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Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
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Siege · Total war · Trench Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... French Republican Guard - May 8, 2005 celebrations Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... Guerrilla warfare (also guerilla) is the unconventional warfare and combat with which small group combatants (usually civilians) use mobile tactics (ambushes, raids, etc) to combat a larger, less mobile formal army. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational Military stratagem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Formations · Ranks · Units The armed forces of a state are its government-sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... rank. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... Supply lines are roads, rail, and other transportation infrastructure needed to replenish the consumables that a military unit requires to function in the field. ...

Lists
Battles · Commanders · Operations
Sieges · Theorists · Wars
War crimes · Weapons · Writers

Naval warfare is combat in and on seas, oceans, or any other major bodies of water such as large lakes and wide rivers. This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... . ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... “Fights” redirects here. ... For the three letter acronym, see SEA. For the ancient Jewish unit of volume, see Seah (unit). ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... A man-made lake in Keukenhof, Netherlands A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ...

Contents

Modern naval tactics

Main article: Modern naval tactics

As with all other forms of battle modern naval tactics are reliant on fire and movement. The effective delivery of firepower results from scouting and assumption of good firing positions. Movement is a large component of modern combat; a naval fleet can travel hundreds of kilometres in a day. It is tempting to regard modern naval combat as the purest expression of tactics. ... It is tempting to regard modern naval combat as the purest expression of tactics. ...


In naval warfare, the key is to detect the enemy while avoiding detection. Much time and effort is spent to deny the enemy the chance to detect your forces.


There is also the concept of battle space: a zone around a naval force within which a commander is confident of detecting, tracking, engaging and destroying threats before they pose a danger. This is why a navy prefers the open sea. The presence of land and the bottom topology of an area compress the battle space, limit the opportunities to maneuver, make it easier for an enemy to predict the location of the fleet and make the detection of enemy forces more difficult. In shallow waters, the detection of submarines and mines is especially problematic. USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... Polish wz. ...


One scenario that was the focus of American naval planning during the Cold War was a conflict between two modern and well equipped fleets on the high seas, the clash of the United States and the Soviet Union. The main consideration is for Carrier Battle Groups (CVBGs). For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In modern naval combat there is the potential of a deadly strike being launched from up to 600 nautical miles (1,100 km) away. This is a huge area to scout. The double-edged answer to this is electronic warfare.


Submarines are the greatest threat to offensive CVBG operations due to the stealth of modern submarines (anechoic coatings, ultra-quiet Pump-jets etc.), which is the submarine's sole advantage. The move towards shallow-water operations has greatly increased this threat. The cherry-on-top is that even the suspicion of a submarine threat forces a fleet to commit resources to removing it as the consequences of an undetected submarine are too great. Categories: Marine propulsion | Stub ...


The key threat in modern naval combat is the missile. This can be delivered from surface, subsurface or air units. With missile speeds ranging up to Mach 4 the engagement time may be only seconds. The key to successful defence is thus to destroy the launching platform before it fires, thus removing a number of missile threats in one go. This is not always possible so the AAW resources need to be balanced between the outer and inner air battles.


History

Mankind has fought battles on the sea for more than 3,000 years. Land warfare would seem on the face of it unreliant upon the oceans, but nothing could be further from the truth. Land navigation, until the advent of extensive railroads was extremely dependent upon river systems and canals. The latter were crucial in the development of the modern world in the United Kingdom, the Low Countries and northern Germany, for they enabled the bulk movement of goods and raw materials without which the industrial revolution would not have occurred. Prior to 1750, things moved by barge or sea, or not much at all. So armies with their exorbitant needs for food, ammunition and fodder were tied to the river valleys throughout the ages. This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... “Deutschland” redirects here. ... The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex...


The oceanic influnces throughout pre-recorded history (Homeric Legends, e.g. Troy), and classical works like the Odyssey underscore the past influences. The Persian Empire — united and strong — couldn't prevail against the might of the Athenian fleet combined with that of lesser city states in several attempts to conquer the Greek City States. The Phoenecian's and Egypt's power, Carthage's and even Rome's depended in no mean way upon control of the seas. So too did the Venetian Republic dominate Italy's city states, thwart the Ottoman Empire, and dominate commerce on the Silk road and the Mediterranean in general for centuries. For three centuries, the Northmen commonly called the Vikings raided and pillaged and went where they willed, far into central Russia and the Ukraine, and even to far off Constantinople (both via the Black Sea tributaries and past the Strait of Gibraltar. Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia) ) is one of the two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Athens (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and Αθήνα nowadays (IPA ); is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... “Hellas” redirects here. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Republic of Venice was a city-state in Venetia in Northeastern Italy, based around the city of Venice. ... For other uses, see Italy (disambiguation). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Map of Constantinople. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ...


The many sea battles through history also provide a reliable source for shipwrecks and underwater archaeology. A major example, albeit not very commonly known, is the exploration of the wrecks of various ships in the Pacific Ocean, namely Japanese warships that sank during the Battle of Midway. Shipwreck of the SS American Star Shipwreck in the Saugatuck River mouth in Westport, Connecticut A shipwreck or sunken ship can refer to the remains of a wrecked ship or to the event that caused the wreck, such as the striking of something that causes the ship to sink, the... Underwater archaeology is the study of past human life, behaviours and cultures using the physical remains found in salt or fresh water or buried beneath water-logged sediment. ... Exploration is the act of searching or traveling for the purpose of discovery, e. ... Wreck may mean: a collision of an automobile or airplane, or other vehicle a shipwreck, where a ship has hit another, or run aground on rocks WREK FM at Georgia Tech, named for the Rambling Wreck   This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... Italian Full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large watercraft capable of offshore navigation. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi † Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier...


Criticism of Naval Warfare History

The Canonical Version of History (CVH further in the text) is as follows. Once there were the valiant ancient Greeks, who came up with orderly navy combat tactics verging on the impeccable and used it with great success – first against the Persians, and then against each other (in the Peloponnesian war and the countless skirmishes of Alexander's successors. Then the iron-clad legions of Rome learned to set sail, and eventually mastered the art of naval combat as well, defeating the Carthaginians in the Punic Wars, and then each other in a plethora of internecine conflicts. Then came the lugubrious Middle Ages, the noble art of naval tactics was lost, and the dim-witted Christian Barbarians couldn't do any better than crashing the board of their vessel into the nearest enemy ship and use various metallic objects to bang on each other's heads. It was only with the advent of the Renaissance that the European admirals got some notion of tactics from the oeuvres of Plutarch and Sueton – however, even the Battle of Gravelines (1588) looked more like a free-for-all than orderly and sensible manoeuvring. Really, the CVH has a very rigid and immutable (and therefore doubly dangerous) system of “sympathies and antipathies”, which is perfectly irrational at a closer look and much resembles the way teenage schoolgirls assess the virtues and shortcomings of their classmates. - - This is what we see to be the case here. The “ancient Greeks” are the darlings of the CVH – so wise, so shapely, with no greater joy than to discuss the sublime and the eternal, prove a theorem or baffle the profane with a dazzling sophism. Also, they had Homer, who wrote a poem that was sung by every shepherd in Hellas for centuries to come, never mind his being blind. Shepherds had nothing better to do, after all, than to strum their lyres all day long and recite the “Iliad” - all of its 700 pages. A very typical opinion of the lumpen intelligentsia, whose familiarity with sheep does not go beyond mutton chops and lambskin hats. And the sonorous names of the authors and the characters! Euripides, Anaximander and so forth. A far cry from all the Johns and the Fritzes, isn't it? The fact that these nobly-named characters were extremely prone to betraying their beloved Hellas and each other, being no strangers to fornication, poison and other attributes of mediaeval life, is usually de-emphasised or altogether hushed up. - - Oh, and the Greeks had democracy as well – one of the holiest cows revered by the lumpen intelligentsia. Granted, it would keep transforming into oligarchy, dictatorship and what-have-you, but let us refrain from mentioning such atrocities . . . Wouldn't it be nicer to talk about Empedocles and Agathocles? We could also discuss the Romans as a set-off. They surely look somewhat hammer-headed as compared to the Greeks. To think of all the statues they destroyed in the city of Syracuse! They murdered Archimedes in his prime, too. Fortunately, they realised it soon enough that the Hellenistic way of life was the only correct modus vivendi, and learned to compose iambic verse and make statues, which made them look more positive in the eyes of the learned historians. Apart from that, they came up with many a brilliant aphorism – not to mention the culture and the order that they brought to the conquered nations (doesn't this kind of argumentation bring the likes of Cecil Rhodes and Alfred Rosenberg to mind?) Who would have mettle enough to point an accusing finger at such trifles as gladiator fights and slave exploitation? - - The Barbarians and their successors, such as the crusaders and other ill-bred Christians, are definitely regarded with scorn by the historical science. Those no-goodniks invariably woke up with the thought of finding a statue to smash or a library to burn, not to mention their use of temples as stables. Obviously enough, they remained a malicious and destructive force up until the epoch when they started to read Ovid and Sueton and became a bit more civilized. There is no talk of the Slavs – those half-apes were still learning to tell their left hand from their right. - - Sad, but so very true: historians are extremely biased in their estimation of one nation or another, the presence or absence of statues being their primary criterion. This has to be borne in mind by anyone who studies the works of the CVH aficionados. As for the evolution of naval tactics, their dynamic was as follows, according to the official version: - - V century B. C. Themistocles the wise, who made such brilliant speeches at the agora just yesterday (a politician, in other words), is featured as the fearless leader of a fleet of 370 ships, no less, which takes on 800 ships of the Persians, manoeuvres hither and thither, destroys the Persians and returns to Athens triumphant, wreathed and clad in white. - - III century B. C. The Roman consuls Caius Duilius and Marcus Atilius Regulus lead a fleet of 330 ships into battle against 250 Carthaginian vessels at Cape Ecnomus. They deftly manoeuvre, crush the flanks and attack the enemy from the rear, effectively destroying the Carthaginian fleet, to be wrapped up in purple by the adoring multitudes upon return. - - I century B. C. In the Battle of Cape Actium the 260 ships of Octavian and Agrippa meet fleet of 170 vessels led by Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian is the victor. - - What do all of the above battles have in common? Firstly, the main type of vessel employed by all participants – the trireme. According to the CVH, it was a ship with three rows of oars (and therefore oarsmen) on each side. Of course, there were aberrations, which is perfectly natural; engineers of all times were subject to kinks of all sorts, which resulted in the construction of unusual devices, with the base model transformed beyond recognition, compact as well as megalomaniac. There were biremes, for instance, with two rows of oars, and also quadriremes and quinqueremes – with four and five rows of oars, respectively. Also, either Strabon or Pliny mention deciremes – vessels with ten rows of oars. - - Secondly, what all of the above have in common is the method of harming the enemy. Apparently, each and every ancient fleet used catapults of all sorts at the stage of approaching the enemy, bombarding the enemy with stones and pots with burning oil. Then, upon reaching a closer distance, the ships sought to use rams in order to damage the hull of the enemy vessel – copper-bound stem posts, that is. Finally, after the loss of velocity and ability to manoeuvre, the enemy ships were boarded. - - Thirdly, the excellent organisation and perfect control over fleets comprising several hundreds of ships. This is the most amazing thing. The ships could manoeuvre, advance, retreat, outflank the enemy and hasten towards their comrades in peril as if every skipper had a walkie-talkie or a mobile phone hidden in the folds of his tunic. In other words, Greek and Roman fleets (and ancient fleets in general) demonstrate outstanding seamanship, unrivalled for centuries to come. - - The ancient Rome perished eventually, and the ecclesiastical witch hunters raised their ugly heads, smashing all the statues and burning all the scrolls. What happened next? The following. - - The XIV century. Hundred years' war, naval battle at Sluys. The French ships stand anchored at the shore, the English fleet approaches them from the windward side, and a head-to-head battle commences. No manoeuvring, no catapults, no rams – a regular battle of the most unsophisticated sort. The English “marines” must have been better at fencing than the Genoese and the French, and gave them a thorough beating. - - The XV-XVII century. The epoch of the most heated confrontation between the Christian Europe and the Turko-Arabic world, as well as ceaseless skirmishes between the European countries, in the Mediterranean for the most part. - - The scenario is just the same as above. Here is a classical example of a naval battle of that epoch: 1571, the Battle of Lepanto, 209 Christian ships against 296 vessels of the Muslims. How do they fight? As follows: the manoeuvres are of the simplest kind imaginable – the ships plunge forward, and shoot at one another from harquebuses and falconets when the distance is sufficient (very primitive firearms indeed) in order to reduce the enemy numbers as much as possible. This is followed by – yes, you guessed it, the good old boarding free-for-all. No manoeuvres! No rams! No catapults, either – those were replaced by the bombards. As a matter of fact, why would that be? Weren't the catapults more effective? - - Let us also consider the 1588 Battle of Gravelines, which is the name used in British historiography for a series of battles fought between the British fleet and the “Great Armada”. This is a seminal battle indeed – the first time when the dubious romance of hand-to-hand battle as the means of defeating the enemy gave way to the romance of the artillery duel, just as dubious. This did not make the battle any more elegant – small groups of ships and individual vessels brought together randomly by the blowing winds, and firing as many cannonballs and as much buckshot at one another as their fire power allows. - ..to be continued Poggio Bracciolini 18:35, 11 August 2007 (UTC)


Oarsmen of the Mediterranean Sea

An ancient Greek trireme vessel.
An ancient Greek trireme vessel.

The first dateable recorded sea battle occurred about 1210 BC: Suppiluliuma II, king of the Hittites, defeated a fleet from Cyprus, and burned their ships at sea. Greek Trireme Source: US Military: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Greek Trireme Source: US Military: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A Greek trireme. ... (Redirected from 1210 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC - 1210s BC - 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC Events and Trends 1213 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed and... Suppiluliuma II was the last known king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) 1218 BC – c. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was...


Assyrian reliefs from the 700s BC show Phoenician fighting ships, with two levels of oars, fighting men on a sort of bridge or deck above the oarsmen, and some sort of ram protruding from the bow. No written mention of strategy or tactics seems to have survived. An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ...


The Greeks of Homer just used their ships as transport for land armies, but in 664 BC there is a mention of a battle at sea between Corinth and its colony city Corcyra. Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC Events and Trends 668 BC - Egypt revolts against Assyria 668 BC - Assurbanipal succeeds Esarhaddon as king of... Temple of Apollo at Corinth Corinth, or Korinth (Κόρινθος) is a Greek city, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the original isthmus, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... (This article is about the Greek island known in English as Corfu. ...


The Persian Wars were the first to feature large-scale naval operations, not just sophisticated fleet engagements with dozens of triremes on each side, but combined land-sea operations. It seems unlikely that all this was the product of a single mind or even of a generation; most likely the period of evolution and experimentation was simply not recorded by history. The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... A Greek trireme. ...


After some initial battles while subjugating the Greeks of the Ionian coast, the Persians determined to invade Greece proper. Themistocles of Athens estimated that the Greeks would be outnumbered by the Persians on land, but that Athens could protect itself by building a fleet (the famous "wooden walls"), using the profits of the silver mines at Laurium to finance them. Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Athens (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and Αθήνα nowadays (IPA ); is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... Laurium or Laurion (Λαύριον, Thoricum before early 1000s BC, Ergastiri throughout the medieval times and the mid to late 1000s, Ergastiri is Greek for Workplace) is a town in southeastern part of Attica, Greece and is one of the southernmost and the seat of...


The first Persian campaign, in 492 BC, was aborted because the fleet was lost in a storm, but the second, in 490 BC, captured islands in the Aegean Sea before landing on the mainland near Marathon. Attacks by the Greek armies repulsed these. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 497 BC 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC - 492 BC - 491 BC 490 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Athens, Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus â€ , Arimnestus Datis â€ ?, Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians, 1,000 Plataeans 20,000 - 100,000 a Casualties 192 Athenians killed, 11 Plataeans killed (Herodotus) 6,400 killed, 7 ships captured (Herodotus) a These are modern consensus estimates. ...


The third Persian campaign, under Xerxes I of Persia ten years later (480 BC), followed the pattern of the first in marching the army via the Hellespont while the fleet paralleled them offshore. Near Artemisium, in the narrow channel between the mainland and Euboea, the Greek fleet held off multiple assaults by the Persians, the Persians breaking through a first line, but then being flanked by the second line of ships. But the defeat on land at Thermopylae forced a Greek withdrawal, and Athens evacuated its population to nearby Salamis Island. Xerxes the Great (Persian: خشایارشا, Khšāyāršā, Old Persian: Xšayāršā) was a Persian Emperor (Shahanshah) (reigned 485–465 BCE) of the Achaemenid Dynasty. ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Eurybiades of Sparta Themistocles of Athens Adeimantus of Corinth Unknown Strength 333 ships 500 ships Casualties Half of Fleet (Herodotus) Unknown The naval Battle of Artemisium took place, according to tradition, on the same day as the Battle of Thermopylae on August 11, 480... Euboea or Negropont (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Evia, Ancient Greek Εúβοια Eúboia; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is the largest island of the Greek archipelago. ... Combatants Greek city-states Achaemenid Persia Commanders Leonidas † Xerxes the Great Strength 300 Spartans 700 Thespians[1] 6,000 other Greek allies1 Estimates vary (See below) Casualties 300 Spartans 700 Thespians[1] 1,400 other Greek allies 25,000 (Herodotus)[2] 1 Out of the initial 7,000-strong Greek... Salamis (Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamína, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamís) is the largest Greek island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus. ...


The ensuing Battle of Salamis was one of the decisive engagements of history. Themistocles trapped the Persians in a channel too narrow for them to bring their greater numbers to bear, and attacked them vigorously, in the end causing the loss of 200 Persian ships vs 40 Greek. At the end, Xerxes still had a fleet stronger than the Greeks, but withdrew anyway, and after losing at Plataea in the following year, returns to Asia Minor, leaving the Greeks their freedom. Nevertheless, the Athenians and Spartans attacked and burned the laid-up Persian fleet at Mycale, and freed many of the Ionian towns. Combatants Greek city-states Persia, Halicarnassus Commanders Eurybiades of Sparta Themistocles of Athens Adeimantus of Corinth Aristides of Athens Xerxes I of Persia, Ariamenes †, Artemisia Strength 366-380 ships a 1,000-1,207 ships [1]b Casualties 40 ships 500 ships a Herodotus gives 378 of the alliance, but... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Pausanias Mardonius † Strength 100,000 (Pompeius) 110,000 (Herodotus) 300,000 (Herodotus) 70,000-120,000 [1][2][3] (Modern Consensus) Casualties 10,000+ (Ephorus and Diodorus) 1,360 (Plutarch) 159 (Herodotus) 43,000 survived (Herodotus) Greco-Persian Wars 1st Naxos – Sardis – Ephesus – Lade... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Leotychides Artaÿntes Strength About 40,000 60,000 men, 300 ships Casualties 40,000 The Battle of Mycale, Greek Μάχη Μυκάλης, Mache tes Mycales , was one of the two major battles that ended the Persian invasion of Greece, during the Greco-Persian Wars. ...


During the next fifty years, the Greeks command the Aegean, but not harmoniously, and after several minor wars about which we know little, in 431 BC, tensions exploded into the Peloponnesian War between Athens' Delian League and the Spartan Peloponnese. Naval strategy was critical; Athens walled itself off from the rest of Greece, leaving only the port at Piraeus open, and trusting in its navy to keep supplies flowing while the Spartan army besieged it. This strategy worked, although the close quarters likely contributed to the plague that killed many Athenians in 429. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 436 BC 435 BC 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC - 431 BC - 430 BC 429 BC... For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War. ... Delian League (Athenian Empire), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. Corcyra was not part of the League The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. It was led by Athens. ... The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... It has been suggested that Kaminia (Piraeus), Greece be merged into this article or section. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC - 429 BC - 428 BC 427 BC...


There were a number of sea battles between galleys; at Rhium, Naupactus, Pylos, Syracuse, Cynossema, Cyzicus, Notium. But the end came for Athens in 405 at Aegospotami in the Hellespont, where the Athenians had drawn up their fleet on the beach, and were there surprised by the Spartan fleet, who landed and burned all the ships. Athens surrendered to Sparta in the following year. A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... Combatants Athens Sparta, Corinth, and other members of the Peloponnesian League Commanders Phormio Machaon, Isocrates, Agatharchidas, and others Strength 20 triremes 47 triremes, some being used as transports Casualties None 12 ships captured, with most of their crews The Battle of Rhium (429 BC) was a naval battle in the... The naval Battle of Naupactus took place over the course of a week in 429 BC, in the early part of the Peloponnesian War, between the Athenian fleet under Phormio and a combined Spartan and Corinthian fleet. ... Combatants Athens Sparta Commanders Demosthenes Thrasymelidas Brasidas Strength 50 ships Hundreds of troops 60 ships Unknown troops Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Pylos took place in 425 BC during the Peloponnesian War, between Athens and Sparta. ... The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. ... Battle of Cynossema Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 411 BC Place Off Cynossema Result Athenian victory The Battle of Cynossema was a naval battle in the Hellespont in 411 BC between Athens and Sparta, around the same time the Athenian democracy was overthrown in favour of a short_lived oligarchy. ... The Battle of Cyzicus in 410 BC was a small-scale naval battle during the Peloponnesian War between an Athenian fleet led by Alcibiades and a Peloponnesian fleet led by Sparta. ... Combatants Sparta Athens Commanders Lysander Antiochus Strength 70 ships 80 ships Casualties none 22 ships Th Battle of Notium (or Ephesus) in 406 BC, was a Spartan naval victory in the Peloponnesian War. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 410 BC 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC - 405 BC - 404 BC 403 BC... Combatants Sparta Athens Commanders Lysander 6 generals Strength Unknown 170 ships Casualties Minimal 160 Ships, Thousands of sailors The naval Battle of Aegospotami took place in 404 BC and was the last major battle of the Peloponnesian War. ... The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ...


Navies next played a major role in the complicated wars of the successors of Alexander the Great. Wars of Alexander the Great Chaeronea – Thebes – Granicus – Miletus – Halicarnassus – Issus – Tyre – Gaugamela – Persian Gate – Sogdian Rock – Hydaspes River Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ...


Rome was never much of a seafaring nation, but it had to learn, and learn fast, in the Punic Wars with Carthage, and developed the technique of grappling and boarding enemy ships with soldiers. The Roman Navy grew gradually as Rome found itself involved in more and more Mediterranean politics; by the time of the Roman Civil War and the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, hundreds of ships were involved, many of them quinqueremes mounting catapults and fighting towers. The Roman Empire however had little use for navies beyond periodic piracy suppression. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC... A quinquireme was a galley, a warship propelled by oars, developed from the earlier trireme. ... Replica catapult at Château des Baux, France For the handheld Y-shaped weapon, see slingshot. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ...


Ancient China

In ancient China, the first known naval battles took place during the Warring States (481 BC - 221 BC), a period where regional warlords battled against one another while claiming loyalty to their Zhou Dynasty sovereign. Chinese naval warfare in this ancient period featured grapple-and-hook, as well as ramming tactics with ships called "stomach strikers" and "colliding swoopers" [1]. It was written in the subsequent Han Dynasty that the Warring States era Chinese had employed ge chuan ships (dagger-axe ships, or halberd ships), thought to have a simple description of a ship manned by marines carrying dagger-axe halberds as personal weapons. However, the later 3rd century Three Kingdoms era Chinese writer Zhang Yan asserted in his writing that the Warring States Chinese named the boats this way because halberd blades were actually fixed and attached to the hull of the ship in order to rip into the hull of another ship while ramming, to stab enemies in the water that had fallen overboard and were swimming, or simply to clear any possible dangerous marine animals in the path of the ship (since the ancient Chinese did believe in sea monsters, see Xu Fu for more info). There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 486 BC 485 BC 484 BC 483 BC 482 BC _ 481 BC _ 480 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... Boundaries of the Western Zhou Dynasty (1050 - 771 BC) in China The Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou Ch`ao; 1122 BC to 256 BC [1] preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Xu Fu Xu Fu (Chinese: 徐福) was a court sorceror in Qin Dynasty China. ...


Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 207 BC), owed much of his success in unifying China (specifically southern China) to naval power, although an official navy was not yet established (see Medieval Asia section below). Zhou Dynasty era Chinese were known to use temporary pontoon bridges for general means of transportation, but it was during the Qin and later Han Dynasty that large permanent pontoon bridges were assembled, and used for purposes of warfare (first written account of a pontoon bridge in the West being the oversight of the Greek Mandrocles of Samos in aiding a military campaign of Persian Emperor Darius I over the Bosporus). The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (November / December 260 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE), personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC 209 BC 208 BC - 207 BC - 206 BC 205 BC... For the car body style, see Ponton (automobile). ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Satellite image of the Bosporus, taken from the International Space Station in April 2004 Bosphorus Bridge Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge The Bosporus or Bosphorus, also known as the Istanbul Strait, (Turkish: Ä°stanbul BoÄŸazı or, for Ä°stanbuls inhabitants, simply BoÄŸaz; while the term BoÄŸaziçi denotes those...


During the Han Dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD), the Chinese discovered the use of the stern-mounted steering rudder, as well as designed a new ship type, the junk. During the late Han Dynasty into the Three Kingdoms period, significantly large naval battles like the Battle of Chibi marked the advancement of naval warfare in the East. In the latter engagement, the Chinese military strategist Zhuge Liang from the Kingdom of Shu is well known for his fire attack upon the massive naval fleet of Prime Minister Cao Cao. Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC Events October... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... Aft of the Soleil Royal, by Jean Bérain the Elder. ... Stern-mounted steering oar of an Egyptian riverboat depicted in the Tomb of Menna (c. ... A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... Battle of Red Cliffs Conflict Wars of the Three Kingdoms Date Winter, 208 Place Chi Bi (Red Cliffs), Chang Jiang Result Decisive Wu and Shu victory Battle of Red Cliffs (赤壁之戰 Battle of Chibi) was a decisive battle of the wars of the Three Kingdoms in China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms period, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... Cáo Cāo (155 – March 15, 220, pronounced Tsau Tsau) was a regional warlord and the second last Chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during its final years in ancient China. ...


In terms of seafaring abroad, arguably one of the first Chinese to sail into the Indian Ocean and to reach Sri Lanka and India by sea was the Buddhist monk Fa Xian in the early 5th century (although diplomatic ties and land trade to Persia and India was established during the earlier Han Dynasty). However, Chinese naval maritime influence would not present itself in the Indian Ocean until the medieval period. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... St. ... Faxian (pinyin, Chinese characters: 法顯, also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


The Dark and Middle Ages

The barbarian invasions of the 4th century and later mostly occurred by land, but there are mentions of a Vandal fleet fighting with the Romans, and a defeat of an Ostrogothic fleet at Sena Gallica in the Adriatic Sea. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Misa River in Senigallia. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ...


In the 7th century Arab fleets begin to make an appearance, raiding Sicily in 652, and defeating the Byzantine Navy in 655. Constantinople is saved at the Battle of Syllaeum in 678 by the invention of Greek fire, an early form of flamethrower that is devastating to the ships in the besieging fleet. This was just the first of many encounters. The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Events Khazaria becomes an independent state (approximate date) Rodoald succeeds his father Rothari as king of the Lombards Births Clotaire III, king of the Franks Deaths Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammed, progenitor of the Abbasids Saint Ida of Nivelles, widow of Pippin of Landen, monastic foundress Rothari... The Byzantine Dromon, the heaviest ship in the Byzantine fleet, capable of carrying up to 300 men; 230 oarsmen and 70 marines. ... Events November 15 - Northumbrian king Oswiu defeats the pagan Mercian king Penda in the Battle of Winwaed Empress Saimei ascends to the throne of Japan. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Combatants Roman (Byzantine) Empire Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Unknown Unknown Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The naval Battle of Syllaeum took place in 677 near Syllaeum and was fought between the Arabs and the Byzantine Empire in coordination with a series of land battles in Anatolia and Syria. ... Events Pope Agatho succeeds Pope Donus. ... Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ... Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ...


In the 8th century the Norsemen begin to make an appearance, although their usual style is to appear quickly, plunder, and disappear, preferably undefended locations. King Alfred the Great of England built a fleet and was able to beat off the Danes. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Alfred (also Ælfred from the Old English: ÆlfrÄ“d //) (c. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total...


The Norse also fought several sea battles among themselves. This was normally done by binding the ships on each side together, thus essentially fighting a land battle on the sea. However the fact that the losing side could not easily escape meant that battles tended to be hard and bloody. The Battle of Svolder is perhaps the most famous of these battles. The naval Battle of Svolder or Swold took place on 9 September 1000 in the western Baltic Sea, between Norway and the other Scandinavians. ...


As Arab power in the Mediterranean began to wane, the Italian trading towns of Genoa, Pisa, and Venice stepped in to seize the opportunity, setting up commercial networks and building navies to protect them. At first the navies fought with the Arabs (off Bari in 1004, at Messina in 1005), but then they found themselves contending with Normans moving into Sicily, and finally with each other. The Genoese and Venetians fought four naval wars, in 12531284, 12931299, 13501355, and 13781381. The last ended with a decisive victory for Venice, which gave them almost a century to enjoy Mediterranean trade domination before other European countries started exploring to the south and west. Genoa (Genova [] in Italian - Zena [] in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Location within Italy Bari is the capital of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. ... Events December: End of the Samanid dynasty in Bokhara. ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ... Events Malcolm II succeeds Kenneth III as king of Scotland. ... Norman conquests in red. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... Events May 20 - King Sancho IV of Castile creates the Study of General Schools of Alcala The Minoresses (Franciscan nuns) are first introduced into England Births Deaths Categories: 1293 ... Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Events January 7 - Portuguese king Afonso IV sends three men to kill Ines de Castro, beloved of his son prince Pedro - Pedro revolts and incites a civil war. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Year 1381 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


In the north of Europe, the near-continuous conflict between England and France rarely entails naval activity more sophisticated than carrying knights across the English Channel, and perhaps trying to attack the transports. The Battle of Dover in 1217, between a French fleet of 80 ships under Eustace the Monk and an English fleet of 40 under Hubert de Burgh, is notable is the first recorded battle using sailing ship tactics. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: , the sleeve) is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... The battle of Dover was a naval battle fought in early 1217 between an English fleet of 30-40 ships under Hubert de Burgh and a French fleet of 80 (mostly small craft) under Eustace the Monk. ... April 9 - Peter of Courtenay crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III May 20 - First Barons War, royalist victory at Lincoln. ... Eustace the Monk (c. ... Hubert de Burgh (~1165 - May 12, 1243) was Earl of Kent, Justiciar of England and Ireland, and one of the most influential men in England during the reigns of John and Henry III. De Burgh came from a minor gentry family about which little is known. ...


Medieval Asia (China, India, Japan, and Korea)

The Sui Dynasty (581 - 618 AD) and Tang Dynasty (618 - 907 AD) of China were involved in several naval affairs over the triple-set of polities ruling medieval Korea (Three Kingdoms of Korea), along with engaging naval bombardments on the peninsula from Asuka period Yamato Kingdom (Japan). A prominent factor in the sudden decline and collapse of the Sui Dynasty was its pouring of state funds into the Goguryeo-Sui Wars, where the Chinese assembled an enormous naval fleet that in the end was unsuccessful. The succeeding Tang Dynasty of China took on a different foreign policy, aiding the Silla Dynasty (see also Unified Silla) in expelling the armies and naval forces of the Japanese (see Battle of Baekgang) and conquering Silla's other Korean rivals, Baekje and Goguryeo by 668 AD. In addition, the Chinese Tang Dynasty had maritime trading, tributary, and diplomatic ties as far as modern-day Sri Lanka, India, Islamic Iran and Arabia, as well as Somalia in East Africa. From the Axumite Kingdom in modern-day Ethiopia, the Arab traveller Sa'd ibn Abi-Waqqas sailed from there to Tang China during the reign of Emperor Gaozong. Two decades later, he returned with a copy of the Quran, establishing the first Islamic mosque in China, the Mosque of Remembrance in Guangzhou. What followed was a rising rivalry between Arab and Chinese for dominant control of sea lanes of trade in the Indian Ocean. In his book Cultural Flow Between China and the Outside World, Shen Fuwei notes that maritime Chinese merchants in the 9th century were landing regularly at Sufala in East Africa to cut out Arab middle-men traders.[2] Image File history File links SongJunk. ... Image File history File links SongJunk. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Junk may refer to: Junk (ship), sailing vessel of Chinese origin Junk (Transformers), fictional planet in the Transformers universe Junk (novel), by Melvin Burgess Junk (film), 2000 Japanese zombie film Waste, as in worthless material Hard drugs, junk being a slang term for that junk, slang for male genitals junk... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-619[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Events The Sui Dynasty replaces the Northern Zhou Dynasty, the last of the Northern Dynasties in China. ... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Events Oleg leads Kievan Rus in a campaign against Constantinople Yelü Abaoji establishes Liao (Khitan) dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 907 ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... Yamato (大和) may refer to: // Yamato people, the dominant ethnic group of ancient Japan Yamato period, which is the period of Japanese history when the Japanese Imperial court ruled from Yamato Province Yamato Takeru, a legendary Japanese prince of the Yamato dynasty Yamato (music), a Japanese musical group which performs Taiko... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... Combatants Silla and Tang Dynasty China Baekje and Japan Commanders Unknown Boksin, Buyeo Pung, Abe no Hirafu Strength 130,000 warriors; at least 170 ships 29,000 warriors; at least 170 ships Casualties Unknown 400 ships; Unknown number of warriors lost The Battle of Baekgang, also known as Battle of... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Goguryeo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria (present-day Northeast China), southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... Events Childeric II succeeds Clotaire III as Frankish king Constantine IV becomes Byzantine Emperor, succeeding Constans II Theodore of Tarsus made archbishop of Canterbury. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Sa`d ibn AbÄ« Waqqās (in Arabic: سعد بن أبي وقاص) was an early convert to Islam from the BanÅ« Zuhrah clan of the Quraysh tribe. ... Emperor Gaozong (June 12, 1107 – November 9, 1187), born Zhao Gou, was the tenth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of the Southern Song. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...


The Chola Dynasty of medieval India was a dominant seapower in the Indian Ocean, an avid maritime trader and diplomatic entity with Song China. Rajaraja Chola I (reigned 985 to 1014) and his son Rajendra Chola I (reigned 1014-42), who were from the Dravidian kingdom in southern India, sent out a great naval expedition that occupied parts of Myanmar, Malaya, and Sumatra. While many believe the Cholas were the first rulers noted to have a naval fleet in the Indian subcontinent, there are at least two evidences to cite use of navies. Narasimhavarman Pallava I transported his troops to Sri Lanka to help Manavarman to reclaim the throne. Shatavahanahas were known to possess a navy that was widely deployed to influence South East Asia. What is not known is the extent of use. Some argue that there is no evidence to support naval warfare in a contemporary sense. Others say that ships routinely carried bands of archers to keep pirates at bay. However, since the Arabs were known to use catapults, naptha, and devices attached to ships to prevent boarding parties, one can resoanably conclude that Chola navies not only transported troops but also provided support, protection, and attack capabilities against enemy targets. The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... The Dravidian Race is the name sometimes still given to the peoples of southern and central India and northern Sri Lanka who speak Dravidian languages, the best known of which are Tamil (தமிழ்), Telugu (తెలుగు), Kannada and Malayalam. ... For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ...

A Chinese Song Dynasty naval river ship with a Xuanfeng traction-trebuchet catapult on its top deck, taken from an illustration of the Wujing Zongyao (1044 AD).

In the 12th century, China's first permanent standing navy was established by the Southern Song Dynasty, the headquarters of the Admiralty stationed at Ding-hai. This came about after the conquest of northern China by the Jurchen people (see Jin Dynasty) in 1127, while the Chinese court fled south from Kaifeng to Hangzhou. Equipped with the magnetic compass and knowledge of Shen Kuo's famous treatise (on the concept of true north), the Chinese became proficient experts of navigation in their day. They raised their naval strength from a mere 11 squadrons of 3,000 marines to 20 squadrons of 52,000 marines in a century's time. Employing paddle wheel crafts and trebuchet's throwing gunpowder bombs from the decks of their ships, the Chinese became a formidable foe to the Jin Dynasty during the 12th-13th centuries (see also Battle of Caishi and Battle of Tangdao). With a powerful navy, China dominated maritime trade throughout South East Asia as well. Until 1279, the Chinese were able to use their naval power to defend against the Jin to the north, until the Mongols finally conquered all of China. After the Song Dynasty, the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty of China was a powerful maritime force in the Indian Ocean. The Yuan Emperor Kublai Khan attempted to invade Japan twice with enormous fleets (comprised of both Mongols and Chinese), in 1274 and again in 1281, both attempts being unsuccessful (see Mongol invasions of Japan). Building upon the technological achievements of the earlier Chinese Song Dynasty, the Mongols also employed early cannons upon the decks of their ships. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France. ... Replica catapult at Château des Baux, France For the handheld Y-shaped weapon, see slingshot. ... A Chinese Song Dynasty naval river ship with a Xuanfeng traction-trebuchet catapult on its top deck, taken from an illustration of the Wujing Zongyao. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: JÄ«n 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Conrad III establishes the Hohenstaufen dynasty when he is crowned antiking to the Holy Roman Emperor, Lothair II. First coalition of the Norman princes against Roger II of Sicily. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city in the Peoples Republic of China and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... Compass in a wooden box A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the Earth. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095 AD) was a polymath Chinese scientist of the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD). ... True Pizza is a navigational term referring to the direction of the North Pole relative to the navigators position. ... A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship driven by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine. ... Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... Combatants Jurchen Jin Southern Song Commanders Hailingwang Unknown The naval Battle of Caishi took place in 1161 and was the result of an attempt by forces of the Jurchen Jin to cross the Yangtze River, thus beginning an invasion of Southern Song China. ... Combatants Jurchen Jin Southern Song Commanders Su Baoheng and Wanyan Zhengjianu Li Bao Strength 600 warships and 70,000 troops 120 warships and 3000 troops It was followed with another naval Battle of Caishi (采石之战) taking place in 1161 and was the result of an attempt by forces of the Jurchen... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 Ukhaatu Khan History  - establishing the Yuan Dynasty 1271  - Fall of Dadu September 14, 1368 Population  - 1330 est. ... Kublai Khan, Khubilai Khan or the last of the Great Khans (September 23, 1215[8] - February 18, 1294[9]) (Mongolian: Хубилай хаан, Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ), was a Mongol military leader. ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Japan Commanders Kublai Khan Hōjō Tokimune Strength 35,000 Mongol & Chinese soldiers and 18,000 Korean warriors 10,000 Casualties 16,000 killed before landed minimal Defensive wall at Hakata. ... Not to be confused with Canon. ...

A Chinese paddle-wheel driven ship from a Qing Dynasty encyclopedia published in 1726.
A Chinese paddle-wheel driven ship from a Qing Dynasty encyclopedia published in 1726.

While the Chinese Song Dynasty built its naval strength, the Japanese also had considerable naval prowess. The strength of Japanese naval forces could be seen in the Genpei War, in the large-scale Battle of Dan-no-ura on April 25, 1185 AD. The forces of Minamoto no Yoshitsune were 850 ships strong, while Taira no Munemori had 500 ships under his command. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 402 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (405 × 604 pixel, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to de. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 402 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (405 × 604 pixel, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to de. ... A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship or boat propelled by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902 An encyclopedia, encyclopaedia or (traditionally) encyclopædia[1] is a comprehensive written compendium that contains information on all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. ... The Genpei or Gempei War (源平合戦、寿永・治承の乱) (1180-1185) was a war of ancient Japan, fought between the Taira and Minamoto clans. ... The Battle of Dan-no-ura, more commonly known as Dan-no-ura no Tatakai (壇ノ浦の戦い), was a major sea battle of the Genpei War, occurring at Dan_no_ura, in the Shimonoseki Strait off the southern tip of Honshu. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Yoshitsune by Kikuchi Yosai Yoshitsune and Benkei Viewing Cherry Blossoms, by Yoshitoshi Tsukioka Minamoto no Yoshitsune () (1159 – June 15, 1189) was a general of the Minamoto clan of Japan in the late Heian and early Kamakura period. ... Taira no Munemori )(1147-1185) was heir to Taira no Kiyomori, and one of the Taira clans chief commanders in the Genpei War. ...


In the mid 14th century, the rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang (1328-1398 AD) seized power in the south amongst many other rebel groups. His early success was owed to the aid of capable officials such as Liu Ji and Jiao Yu, and their gunpowder weapons (see Huolongjing). Yet the decisive battle that cemented his success and his founding of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) was the Battle of Lake Poyang, considered one of the largest naval battles in history. In the 15th century, the Chinese Ming Dynasty Admiral Zheng He was assigned to assemble a massive fleet for several tributary missions abroad, sailing throughout the waters of the South East Pacific and the Indian Ocean. During his maritime missions, on several occasions Zheng's fleet came into conflict with pirates. Zheng's fleet also became involved in a conflict in Sri Lanka, where the King of Ceylon traveled back to Ming China afterwards to make a formal apology to the Emperor. The Hongwu Emperor (October 21, 1328 - June 24, 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder of the Ming Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 1368 to 1398. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Events Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland destroyed. ... Liu Ji (Chinese: 刘基, courtesy name Bowen (伯温)) (1311-1375) was a Chinese military strategist and statesman in the Ming dynasty. ... Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) era matchlock firearms featuring serpentine levers. ... Ming Dynasty musketeers in drill formation. ... Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Combatants Han rebel navy Ming rebel navy Commanders Chen Youliang Zhu Yuanzhang Strength Casualties The naval battle of Lake Poyang took place 30 August - 4 October 1363 and was one of the final battles fought in the fall of Chinas Mongol-controlled Yuan Dynasty. ... The question of the the largest naval battle in history is controversial, and depends on the definition of battle and the criteria used to assess the size, such as personnel, the number of ships, their tonnage, the area involved, and the duration. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Zheng He (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Hé; Wade-Giles: Cheng Ho; Birth name: 馬三寶 / 马三宝; Pinyin: ; Islamic name: حجّي محمود شمس Hajji Mahmud Shams) (1371–1433), was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who made the voyages collectively referred to as the travels of Eunuch Sanbao to the Western... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi of Momoyama-era Japan gathered an enormous fleet to assault the Joseon Dynasty of Korea when the Korean monarch Seonjo of Joseon refused to allow Japanese armies to invade Ming Dynasty China via the Korean Peninsula as a staging ground. During the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592-1598), the Japanese employed clever close-range tactics on land with arquebus rifles (see Oda Nobunaga), but also relied upon close-range firing of muskets in grapple-and-board style naval engagements. The Japanese were successful in first capturing the Korean port at Busan, the capital at modern-day Seoul fell to their forces, and then proceeded to move far north into the Korean peninsula. Military aid sent by Chinese Wanli Emperor of Ming assisted the Koreans somewhat, but the farther firing range of Korean cannons, along with the brilliant naval strategies of the Korean Admiral Yi Sun-sin, were the main detrimental factors in ultimate Japanese defeats. Admiral Yi effectively cut off the possible Japanese supply line that would have run through the Yellow Sea to China, as well as severely weakened the Japanese strength and fighting morale in several heated engagements (where many regard the most critical Japanese defeat to be the Battle of Hansando). (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Toyotomi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ) February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a sengoku daimyo who unified Japan. ... The Azuchi-Momoyama period (Japanese: 安土桃山時代, Azuchi-Momoyama-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1568 to 1600. ... Territory of Joseon after Jurchen conquest of King Sejong Capital Hanseong Language(s) Korean Religion Neo-Confucianism Government Monarchy Wang  - 1392 - 1398 Taejo (first)  - 1863 - 1897 Gojong (last)1 Yeong-uijeong  - 1431 - 1449 Hwang Hui  - 1466 - 1472 Han Myeonghoe  - 1592 - 1598 Ryu Seongryong  - 1894 Kim Hongjip Historical era 1392-1897... King Seonjo ruled in Korea between 1567 and 1608. ... Combatants Korea under the Joseon Dynasty , China under the Ming Dynasty, Jurchen tribes Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea: King Seonjo Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Shi-Min† China... Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppo) The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; possibly related to German Hakenbuechse or Dutch Haakbus) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Busan Metropolitan City, also known as Pusan[1] (this is also a correct phonetic variant) is the largest port city in the Republic of Korea. ... Seoul (서울)   [] is the capital of South Korea and is located on the Han River in the countrys northwest. ... Wanli Emperor (September 4, 1563 - August 18, 1620) was emperor of China (Ming dynasty) between 1572 and 1620. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... ... The Battle of Hansan (or Battle of Hansan-do) is regarded as one of the four greatest sea battles of world history. ...


Sails and empires

Main article: Age of sail
The early 17th century galleon Vasa on display at the Vasa Museum in Stockholm. Vasa, with its high stern castle and double battery decks, was a transitional design between the preferences for boarding tactics and the line of battle.
The early 17th century galleon Vasa on display at the Vasa Museum in Stockholm. Vasa, with its high stern castle and double battery decks, was a transitional design between the preferences for boarding tactics and the line of battle.

The late Middle Ages was important as the time of the development of the cogs,caravels,and carracks ships capable of surviving the tough conditions of the open ocean, with enough backup systems and crew expertise to make long voyages routine. In addition, they grew from 100 tons to 300 tons displacement, enough to carry cannons as armament and still have space left over for profitable cargo. One of the largest ships of the time, the Great Harry displaced over 1,500 tons. The age of sail is the period in which international trade and naval warfare were both dominated by sailing ships. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... A Spanish galleon. ... Vasa (or Wasa[2]) is a 64-gun warship, built for Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden 1626-1628. ... The Vasa Museum (Vasa Museet), located on the island Djurgården in Stockholm, Sweden, is a maritime museum that displays the worlds only surviving 17th century ship, HMS Wasa. ... British and Danish ships in line of battle at the Battle of Copenhagen (1801). ... Excavated cog from 1380 Cogs or rather cog-built vessels came into existence around 12th century AD. They were cheracterized by flush-laid flat bottom at midships but gradually shifted to overlapped strakes near the posts. ... Caravela Latina / Latin Caravel Caravela Redonda / Square-rigged Caravel A caravel is a small, highly maneuverable, two or three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish for long voyages of exploration beginning in the 15th century. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Henri Grace a Dieu, from the Anthony Roll. ...


The voyages of discovery were fundamentally commercial rather than military in nature, although the line was sometimes blurry in that a country's ruler was not above funding exploration for personal profit, nor was it a problem to use military power to enhance that profit. Later the lines gradually separated, in that the ruler's motivation in using the navy was to protect private enterprise so that they could pay more taxes.


Like the Egyptian Shia-Fatimids and Mamluks, the Sunni-Islamic Ottoman Empire centered in modern-day Turkey dominated the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The Ottoman Turks upheld a powerful navy, rivaling the Italian city-state of Venice during the Ottoman-Venetian Wars (1499-1503). Although they were sorely defeated in the Battle of Lepanto (1571) by the Holy League, the Ottomans quickly rebuilt their naval strength, and afterwards successfully defended the island of Cyprus so that it would stay in Ottoman hands. However, with the concurrent Age of Discovery, Europe had far surpassed the Ottoman Empire, and successfully bypassed their reliance on land-trade by discovering maritime routes around Africa and towards the Americas. Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Battle of Zonchio (1499) This article is about the Turkish-Venetian War of 1499-1503. ... // Combatants Holy League: Spain  Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 20,000 dead or wounded... Throughout history there have been many alliances and organizations known as the Catholic League, including: Catholic League (USA) - Civil rights group in the United States. ... For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ...


The first naval action in defense of the new colonies was just ten years after Vasco da Gama's epochal landing in India. In March 1508, a combined Gujarati/Egyptian force surprised a Portuguese squadron at Dabul, and only two Portuguese ships escaped. In the following February, the Portuguese viceroy destroys the allied fleet at Diu, thus confirming Portuguese domination of the Indian Ocean. Dom Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (IPA: (Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, ca. ... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Gujarat (Gujarati: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... Diu is a city in Diu district in the state of Daman & Diu, India. ...


In 1582, the Battle of Punta Delgada in the Azores, in which a Spanish fleet defeated a French force, thus suppressing a revolt in the islands, was the first battle fought in mid-Atlantic. Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... The naval Battle of Punta Delgada, also called the Battle of Terceira, took place on July 26, 1582 during the Eighty Years War that resulted in the defeat of a combined Dutch, English, Portuguese, and French Huguenot fleet by a Spanish fleet under Santa Cruz. ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... The Atlantic Ocean forms a component of the all-encompassing World Ocean and is directly linked to the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Southern Ocean. ...


In 1588, Philip II of Spain sent his Spanish Armada to subdue Elizabeth I of England, but Admiral Sir Charles Howard defeated and scattered the force, beginning the rise to prominence of the Royal Navy. 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, King consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Charles Howard Francis Drake Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured, 4 merchant ships sunk or captured The Spanish... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Charles Howard was an entrepreneur and a successful automobile manufacturer. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


In the 17th century competition between English and Dutch commercial fleets came to a head in the Anglo-Dutch Wars, the first wars to be conducted entirely at sea. Most memorable of these battles was the raid on the Medway, in which the Dutch admiral Michiel de Ruyter sailed up the river Thames, and destroyed most of the British fleet. The English and Dutch wars were also known for very few ships being sank, it was very difficult to hit ships below the water level; the water surface deflected cannon balls, and the few holes produced, could be patched quickly. Naval forces were severely weakened by casualties to the men and damage to the sails more than by loss of ships. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The painting Dutch attack on the Medway, June 1667 by Pieter Cornelisz van Soest, painted c. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter, Lieutenant-Admiral of the United Provinces by Ferdinand Bol, painted 1667 Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter (24 March 1607 - 29 April 1676) is one of the most famous admirals in Dutch history. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames...


The 18th century developed into a period of seemingly continuous world wars, each larger than the last. At sea the British and French were bitter rivals; the French aided the fledgling United States in the American Revolutionary War, but their strategic purpose was to capture territory in India and the West Indies. In the Baltic Sea, the final attempt to revive the Swedish Empire led to Gustav III's Russian War, with its grande finale at the Second Battle of Svensksund. The battle was unrivalled in size until the 20th century, was a decisive Swedish tactical victory but its strategical result was poor (due to poor army performance and previous lack of initiative from the Swedes) and the war ended without any territorial changes. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Combatants United States France Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida Tuscarora Polish volunteers Quebec volunteers Prussian volunteers Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz KoÅ›ciuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben King George III Sir... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Gustav IIIs Russian War, also known as the Russo-Swedish War, was fought between Sweden and Russia from June 1788 to August 1790. ... The Second Battle of Svensksund was a naval engagement fought in the Baltic Sea on 9-10 July 1790 during the Russo-Swedish War (1788-1790) (also known as King Gustav IIIs Russian War) in which Swedish naval forces defeated the Russian coastal fleet losing 9,500 of 14... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...

The 1805 Battle of Trafalgar, depicted here in its opening phase, was the climactic battle of the Age of Sail
The 1805 Battle of Trafalgar, depicted here in its opening phase, was the climactic battle of the Age of Sail

Even the change of government due to the French Revolution seemed to intensify the rivalry rather than diminish it, and the Napoleonic Wars included a series of legendary naval battles, culminating in the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, by which Admiral Horatio Nelson broke the power of the French and Spanish fleets, but lost his own life in so doing. Download high resolution version (1200x645, 119 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1200x645, 119 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[5] Saxony[6] Denmark [7] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince of... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 – October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ...


From Wood and Wind to Steel and Steam

Trafalgar ushered in the Pax Britannica of the 19th century, marked by general peace in the world's oceans, under the ensigns of the Royal Navy. But the period was one of intensive experimentation with new technology; steam power for ships appeared in the 1810s, improved metallurgy and machining technique produced larger and deadlier guns, and the development of explosive shells, capable of demolishing a wooden ship at a single blow, in turn required the addition of iron armour. Pax Britannica (Latin for the British Peace, modelled after Pax Romana) refers to a period of British imperialism after the Battle of Waterloo, which led to a period of overseas British expansionism. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A steam engine is a heat engine that makes use of the potential energy that exists as pressure in steam, converting it to mechanical work. ... Events and Trends End of the Napoleonic Wars in Europe (1803 - 1815). ... Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large solid projectiles previously termed shot (AP, APCR, APCNR, APDS, APFSDS and Proof shot). ...


Although Chinese naval power during the Song, Yuan, and Ming dynasties established China as a major world seapower in the East, the Qing Dynasty lacked an official standing navy like earlier dynasties. They were more interested in pouring funds into military ventures closer to home (China proper), such as Mongolia, Tibet, and Central Asia (modern Xinjiang). However, there were some considerable naval conflicts during the Qing Dynasty before the Opium Wars (such as the Battle of Penghu, or the conflict against Koxinga). The insignificant naval effort that the Manchus/Chinese pitted against the more advanced British steam-powered ships during the first of the Opium Wars in the 1840s was sorely defeated. This left China open to virtual foreign domination (from European powers and then Japan) via spheres of influence over regions of China for economic gain. Although the Qing Dynasty attempted to modernize the Chinese navy, China's Beiyang Fleet was dealt a severe blow by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895). Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Combat at Guangzhou during the Second Opium War The Opium Wars (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or the Anglo-Chinese Wars were two wars fought around the middle of the 19th century (1840-1843 and 1856-1860 respectively) that were the climax of a long dispute between China and Britain. ... Combatants Qing Dynasty Kingdom of Tungning (remnants of Ming Dynasty) Commanders Shi Lang Liu Guoxuan Strength more than 200 ships more than 200 ships Casualties unkowns unkowns The Battle of Penghu (澎湖海战) of 1683 is where the admiral Shi Lang of Qing attacked the fleet of Kingdom of Tungning in Penghu. ... Koxinga (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Gúoxìngyé; Tongyong Pinyin: Gúosìngyé; Taiwanese; Kok-sèng-iâ/Kok-sìⁿ-iâ) is the popular name of Zheng Chenggong (Traditional Chinese: 鄭成功; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Chénggōng; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhèng Chénggong; Wade-Giles: Cheng Cheng-kung; Pe... The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ... Ding Yuan, the flagship of Beiyang Fleet The Beiyang Fleet (Traditional Chinese: 北洋艦隊; Simplified Chinese: 北洋舰队; Pinyin: Bêiyáng Jiàndùi) was one of the four modernised Chinese navies in the late Qing Dynasty. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese...


The famous battle of the CSS Virginia and USS Monitor in the American Civil War was the duel of ironclads that symbolized the changing times. The first fleet action between ironclad ships was fought in 1866 at the Battle of Lissa between the navies of Austria and Italy. Because the decisive moment of the battle occurred when the Austrian flagship the Erzherzog Ferdinand Max successfully sank the Italian flagship Re d'Italia by ramming, in subsequent decades every navy in the world largely focused on ramming as the main tactic. CSS Virginia was an ironclad warship of the Confederate States Navy during the American Civil War (built using the remains of the scuttled USS Merrimack). ... USS Monitor was the first ironclad warship commissioned by the United States Navy. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Ironclad warships, frequently shortened to just ironclads, were ships sheathed with thick iron plates for protection. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants Italy Austria Commanders Carlo di Persano Wilhelm von Tegetthoff Strength 12 ironclads 10 cruisers 4 gunboats (approx 68,000 tons) 7 ironclads 1 steam battleship 6 cruisers 12 gunboats (approx 50,000 tons) Casualties 2 ironclads sunk 620 dead 40 wounded 38 dead 138 wounded The Battle of Lissa...


As the century came to a close, the familiar modern battleship began to emerge; a steel-armored ship, entirely dependent on steam, and sporting a number of large shell guns mounted in turrets arranged along the centerline of the main deck. The ultimate design was reached in 1906 with the HMS Dreadnought (1906) which entirely dispensed with smaller guns, her main guns being sufficient to sink any existing ship of the time. The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa A battleship is a large, heavily-armored warship with a main battery consisting of the largest caliber of guns. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The sixth HMS Dreadnought of the Royal Navy was a revolutionary battleship which entered service in 1906. ...


The Russo-Japanese War and particularly the Battle of Tsushima in 1905 was the first test of the new concepts, resulting a stunning Japanese victory and the destruction of dozens of Russian ships. Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski # Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships 27 cruisers destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships 3 coastal battleships 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead 583 injured 3 torpedo boats sunk 4,380 dead 5,917 captured 21 ships sunk 7 captured 6... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...


With the advent of the steamship, it became possible to create massive gun platforms and to provide them with very serious armor protection. The Dreadnought battleships and their successors were the first heavy capital ships that combined technology and firepower into a mobile weapons platform. However, in the first half of the 20th century, naval strategists and planners failed to take into account the effect of airpower on the effectiveness and usability of large capital ships, such as battleships.

Steam-powered vessels fight at the Battle of Jutland, 1916

World War I pitted the old Royal Navy against the new navy of Imperial Germany, culminating in the 1916 Battle of Jutland. (The future was heralded when seaplane carrier HMS Campania missed the battle.) Download high resolution version (999x287, 93 KB)The Battle of Jutland from the deck of a British ship, with shell-splashes in the water. ... Download high resolution version (999x287, 93 KB)The Battle of Jutland from the deck of a British ship, with shell-splashes in the water. ... Combatants Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy High Seas Fleet of the Kaiserliche Marine Commanders Sir John Jellicoe Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships 9 battlecruisers 8 heavy cruisers 26 light cruisers 78 destroyers 1 minelayer 1 seaplane carrier 16 battleships 5 battlecruisers 6 pre... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... “Deutschland” redirects here. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy High Seas Fleet of the Kaiserliche Marine Commanders Sir John Jellicoe Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships 9 battlecruisers 8 heavy cruisers 26 light cruisers 78 destroyers 1 minelayer 1 seaplane carrier 16 battleships 5 battlecruisers 6 pre...


Between wars, the first aircraft carrier, HMS Argus, appeared. Many nations agreed to the Washington Naval Treaty and scrapped many of their battleships and cruisers while still in the shipyards, but the growing tensions of the 1930s restarted the building programs, with even larger ships than before; Yamato, the largest battleship ever, displaced 72,000 tons, and mounted 18.1-inch guns. Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea... The Washington Naval Treaty limited the naval armaments of its five signatories: the United States, the British Empire, the Empire of Japan, the French Third Republic, and Italy. ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... Yamato (大和), named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...


Above and below the surface

The victory of the Royal Navy at the Battle of Taranto was a pivotal point as this was the first true demonstration of naval air power.Following 7 December 1941 when the United States came into World War II, the sinking of HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse marked the end of the era of the battleship, and the new importance of aircraft and their transportation, the aircraft carrier, came to the fore. During the Pacific War, battleships and cruisers spent most of their time bombarding shore positions, while the carriers were the stars of the key Battle of the Coral Sea, Battle of Midway, Battle of the Philippine Sea, and the climactic Battle of Leyte Gulf, which was the largest naval battle in history. Look up Victory in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Combatants United Kingdom Italy Commanders Lumley Lyster Inigo Campioni Strength 21 bombers 6 battleships Casualties 2 bombers destroyed 1 battleship sunk 2 battleships damaged 1 cruiser damaged The naval Battle of Taranto took place on the night of 11 November – 12 November 1840 during World War II. The Royal Navy... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up aircraft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea... Combatants China Allies (entered 1941):  United States  United Kingdom  Australia Free France  Netherlands  New Zealand  Canada  Soviet Union (1945) Japan  Germany (from 1941)  Manchukuo Thailand (from 1942) Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill John Curtin Charles de Gaulle Hirohito Hideki Tojo Kuniaki Koiso Kantaro Suzuki Campaigns and... Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi † Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... Combatants United States Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Ray Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Strength 7 heavy carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 6 heavy carriers, 3 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties 123 planes... Combatants  United States  Australia Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Takeo Kurita (Centre Force) Shoji Nishimura â€  (Southern Force) Kiyohide Shima (Southern Force) Jisaburo Ozawa (Northern Force) Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer escorts...


Air power remained key to navies throughout the 20th century, moving to jets launched from ever-larger carriers, and augmented by cruisers armed with guided missiles and cruise missiles. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Missile. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ...


Just as important was the development of submarines to travel underneath the sea, at first for short dives, then later to be able to spend weeks or months underwater powered by a nuclear reactor. In both World Wars, submarines (U-boats in Germany) primarily exerted their power by sinking merchant ships using torpedoes, as well as other warships. In the 1950s the Cold War inspired the development of ballistic missile submarines, each one loaded with dozens of nuclear-armed missiles and with orders to launch them from sea should the other nation attack. USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ...


Three major naval conflicts took place in the second half of the 20th century, of which two pitted fleet against fleet. One was the well known Falklands War, pitting Argentina against the United Kingdom. The other took place 11 years earlier in 1971. It was the third and last of the Indo-Pakistani Wars, in which Bangladesh gained independence from Pakistan with Indian assistance. The Falklands in particular showed the horrible vulnerability of modern ships to sea-skimming missiles like the Exocet. One hit from an Exocet sank HMS Sheffield, a modern anti-air warfare destroyer. Important lessons about ship design, damage control and ship construction materials were learnt from the conflict. The third major naval war took place between Iran and Iraq from 1980 to 1988. It did not feature any large fleet battles, but it featured attacks on merchant ships as routine for the first time since 1945. It also featured the largest surface action since WWII, when United States Navy ships went after Iranian oil rigs to punish the Iranians for their actions in the war. Iranian naval vessels intervened, and Operation Praying Mantis resulted. At the present time, large naval wars seem to be very rare affairs, with the main function of the modern navy being to exploit its control of the seaways to project power ashore. Power projection has been the primary naval feature of conflicts like the Korean War, Suez Crisis, Vietnam War, Konfrontasi, Gulf War, Kosovo War and both campaigns of the War on Terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Since both nations achieved independence in August 1947, there have been three major wars and one minor war between India and Pakistan. ... The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, and airplanes. ... HMS Sheffield (D80) was the second Royal Navy ship to bear the name Sheffield, after the city of Sheffield in Yorkshire. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... USN redirects here. ... Iranian frigate IS Sahand (74) attacked by aircraft of U.S. Navy Carrier Air Wing 11 in retaliation for the mining of the guided missile frigate USS . ... USS , and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962-1966. ... Combatants United States Saudi Arabia Egypt United Kingdom & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Khalid bin Sultan Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded, 30 taken prisoner At least 183,000 victims of the Gulf War syndrome Est. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants Participants in operations  United States  United Kingdom  Israel  Canada  Australia  Poland  Iraq  Afghanistan  Pakistan  Philippines  Somalia  Ethiopia  Lebanon Fatah et al. ...


See also

This is a chronological list of naval fleet battles: If a battles name isnt known its just referred to as Action of (date). // 456 - Romans under Flavius Ricimer defeat Vandals near Corsica 468 Cape Bon - Vandals defeat East and West Romans 551 - East Roman Byzantines under Artabanes... Naval strategy is the planning and conduct of warfare at sea, the naval equivalent of military strategy on land. ... Naval tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemyship or fleet in battle at sea, the naval equivalent of military tactics on land. ... Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare and submarine warfare. ... Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare and submarine warfare. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Sir Julian Stafford Corbett (1854-1922) was a prominent British naval historian and geostrategist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, whose works helped shape the Royal Navys reforms of that era. ... Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan (September 27, 1840–December 1, 1914) was a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maritime piracy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... Maritime history is a broad thematic element of global history. ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... The naval history of Japan traces back to early interactions with states on the Asian continent at the beginning of the medieval period, and reached a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th century at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Nanban trade period. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hellenic Navy (Greek: , Polemikón Nautikón) is the naval force of the modern nation of Greece (Hellenic Republic). ... The Spanish Navy (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military. ... Portuguese naval jack The Portuguese Navy (Portuguese: Marinha Portuguesa, also known as Marinha de Guerra Portuguesa or as Armada Portuguesa) is the naval branch of the Portuguese Armed Forces which, in cooperation with the other branches of the Portuguese military, is charged with the defence of Portugal. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Turkish Navy was once the largest sea power in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean; entering the history books of many countries in distant lands such as the British Isles, Iceland and Newfoundland in the west to India, Indonesia and Malaysia in the... The following is an List of Ottoman sieges and landings from the 14th century to World War One. ... The British Royal Navy does not have a well-defined moment of formation; it started out as a motley assortment of Kings ships during the Middle Ages, assembled only as needed and then dispersed, began to take shape as a standing navy during the 16th century, and became a... The Indian Navy has a history dating back to the British East India Company in 1612, through the division of the Indian Empire into India and Pakistan, who have fought several wars against each other. ... The history of the United States Navy divides into two major periods: the Old Navy, a small but respected force of sailing ships that was also notable for innovation in the use of ironclads during the American Civil War, and the New Navy, the result of a modernization effort that...

Notes

  1. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 678.
  2. ^ Shen, 155.

References

  • Shen, Fuwei (1996). Cultural Flow Between China and the Outside World. China Books & Periodicals. ISBN-13: 978-7119004310
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 3. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.

External links

  • Naval battles
  • Spanish Naval History


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