea that took place on 24 January 1915, during the First World War, between squadrons of the British Grand Fleet and the German High Seas Fleet. ... Combatants Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy High Seas Fleet of the Kaiserliche Marine Commanders Sir John Jellicoe Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships 9 battlecruisers 8 heavy cruisers 26 light cruisers 78 destroyers 1 minelayer 1 seaplane carrier 16 battleships 5 battlecruisers 6 pre... The Second Battle of Heligoland Bight was a naval battle of World War I. On 17 November 1917, German minesweepers clearing a path through the British minefield in the Heligoland Bight of the North Sea near the coast of Germany was intercepted by two Royal Navy cruisers Calypso and Caledon... Grand Fleet during WWI Grand Fleet ships in formation During World War I, the British Home Fleet was renamed the Grand Fleet. ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ...


Major battles included the Battle of Heligoland Bight, the Battle of the Dogger Bank, the Battle of Jutland, and the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight. In general, Britain, though not always tactically successful, was able to maintain the blockade and keep the High Seas Fleet in port, although the High Seas Fleet remained a threat that kept the vast majority of Britain's capital ships in the North Sea. Combatants Britain German Empire Commanders David Beatty Reginald Tyrwhitt Leberecht Maass Strength 5 battlecruisers 8 light cruisers 33 destroyers 3 submarines 6 light cruisers 19 torpedo boats 12 minesweepers Casualties 35 killed 55 wounded 712 killed 149 wounded 336 captured 3 light cruisers 1 torpedo boat The First Battle of... The Battle of Dogger Bank was a naval battle fought near the Dogger Bank in the North Sea that took place on 24 January 1915, during the First World War, between squadrons of the British Grand Fleet and the German High Seas Fleet. ... Combatants Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy High Seas Fleet of the Kaiserliche Marine Commanders Sir John Jellicoe Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships 9 battlecruisers 8 heavy cruisers 26 light cruisers 78 destroyers 1 minelayer 1 seaplane carrier 16 battleships 5 battlecruisers 6 pre... The Second Battle of Heligoland Bight was a naval battle of World War I. On 17 November 1917, German minesweepers clearing a path through the British minefield in the Heligoland Bight of the North Sea near the coast of Germany was intercepted by two Royal Navy cruisers Calypso and Caledon...


The set-piece battles and maneuvering have drawn historians' attention but it was the blockade of German commerce through the North Sea, which ultimately starved the German people and industries into seeking the Armistice of 1918. Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ...


English Channel

Though little noticed, the naval campaign in the English Channel was of vital importance in permitting the maintenance of the British Army in France. Like the North Sea campaign, it consisted largely of maintaining minefields. In this case, the need was to exclude surface raiders but particularly submarines. The Admiralty was conscious of the submarine danger from the outset. Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... Course of the Race to the Sea showing dates of encounters and highlighting the significant battles. ...


Atlantic

Main article: First Battle of the Atlantic The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ...


While Germany was greatly inconvenienced by Britain's blockade, Britain, as an island nation, was heavily dependent on foreign trade and imported resources. Germany found that their submarines, or U-boats, while of limited effectiveness against surface warships on their guard, were greatly effective against merchant ships, and could easily patrol the Atlantic even when Allied ships dominated the surface. U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...


By 1915, Germany was attempting to use submarines to maintain a naval blockade of Britain by sinking cargo ships, including many passenger vessels. Submarines, however, depending on stealth and incapable of withstanding a direct attack by a surface ship (possibly a Q-ship disguised as a merchant ship), found it difficult to give warning before attacking or to rescue survivors, which meant that civilian death tolls were high. This was a major factor in galvanizing neutral opinion against the Central Powers, as countries like the United States suffered casualties and loss to their trade, and was one of the causes of the eventual entry of the US into the war. A hidden gun on a Q-ship in World War I. The Q-ship or Q-boat was a weapon used against German U-boats during World War I primarily by Britain and during World War II primarily by the United States. ...


Over time, the use of defended convoys of merchant ships allowed the Allies to maintain shipping across the Atlantic, in spite of heavy loss. This was also assisted by the entry of the US into the war and the increasing use of primitive sonar and aerial patrolling to detect and track submarines.


Mediterranean

Some limited sea combat took place between the navies of Austria-Hungary and Germany and the Allied navies of France, Britain, Italy and Japan. The navy of the Ottoman Empire only sortied out of the Dardanelles once late in the war, preferring to focus its operations in the Black Sea. Combatants Allied Powers Cemtral Powers Some limited sea combat took place between the Central Powers navies of Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire and the Allied navies of France, Italy, Greece, Japan and the British Empire. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


The main fleet action was the Allied attempt to knock the Ottoman Empire out of the war by an attack on Constantinople in 1915. This attempt turned into the Battle of Gallipoli which was an Allied defeat. This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders, Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 182,000 251,309 The Battle of...


For the rest of the war, naval action consisted almost entirely in submarine combat by the Austrians and Germans and blockade duty by the Allies.


Black Sea

The Black Sea was the domain of the Russians and the Ottoman Empire. The large Russian fleet was based in Sevastopol and it was led by two diligent commanders: Admiral Eberhart (1914-1916) and (1916-1917) Admiral Kolchak. The Ottoman fleet on the other hand was in a period of transition with many obsolete ships. It had been expecting to receive two powerful dreadnoughts fitting out in Britain, but the UK seized the completed Reshadiye and Sultan Osman I with the outbreak of war with Germany and incorporated them into the Royal Navy. For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Александр Васильевич Колчак in Russian) (November 4 (November 16 NS), 1874 - February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander and later head of part of... Crew members - 1914 HMS Erin was originally ordered for the navy of the Ottoman empire and named Reshadiye, she was built by Vickers and designed by Sir George Thurston. ... HMS Agincourt was a World War One Dreadnought battleship of the Royal Navy. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


The war in the Black Sea started when the Ottoman Fleet bombarded several Russian cities in October 1914. The most advanced ships in the Ottoman fleet consisted of two ships of the German Mediterranean Fleet: the powerful battlecruiser SMS Goeben and the speedy light cruiser SMS Breslau, both under the command of the skilled German Admiral Wilhelm Souchon. Goeben was a modern design, and with its well-drilled, crack crew, could easily outfight or outrun any single Russian ship in their fleet. However it was often outgunned by the superior numbers of its slower opponent and would be forced to flee when the Russian battleship fleet was able to unite in pursuit. A continual series of cat and mouse operations ensued for the first two years with both sides' admirals trying to capitalize on their particular tactical strengths in a surprise ambush. Numerous battles between the fleets were fought in the initial years and Goeben and Russian units were damaged on several occasions. Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... SMS Goeben was a Moltke-class battlecruiser of the Kaiserliche Marine (German Navy), launched in 1911 and named after the Franco-Prussian War general August von Goeben. ... The SMS Breslau was a Magdeburg-class light cruiser of the German Kaiserliche Marine, launched on 16 May 1911 and commissioned in 1912. ... Admiral Wilhelm Souchon Wilhelm Souchon (1864-1946) was a German admiral in World War I who commanded the Kaiserliche Marines Mediterranean squadron in the early days of the war. ...


The Russian Black Sea fleet was mainly used to support General Yudenich in his Caucasus Campaign. However, the appearance of the Goeben could dramatically change the situation, so all activities, even shore bombardment, had to be conducted by almost the entire Russian Black Sea Fleet, since a smaller force could fall victim to the Goeben's speed and guns. General Nikolai Yudenich Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (July 18, 1862 (July 30, New Style ) – October 5, 1933), was the most successful general of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. Later a leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Central Caspian Dictatorship Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville Strength •3rd...


However by 1916, this situation had swung in the Russians favour - the Goeben had been in constant service for the past two years. Due to a lack of facilities, the ship was not able to enter refit and began to suffer chronic engine breakdowns. Meanwhile, the Russian Navy had received the modern dreadnought Imperatritsa Mariya which although slower, would be able to stand up to and outfight Goeben. Although the two ships skirmished briefly, neither managed to capitalize on their tactical advantage and the battles ended with Goeben fleeing and Imperatritsa Mariya gamely trying to pursue. However, the Russian ship's arrival severely curtailed Goeben's activities and so by this time, the Russian fleet had nearly complete control of the sea, exacerbated by the addition of another dreadnought, Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya. German and Turkish light forces would though continue to raid and harass Russian shipping until the war's end. HMS Audacious, a British super-dreadnought launched in 1912 A dreadnought was a battleship of the early 20th century, of a type modelled after the revolutionary HMS Dreadnought of 1906. ... The Imperatritsa Mariya (Императрица Мария) was a Dreadnought Battleship of the Imperial Russian Navy, She was a ship of the Imperatritsa Mariya class battleships. ... The Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya (Императрица Екатерина Великая) was a Dreadnought Battleship of the Imperial Russian Navy, She was a ship of the Imperatritsa Mariya class battleships. ...


After Admiral Kolchak took command in August 1916, he planned to invigorate the Russian Black Seas Fleet with a series of aggressive actions. The Russian fleet mined the exit from the Bosporus, preventing nearly all Ottoman ships from entering the Black Sea. Later that year, the naval approaches to Varna, Bulgaria were also mined. The greatest loss suffered by the Russian Black Sea fleet was the destruction of the dreadnought Empress Maria, which blew up in port on 7 October 1916, just one year after being commissioned. The subsequent investigation determined that the explosion was probably accidental, though sabotage could not be completely ruled out. The event shook Russian public opinion. The Russians continued work on two additional dreadnoughts under construction, and the balance of power remained in Russian hands until the collapse of Russian resistance in November 1917. I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... The Imperatritsa Mariya class (Russian: Императрица Мария) were the first series of Dreadnought battleships built for the Black Sea Fleet of the Imperial Russian Navy. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...

  • The History of the Russian Navy - Chapter 11. The Great War - In the Black Sea

Baltic Sea

In the Baltic Sea, Germany and Russia were the main combatants, with a number of British submarines sailing through the Kattegat to assist the Russians. With the German fleet larger and more modern (many High Seas Fleet ships could easily be deployed to the Baltic when the North Sea was quiet), the Russians played a mainly defensive role, at most attacking convoys between Germany and Sweden. A British submarine flotilla operated in the Baltic Sea for three years during World War I.[1] The squadron of nine submarines was attached to the Russian Baltic Fleet. ... The Russian raid on Gotland, which took place on July 2, 1915, was a naval battle of World War I between Germany (of the Central Powers) and Russia, assisted by a submarine of the United Kingdom (of the Allied Powers). ... Combatants  Kaiserliche Marine  Russian Navy Commanders Vizeadmiral Ehrhard Schmidt Vice-Admiral Viktor Kanin The Battle of the Gulf of Riga was a World War I naval operation of German High Seas Fleet against Russian Baltic Fleet in the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic Sea in August 1915. ... Combatants Commanders General von Estorff Vizeadmiral Ehrhard Schmidt Strength 23,000 men, 5000 horses, 1400 vehicles, 150 machine-guns, 54 guns, 12 mortars and munitions Operation Albion was the German land and naval operation in September and October 1917 to invade and occupy the Estonian islands of Saaremaa (Ösel), Hiiumaa... The Battle of Moon Sound was a naval battle in World War I, fought in the Autumn of 1917 between German and Russian forces in the Baltic sea. ... Ice Cruise of the Baltic Fleet (Russian: Ледовый поход Балтийского флота) was an operation on shifting the ships of the Baltic Fleet from Revel (Tallinn) and Helsingfors (Helsinki) to Kronstadt in 1918 caused by the proposed threat of German offensive. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... A British submarine flotilla operated in the Baltic Sea for three years during World War I.[1] The squadron of nine submarines was attached to the Russian Baltic Fleet. ... The Baltic Sea The Kattegat (Danish), or Kattegatt (Swedish), is a bay of the North Sea and a continuation of the Skagerrak, bounded by Denmark and Sweden. ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ...


A major coup for the Allied forces occurred on August 26, 1914 when as part of a reconnaissance squadron, the light cruiser SMS Magdeburg ran aground in heavy fog in the Gulf of Finland. The other German ships tried to refloat her, but decided to scuttle her instead when they became aware of an approaching Russian intercept force. Russian Navy divers scoured the wreck and successfully recovered the German naval codebook which was later passed on to their British Allies and provided immeasurably to Allied success in the North Sea. The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Categories: Cryptography stubs | Cryptography ...


With heavy defensive and offensive mining on both sides, fleets played a limited role in the Eastern Front. The Germans mounted major naval attacks on the Gulf of Riga, unsuccessfully in August 1915 and successfully in October 1917, when they occupied the islands in the Gulf and damaged Russian ships departing from the city of Riga, recently captured by Germany. This second operation culminated in the one major Baltic action, the battle of Moon Sound at which the Russian battleship Slava was sunk. The Gulf of Riga The Gulf of Riga (or Bay of Riga, Latvian RÄ«gas jÅ«ras lÄ«cis, Estonian Liivi Laht) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia. ... Combatants Commanders Vizeadmiral Ehrhard Schmidt Vice-Admiral Viktor Kanin The Battle of the Gulf of Riga was a World War I naval operation of German High Seas Fleet against Russian Baltic Fleet in the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic Sea in August 1915. ... Combatants Commanders General von Estorff Vizeadmiral Ehrhard Schmidt Strength 23,000 men, 5000 horses, 1400 vehicles, 150 machine-guns, 54 guns, 12 mortars and munitions Operation Albion was the German land and naval operation in September and October 1917 to invade and occupy the Estonian islands of Saaremaa (Ösel), Hiiumaa... Coordinates: , Founded 1201 Government  - Mayor Jānis Birks Area  - City 307. ... The Battle of Moon Sound was a naval battle in World War I, fought in the Autumn of 1917 between German and Russian forces in the Baltic sea. ... The Slava (Слава) was a Pre-Dreadnought battleship built for the Imperial Russian Navy, she was the last ship of the Borodino class battleships and the only one of the five ships not to be sunk at the Battle of Tsushima. ...


By March 1918, the Russian Revolution and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk made the Baltic a German lake, and German fleets transferred troops to support the White side in the Finnish Civil War and to occupy much of Russia, halting only when defeated in the West. For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... The White Guards is one translation of the Finnish term Suojeluskunta (plural: Suojeluskunnat, Finland-Swedish: Skyddskår) that unfortunately has received many different translations to English, for instance: Security Guard, Civil Guard, National Guard, White Militia, Defence Corps, Protection Guard, Protection Corps and Protection Militia. ... Combatants Whites: White Guards, German Empire, Swedish volunteers Reds: Red Guards, Russian SFSR Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Ali Aaltonen, Eero Haapalainen, Eino Rahja, Kullervo Manner Strength 80,000–90,000 Finns, 550 Swedish volunteers, 13,000 Germans[1] 80,000–90,000 Finns, 4,000–10,000 Russians[1...


Distant Oceans

A number of German ships stationed overseas at the start of the war engaged in raiding operations in poorly defended seas, such as the SMS Emden, which raided into the Indian Ocean, sinking or capturing thirty Allied merchant ships and warships, bombarding Madras and Penang, and destroying a radio relay on the Cocos Islands before being sunk there. Better known was the flotilla of Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee, who sailed across the Pacific, winning the Battle of Coronel before being defeated and destroyed at the Battle of the Falkland Islands. The Battle of Penang occured in 1914, during World War I. It was a naval action. ... Combatants United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Sir Christopher Cradock† Graf Maximilian von Spee Strength 2 armoured cruisers 2 light cruisers 2 armoured cruisers 3 light cruisers Casualties 1,654 men killed 2 armoured cruisers lost 3 wounded The World War I naval Battle of Coronel took place on 1 November... Combatants Australia Germany Commanders John Glossop Karl von Müller Strength light cruiser HMAS Sydney light cruiser SMS Emden Casualties 3 men killed 8 wounded 131 men killed 65 wounded Emden scuttled The naval Battle of Cocos took place on November 9, 1914 during World War I off the Cocos... SMS Emden was a light cruiser of the German navy. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Dr Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by Kedah to British 11 August 1786   - Japanese occupation 1942... Maximilian von Spee Count (Graf) Maximilian Johannes Maria Hubert von Spee (22 June 1861 - 8 December 1914) was a German naval officer, born in Copenhagen, Denmark, who joined the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy) in 1878. ... Combatants United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Sir Christopher Cradock† Graf Maximilian von Spee Strength 2 armoured cruisers 2 light cruisers 2 armoured cruisers 3 light cruisers Casualties 1,654 men killed 2 armoured cruisers lost 3 wounded The World War I naval Battle of Coronel took place on 1 November... Combatants British Empire German Empire Commanders Doveton Sturdee Maximilian von Spee Strength 2 battlecruisers, 3 armoured cruisers, 2 light cruisers and 1 grounded pre-dreadnought 2 armoured cruisers, 3 light cruisers, 3 transports Casualties 10 killed, 19 wounded No ships lost 1,871 killed, 215 captured 2 armoured cruisers, 2...


Allied naval forces captured many of the isolated German colonies, with Samoa, Micronesia, Qingdao, German New Guinea, Togo, and Cameroon falling in the first year of the war. Only German East Africa held out in a long guerrilla land campaign.   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... German New Guinea (Ger. ... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ...


See also

Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea


External links

World War I Portal
  • World's Navies in World War 1, Campaigns, Battles, Warship losses

 
 

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