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Encyclopedia > Naval operations in the Dardanelles Campaign
Naval Operations in the Dardanelles Campaign
Part of the First World War
French battleship Bouvet sinking
The last moments of the French battleship Bouvet, 18 March 1915
Date 19 February 1915 - 9 January 1916
Location Dardanelles, Turkey
Result Ottoman victory
Combatants
Flag of United Kingdom British Empire
Flag of France France
Ottoman Empire
Commanders
Sackville Carden
John de Robeck
Otto Liman von Sanders
Strength
31 battleships
3 battlecruisers
24 cruisers
25 destroyers
8 monitors
14 submarines
50+ transports
Various mines and forts; otherwise Unknown
Casualties
6 battleships sunk
3 battleships damaged
1 battlecruiser damaged
1 destroyer sunk
8 submarines lost
Military Dead:
252.000
2 battleships
1 minelayer
Military Dead:
253.000
Gallipoli Campaign
Naval operationsAnzacHelles1st Krithia2nd Krithia3rd KrithiaGully RavineSari BairKrithia VineyardLone PineSuvlaThe NekChunuk BairScimitar HillHill 60

The naval operations in the Dardanelles Campaign of the First World War were mainly carried out by the Royal Navy with substantial support from the French and minor contributions from Russia and Australia. The Dardanelles Campaign began as a purely naval operation and, after the amphibious invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula, naval forces were heavily involved in supporting the ground troops. Throughout the campaign, attempts were made by submarines to pass through the Dardanelles and disrupt Ottoman Empire shipping in the Sea of Marmara. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Image File history File linksMetadata Bouvet_sinking_March_18_1915. ... The French battleship Bouvet was a pre-Dreadnought battleship of the French Navy, (probably) named after French mariner and explorer Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier, launched in 1896 and sunk during World War I. The Bouvet was part of the squadron contributed by the French to the Dardanelles Campaign. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Admiral Sir Sackville Hamilton Carden, KCMG (1857-1930) was a British admiral who, in cooperation with the French Navy, commanded British naval forces in the Mediterranean Sea during World War I. Born in County Tipperary, Ireland, Carden entered service in the British navy in 1870. ... John de Robeck was an admiral in the British Navy and commanded the naval force to win the Dardanelles during WWI. Dardanelles Campaign The naval campaign to win the straits and push on to Constantinople was nearly succesful due to a lack of ammunition on the Turkish side. ... Otto Liman von Sanders (February 17, 1855 - August 22, 1929) was a German general who served as adviser to the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed V during World War I. He was born in Stolp in Pomerania. ... The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa. ... HMS Hood (left) and the battleship HMS Barham (right), in Malta, 1937. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... USS Monitor became the prototype of a form of ship built by several navies for coastal defence in the 1860s and 1870s and known as a monitor. ... German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Günther Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter Typhoon class nuclear ballistic missile submarine USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine is a watercraft that can operate underwater... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final)[] 6 divisions[] Casualties 284,000[] 251,000[] The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli from April 1915 to... Combatants Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders William Birdwood Mustafa Kemal Strength 2 divisions 1 battalion 1 div. ... Landing at Cape Helles Conflict First World War Date 25 April 1915 Place Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result British victory The Landing at Cape Helles was part of the amphibious invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula by British and French forces on April 25, 1915 during World War I. Helles, at... First Battle of Krithia Conflict First World War Date 28 April 1915 Place Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result Turkish victory The First Battle of Krithia was the first Allied advance of the Battle of Gallipoli during World War I. Starting at Helles on April 28, three days after the initial landings... Second Battle of Krithia Conflict First World War Date 6–8 May 1915 Place Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result Turkish victory The Second Battle of Krithia continued the Allies attempts to advance on the Helles battlefield during the Battle of Gallipoli of World War I. The village of Krithia and... Third Battle of Krithia Conflict First World War Date 4 June 1915 Place Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result Turkish victory The Third Battle of Krithia, fought on the Gallipoli peninsula during World War I, was the final in a series of Allied attacks against the Turkish defences aimed at capturing the... Battle of Gully Ravine Conflict First World War Date 28 June - 5 July 1915 Place Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result Allied victory The Battle of Gully Ravine was a World War I battle fought at Cape Helles on the Gallipoli peninsula. ... Battle of Sari Bair Conflict First World War Date 6–29 August 1915 Place Gallipoli peninsula, Turkey Result Turkish victory The Battle of Sari Bair, also known as the August Offensive, was the last attempt made by the British to seize control of the Gallipoli peninsula from Turkey during... Battle of Krithia Vineyard Conflict First World War Date 6–13 August 1915 Place Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result Turkish victory Gallipoli Campaign Naval operations – Anzac – Helles – 1st Krithia – 2nd Krithia – 3rd Krithia – Gully Ravine – August Offensive – Krithia Vineyard – Lone Pine... Combatants Australia Ottoman Empire Commanders Harold Walker Unknown Strength 1 division Unknown Casualties 2,300 6,000 The Battle of Lone Pine, which took place during the Gallipoli campaign, was the only successful Australian attack against the Turkish trenches within the original perimeter of the ANZAC battlefield, and yet it... Landing at Suvla Bay Conflict First World War Date 6–15 August 1915 Place Suvla, Gallipoli peninsula, Turkey Result Turkish victory The landing at Suvla Bay was an amphibious landing made at Suvla on the Aegean coast of Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey as part of the August Offensive, the... Combatants Australia Ottoman Empire Commanders Col. ... The Battle of Chunuk Bair was a World War I battle fought between the Turkish defenders and troops of New Zealand and Britain on Turkeys Gallipoli peninsula in August 1915. ... Combatants Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Beauvoir De Lisle Mustafa Kemal Strength 14,300 Unknown Casualties 5,300 2,600 The Battle of Scimitar Hill(Yusufçuk Tepe) was the last offensive mounted by the British at Suvla during the Battle of Gallipoli in World War I. It was also the... Battle of Hill 60 Conflict First World War Date 21–29 August 1915 Place Gallipoli, Turkey Result Turkish victory The Battle of Hill 60 was the last major assault of the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Battle of Gallipoli Conflict First World War Date 19 February 1915 - 9 January 1916 Place Gallipoli peninsula, Turkey Result Ottoman victory The Battle of Gallipoli took place on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli in 1915 during the First World War. ... Navy is also:- shorthand for Navy Blue the nickname of the United States Naval Academy A navy is the branch of the armed forces of a nation that operates primarily on water. ... This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... Gallipoli peninsula (Turkish: , Greek: ) is located in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles straits to the east. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula (from the latin words paene insula, almost island) is a geographical landform consisting of an extension of a body of land from a larger body of land, surrounded by water on three sides. ... German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Günther Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter Typhoon class nuclear ballistic missile submarine USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine is a watercraft that can operate underwater... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the...

Contents

Prelude

At the outbreak of World War I, the allegiance of the Ottoman Turkey hung in the balance. While Britain had a long history of interest in the region, it was Germany that had been most active in cultivating a relationship. Anti-British sentiment ran hot when Britain not only refused to deliver two battleships constructed for Turkey but refused to refund payment as well. In response, Germany made a gift of two ships, the battlecruiser SMS Goeben and the light cruiser SMS Breslau, as replacements. While still operated by their German crews, these ships, renamed Yavuz Sultan Selim and Midilli respectively, became the backbone of the Turkish navy. The Goeben was by far the most powerful vessel on the Black Sea. The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa. ... HMS Hood (left) and the battleship HMS Barham (right), in Malta, 1937. ... SMS Goeben was a Moltke-class battlecruiser of the Kaiserliche Marine (German Navy) that was launched in 1911 and named after the Franco-Prussian War general August von Goeben. ... A light cruiser is a warship that is not so large and powerful as a regular (or heavy) cruiser, but still larger than ships like destroyers. ... The SMS Breslau was a Magdeburg-class light cruiser of the German Kaiserliche Marine, launched on 16 May 1911 and commissioned in 1912. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ...


In October of 1914, Turkey closed the Dardanelles to Allied shipping. On October 28, the Turkish fleet, led by the Goeben, began raiding Russian assets in the Black Sea. Odessa and Sevastopol were bombarded, a minelayer and gunboat were sunk. Russia declared war on Turkey on November 2 and the British followed suit on November 6. An unsuccessful Turkish attack on Russia through the Caucasus Mountains was launched in December leading the Russians to call for aid from Britain in January 1915. October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... For other uses, see Odessa (disambiguation). ... now. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Winston Churchill, the then First Lord of the Admiralty, had entertained plans of capturing the Dardanelles as early as September, 1914. The Russian plea for assistance, coupled with the growing stalemate on the Western Front and a perception of the Ottoman Empire as a weak enemy, made the prospect of a campaign in the Dardanelles seem appealing. Churchill redirects here. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ...


On January 11, at Churchill's request, the commander of the Royal Navy's Mediterranean Squadron, Vice Admiral S.H. Carden, proposed a plan for forcing the Dardanelles using battleships, submarines and minesweepers. On January 13, the British War Council approved the plan, and Carden was supplied with additional pre-Dreadnought battleships as well as the world's most modern battleship at that time, HMS Queen Elizabeth and the battlecruiser HMS Inflexible. France supplied a squadron including four pre-Dreadnoughts and Russia provided a single light cruiser, the Askold. January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Sir Sackville Hamilton Carden (1857-1930) was a British admiral who, in cooperation with the French Navy, commanded British naval forces in the Mediterranean Sea during World War I. Born in County Tipperary, Ireland, Carden entered service in the British navy in 1870. ... German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Günther Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter Typhoon class nuclear ballistic missile submarine USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine is a watercraft that can operate underwater... USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... USS Massachusetts, a pre-dreadnought battleship launched in 1893 The term pre-dreadnought refers to the last type of battleship before the British Royal Navys HMS Dreadnought (1906). ... HMS Queen Elizabeth was the lead ship of the Queen Elizabeth-class of Dreadnought battleships, named in honour of Elizabeth I of England. ... HMS Inflexible was one of three Invincible-class battlecruisers built for the Royal Navy in 1906-08. ...


A driving force behind the naval aspects of the campaign was the British chief of staff, Roger John Brownlow Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes. The chief of staff is the chief aide to the commander of larger military formations and units. ... Admiral of the Fleet Sir Roger John Brownlow Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes, GCB KCVO CMG DSO, (1872–1945) was a noted British admiral and hero, with a life of adventure stretching from 19th-century African anti-slavery patrols to Allied landings in Leyte in World War II. // Early days The...


The lack of spare troops meant the operation was originally intended to be purely naval but by early February the need for military force was recognised and, in addition to supplying contingents of Royal Marines, the last unallocated regular division, the British 29th Division, was dispatched to Egypt in anticipation. Australian and New Zealand troops were already in Egypt undergoing training and were therefore also available if required. At the outset it was expected the infantry would be required in the occupation of Istanbul, not in gaining the passage of the straits. The Royal Marines (RM), are the Royal Navys elite fighting forces. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... The British 29th Division, known as the Incomparable Division, was a First World War regular army infantry division formed in early 1915 by combining various units that had been acting as garrisons about the British Empire. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically known in English as Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


Forcing the straits

On November 3, 1914, Churchill ordered the first British attack on the Dardanelles following the opening of hostilities between Turkey and Russia. The British attack was carried out by battlecruisers of Carden's Mediterranean Squadron, Indomitable and Indefatigable, as well as the obsolete French battleships Suffren and Verite. This attack actually took place before a formal declaration of war had been made by Britain against the Ottoman Empire. November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... HMS Indomitable was an Invincible-class battlecruiser, basically a smaller sized replica of the revolutionary Dreadnought. ... HMS Indefatigable was a battlecruiser of the Royal Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... The French battleship Suffren was a pre-Dreadnought battleship of the French Navy named after French admiral Pierre André de Suffren de Saint Tropez, launched in July 1899 and torpedoed off Lisbon on 26 November 1916, going down with all hands. ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ...


The intention of the attack was to test the fortifications and measure the Turkish response. The results were deceptively encouraging. In a twenty minute bombardment, a single shell struck the magazine of the fort at Sedd el Bahr at the tip of the Gallipoli peninsula, displacing (but not destroying) 10 guns and killing 86 Turkish soldiers. Total casualties during the attack were 150, of which 40 were German. Sedd el Bahr castle and village seen from the SS River Clyde during the landing at Cape Helles, 25 April 1915. ...

The Dardanelles defences in February/March 1915, showing minefields, anti-submarine nets and major gun batteries.

The Dardanelles were defended by a system of fortified and mobile artillery arranged as the "Outer", "Intermediate" and "Inner" defences. While the outer defences lay at the entrance to the straits and would prove vulnerable to bombardment and raiding, the inner defences covered the Narrows, the narrowest point of the straits near Çanakkale. Beyond the inner defences, the straits were virtually undefended. However, the foundation of the straits defences were a series of 10 minefields, laid across the straits near the Narrows and containing a total of 370 mines. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x620, 73 KB) Map of the Dardanelles defences in February and March, 1915. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x620, 73 KB) Map of the Dardanelles defences in February and March, 1915. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... Polish wz. ... German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Günther Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter Typhoon class nuclear ballistic missile submarine USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine is a watercraft that can operate underwater... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Polish wz. ...


What was to become the Battle of Gallipoli, a 10-month battle of attrition, began at 7.30am on February 19, 1915. Two destroyers were sent in to probe the straits. The first shot was fired from Kum Kale by the Orhaniye Tepe battery's 24cm Krupp guns at 7.58am. The battleships Cornwallis and Vengeance moved in to engage the forts and the first British shot of the campaign proper was fired at 9.51am by Cornwallis. The day's bombardment lacked the spectacular results of the November 3 test. Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final)[] 6 divisions[] Casualties 284,000[] 251,000[] The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli from April 1915 to... A battle of attrition is a military engagement in which neither side has any tactical advantage, so that the only result of the fighting is the loss of men and materiel on both sides. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... For the U.S. town, see Krupp, Washington. ... HMS Cornwallis was a pre-Dreadnought Duncan-class battleship of the Royal Navy. ...

HMS Canopus fires a salvo from her 12-inch guns against Turkish forts in the Dardanelles.
HMS Canopus fires a salvo from her 12-inch guns against Turkish forts in the Dardanelles.

Another attempt was made on February 25. This time the Turks evacuated the outer defences and the fleet entered the straits to engage the intermediate defences. Demolition parties of Royal Marines raided the Sedd el Bahr and Kum Kale forts, meeting little opposition. On March 1, four battleships bombarded the intermediate defences. Image File history File links HMS_Canopus_bombarding_Turkish_forts_March_1915. ... Image File history File links HMS_Canopus_bombarding_Turkish_forts_March_1915. ... HMS Canopus was a pre-Dreadnought battleship of the British Royal Navy, built at Portsmouth Dockyard and laid down on the 4 January 1897, launched 21 June 1898 and completed in December 1899. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ...


Little progress was made clearing the minefields. The "minesweepers" were merely un-armoured trawlers manned by their civilian crews who were unwilling to work while under fire. The strong current in the straits further hampered the sweeping process. This lack of progress by the fleet strengthened the Turkish resolve which had wavered at the start of the offensive. On March 4, raids on the outer defences were resisted, leaving 23 British marines dead. A modern Icelandic trawler A trawler is a fishing vessel designed for the purpose of operating a trawl, a type of fishing net that is dragged along the bottom of the sea (or sometimes above the bottom at a specified depth). ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ...


The Queen Elizabeth was called on to engage the inner defences, at first from the Aegean coast near Gaba Tepe, firing across the peninsula, and later from within the straits. On the night of March 13, the cruiser HMS Amethyst led six minesweepers in an attempt to clear the mines. Four of the trawlers were hit and the Amethyst was badly damaged with 19 stokers killed from a single hit. Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ...


Finally on March 15, Admiral Carden resigned and was replaced by Rear Admiral John de Robeck who was granted approval to make an all-out assault by daylight with the minesweepers operating under the direct protection of the entire fleet. March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... John de Robeck was an admiral in the British Navy and commanded the naval force to win the Dardanelles during WWI. Dardanelles Campaign The naval campaign to win the straits and push on to Constantinople was nearly succesful due to a lack of ammunition on the Turkish side. ...


The Battle of March 18

The event that decided the battle for the Dardanelles took place on the night of March 18 when the Turkish minelayer Nusret laid a line of mines in Eren Köy Bay, a wide bay along the Asian shore just inside the entrance to the straits. The Turks had noticed the British ships turned to starboard into the bay when withdrawing. The new line of between 20 and 26 mines ran parallel to the shore, were moored at 2.5 fathoms (4.5 m) and spaced about 100 yards or meters apart. March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... A minelayer is a naval ship used for deploying sea mines. ... A view of the Starboard side of the Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Ross Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel as perceived by a person on board the ship and facing the bow (front). ... A fathom is the name of a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A yard (abbreviation: yd) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


The British plan for March 18 was to silence the defences guarding the first five lines of mines which would be cleared overnight by the minesweepers. The next day the remaining defences around the Narrows would be defeated and the last five minefields would be cleared. March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ...


The battleships were arranged in three lines, two British and one French, with supporting ships on the flanks and two ships in reserve.

Battle lines of March 18
Grey background: Severe damage, Red background: Sunk
Line A HMS Queen Elizabeth HMS Agamemnon HMS Lord Nelson HMS Inflexible
French Line B Gaulois Charlemagne Bouvet Suffren
British Line B HMS Vengeance HMS Irresistible HMS Albion HMS Ocean
Supporting ships HMS Majestic HMS Prince George HMS Swiftsure HMS Triumph
Reserve HMS Canopus HMS Cornwallis    

The first British line opened fire from Eren Keui Bay around 11am. Shortly after noon, de Robeck ordered the French line to pass through and close on the Narrows forts. The Turkish fire began to take its toll with Gaulois, Suffren, Agamemnon and Inflexible all suffering hits. While the naval fire had not destroyed the Turkish batteries, it had succeeded in temporarily reducing their fire. By 1.25pm the Turkish defences were mostly silent so de Robeck decided to withdraw the French line and bring forward the second British line as well as Swiftsure and Majestic. HMS Queen Elizabeth was the lead ship of the Queen Elizabeth-class of Dreadnought battleships, named in honour of Elizabeth I of England. ... HMS Agamemnon was a Lord Nelson class battleship launched in 1906 and completed in 1908, at a cost of £1,652,347. ... The HMS Lord Nelson served in 1914 in the English Channel. ... HMS Inflexible was one of three Invincible-class battlecruisers built for the Royal Navy in 1906-08. ... The French battleship Bouvet was a pre-Dreadnought battleship of the French Navy, (probably) named after French mariner and explorer Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier, launched in 1896 and sunk during World War I. The Bouvet was part of the squadron contributed by the French to the Dardanelles Campaign. ... The French battleship Suffren was a pre-Dreadnought battleship of the French Navy named after French admiral Pierre André de Suffren de Saint Tropez, launched in July 1899 and torpedoed off Lisbon on 26 November 1916, going down with all hands. ... Eight vessels of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Vengeance. ... HMS Irresistible was a Formidable-class battleship of the Royal Navy, built at the Chatham shipyards. ... HMS Albion was a Canopus-class pre-Dreadnought battleship of approximately 14,000 tonnes, with a main armament of 4 x 12 inch guns and was built by the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Co. ... The fourth HMS Ocean was a battleship displacing 12,950 tons and armed with four 12-inch and twelve six-inch guns. ... HMS Majestic was a Majestic-class pre-Dreadnought battleship of the Royal Navy, built at Portsmouth Dockyard and commissioned into the Channel Squadron in December 1895. ... HMS Swiftsure, launched 1903, was the lead ship of her class of pre-Dreadnought battleships. ... HMS Triumph was a Swiftsure-class pre-Dreadnought battleship of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Canopus was a pre-Dreadnought battleship of the British Royal Navy, built at Portsmouth Dockyard and laid down on the 4 January 1897, launched 21 June 1898 and completed in December 1899. ... HMS Cornwallis was a pre-Dreadnought Duncan-class battleship of the Royal Navy. ...


At 1.54pm Bouvet, having made a turn to starboard into Eren Keui Bay, struck a mine, capsized and sank within a couple of minutes, killing 600 men. The initial British reaction was that a shell had struck her magazine or she had been torpedoed. Most reports state that they remained unaware of the minefield, however mines in the string had been spotted earlier that morning, and their sighting relayed to Admiral Robeck. No action was taken to protect the battleships. A modern torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled projectile that (after being launched above or below the water surface) operates underwater and is designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ...

Irresistible abandoned and sinking.
Irresistible abandoned and sinking.

The British pressed on with the attack. Around 4pm Inflexible began to withdraw and struck a mine near where Bouvet went down, killing 30 men. The battlecruiser remained afloat and eventually beached on the island of Tenedos. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x608, 87 KB) British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x608, 87 KB) British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... HMS Irresistible was a Formidable-class battleship of the Royal Navy, built at the Chatham shipyards. ... Gökçeada and Bozcaada are two islands in the Aegean Sea which are part of Canakkale Province in Turkey. ...


Irresistible was the next to be mined. As she began to drift helplessly, the crew were taken off. De Robeck told Ocean to take Irresistible under tow but the water was deemed too shallow to make an approach. Finally at 6.05pm Ocean struck a mine which jammed the steering gear leaving her likewise helpless. The abandoned battleships were still floating when the British withdrew. A destroyer returned later to torpedo the stricken vessels but despite searching for four hours, there was no sign of them.


March 18 was a significant victory for Turkey. Nevertheless, there were calls amongst the British to press on with the naval attack, and de Robeck initially planned to do so after several days. With the exception of the Inflexible, the ships that were lost or damaged were old, ill-equipped for modern naval combat and, in the eyes of some, expendable. There have been theories that the Turkish forts had nearly exhausted their ammunition so that if the naval attack had resumed, the Allies would have met little opposition. Moreover the crews of the sunken battleships had replaced the civilians on the trawler minesweepers, making them much more willing to keep sweeping under fire, and the fleet had several modern destroyers fitted with 1 1/2" minesweeping hawsers that could have handled the task with ease. Boxes of ammunition clog a warehouse in Baghdad Ammunition is a generic military term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ...


De Robeck was reported to be distraught from the lossesFirstwordwar.com, his intention to continue the attack as above not withstanding, and it is possible that he was overwhelmed by the scale of the loss - he had been in charge of a fleet that had suffered the most serious loss to the Royal Navy since Trafalgar. Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire, Spain Commanders The 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line 33 ships of the line Casualties 449 dead, 1,214 wounded 4,480 dead, 2,250 wounded, 7,000 captured, 21 ships captured, 1 ship blown up...


However, the failure of the March 18 attack led to a plan to use infantry to neutralise the forts. Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ...


Submarine operations

Turkish battleship Mesudiye
Turkish battleship Mesudiye
Australian submarine AE2

The British submarine attacks had commenced in 1914, before the campaign proper had started. On December 13, the British submarine B11 had entered the straits, avoiding five lines of mines, and torpedoed the antiquated Turkish battleship Mesudiye, built in 1874, which was anchored as a floating fort in Sari Sighlar Bay, south of Çanakkale. The Mesudiye capsized in 10 minutes, trapping many of the 673-man crew. However, lying in shoal water, the hull remained above the surface so most men were rescued by cutting holes in the hull. Thirty-seven men were killed. Turkish battleship Mesudiye This image was scanned from a public domain text by the Great War Primary Documents Archive and is made available by them for any purpose provided that they are credited and a link is given to the Photos of the Great War page; see the conditions of... Turkish battleship Mesudiye This image was scanned from a public domain text by the Great War Primary Documents Archive and is made available by them for any purpose provided that they are credited and a link is given to the Photos of the Great War page; see the conditions of... British submarine B11 This image was scanned from a public domain text by the Great War Primary Documents Archive and is made available by them for any purpose provided that they are credited and a link is given to the Photos of the Great War page; see the conditions of... British submarine B11 This image was scanned from a public domain text by the Great War Primary Documents Archive and is made available by them for any purpose provided that they are credited and a link is given to the Photos of the Great War page; see the conditions of... A scale model of the B11 in Holbrook HMS B11 was the last boat of the Royal Navys B class of submarines. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AE2_(AWM_H17538). ... Image File history File linksMetadata AE2_(AWM_H17538). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A scale model of the B11 in Holbrook HMS B11 was the last boat of the Royal Navys B class of submarines. ... A modern torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled projectile that (after being launched above or below the water surface) operates underwater and is designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Mesudiye The Mesudiye was a pre-dreadnought battleship of the Ottoman Navy. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The sinking was a triumph for the Royal Navy. The captain of the B11, Lieutenant-Commander Norman Holbrook, was awarded the Victoria Cross — the first Royal Navy VC of the war — and all 12 other crew members received awards. Coupled with the naval bombardment of the outer defences on November 3, this success encouraged the British to pursue the campaign. Lieutenant Commander (Lieutenant-Commander in the Royal Navy) is a commissioned officer rank in many navies superior to a Lieutenant and subordinate to a Commander. ... Norman Douglas Holbrook Norman Holbrook (born 9 July 1888 Southsea, Hampshire; died Midhurst, Sussex 3 July 1976) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... Victoria Cross medal, ribbon, and bar. ...


The first French submarine operation preceded the start of the campaign as well. On January 15, 1915, the French submarine Saphir negotiated the Narrows, passing all ten lines of mines, before running aground at Nagara Point. Various accounts claim she was either mined, sunk by shellfire or scuttled, leaving 14 crew dead and 13 prisoners of war. January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


On April 17, the British submarine E15 attempted to pass through the straits but, having dived too deep, was caught in a current and ran aground near Kepez Point, the southern tip of Sari Sighlar Bay, directly under the guns of the Dardanos battery. Seven of the crew were killed and the remainder were captured. The beached E15 was a valuable prize for the Turks and the British went to great lengths to deny it from them, finally managing to sink it after numerous attempts. April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... HMS E15 was an E-class submarine of the Royal Navy, commissioned in 1914. ...


The first submarine to succeed in passing through the straits was Australian submarine AE2 which got through on April 26, one day after the army had begun landing at Cape Helles and Anzac Cove on the peninsula. The AE2, under the command of Lieutenant-Commander Stoker, was thwarted by defective torpedoes in its several attempts to sink promising targets. On April 29, in Artaki Bay near Panderma, the AE2 was sighted and hit by a Turkish torpedo boat. Abandoning ship, the crew became POWs. AE2 was a E-class submarine built by Vickers Armstrong at Barrow-in-Furness, England. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (117th in leap years). ... Landing at Cape Helles Conflict First World War Date 25 April 1915 Place Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result British victory The Landing at Cape Helles was part of the amphibious invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula by British and French forces on April 25, 1915 during World War I. Helles, at... Combatants Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders William Birdwood Mustafa Kemal Strength 2 divisions 1 battalion 1 div. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ...


The second submarine through the straits had more luck than the AE2. On April 27, the British submarine E14, commanded by Lieutenant-Commander Edward Boyle, entered the Sea of Marmara and went on a three week rampage that was one of the most successful actions achieved by the Allies in the entire campaign. While the quantity and value of the shipping sunk was relatively minor, the effect on Turkish communications and morale was significant. On his return, Boyle was immediately awarded the Victoria Cross. Boyle and the E14 made a number of tours of the Marmara. His third tour began on July 21, when he passed through the straits despite the Turks having installed an anti-submarine net near the Narrows. April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Photo submitted by Martin Hornby - (Gallaher Cigarette Cards) Edward Courtney Boyle was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ...


Another British submarine to have a successful cruise of the Marmara was the E11, commanded by Lieutenant-Commander Martin Nasmith, who was awarded the VC and promoted to Commander for his achievements. He sank or disabled 11 ships including three on May 24 at the port of Rodosto on the Thracian shore. On 8 August, during a subsequent tour of the Marmara, the E11 torpedoed the Turkish battleship Hayreddin Barbarossa. E11 torpedoes the Stamboul off Constantinople, 25 May 1915. ... Photo submitted by Paul Hinckley Photo by Terry Macdonald - Oct 1996 Martin Eric Nasmith (VC, KCB, KCMG) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... Thraciae veteris typvs. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... SMS Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm, lauched in 1891 in Wilhelmshaven, was the first iron-built ship of the line (Linienschiff) of the German Imperial Navy. ...


A number of demolition missions were performed by men or parties landed from submarines. On September 8, First Lieutenant H.V. Lyon from the British submarine E2, swam ashore near Küçükçekmece (Thrace) to blow up a railway bridge. The bridge was destroyed but Lyon failed to return. Attempts were also made to disrupt the railways running close to the water along the Gulf of İzmit, on the Asian shore of the sea. On the night of August 20, Lieutenant D'Oyly Hughes from the E11 swam ashore and blew up a section of the railway line, earning the Distinguished Service Order for his efforts. On July 17, the British submarine E7 bombarded the railway line and then damaged two trains that were forced to halt. September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... First Lieutenant is a military rank. ... Length: Beam: 6. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... DSO medal The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ...


French attempts to enter the Sea of Marmara continued. Following the success of the AE2 and E14, the French submarine Joule attempted the passage on May 1 but struck a mine and was lost with all hands. The next attempt was made by the Mariotte on July 27. However, the Mariotte failed to negotiate the anti-submarine net that the E14 had eluded and was forced to the surface. After being shelled from the shore batteries, the Mariotte was scuttled. On September 4, the same net caught the E7 as it attempted to commence another tour. May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ...


The first French submarine to enter the Sea of Marmara was the Turquoise. However, it was forced to turn back and, on October 30, when attempting to pass back through the straits, ran aground beneath a fort and was captured intact. The crew of 25 were taken prisoner and documents detailing planned Allied operations were discovered. This included a scheduled rendezvous with the British submarine E20 on November 6. The rendezvous was kept by the German U-boat, U-14 which torpedoed and sunk the E20 killing all but nine of the crew. The Turquoise was salvaged and incorporated (but not commissioned) into the Turkish Navy as the Onbasi Müstecip, named after the gunner who had forced the French commander to surrender. October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Unterseeboot 14 or U-14 has been the name of several German submarines or U-boats during the First World War, the Second World War and in the post-war Bundesmarine. ... The ceremonies involved in commissioning ships into a military force are based in traditions thousands of years old. ...


The Allied submarine campaign in the Sea of Marmara was the one significant offensive success of the Battle of Gallipoli. Between April 1915 and January 1916, nine British submarines sank two battleships (albeit obsolete) and one destroyer, five gunboats, nine troop transports, seven supply ships, 35 steamers and 188 assorted smaller vessels. The Turks were forced to abandon the Marmara as a transport route. Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final)[] 6 divisions[] Casualties 284,000[] 251,000[] The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli from April 1915 to... A gunboat is literally a boat carrying one or more guns. ... USS John Land (AP-167) in San Francisco Bay sometime in 1945-46; soldiers crowd the decks in anticipation of homecoming. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ...


Supporting the army

The Mediterranean Expeditionary Force had been established on March 12 under the command of General Sir Ian Hamilton and comprised some 70,000 soldiers. At a conference on March 22, four days after the failed attempt by the navy, it was decided to use the infantry to seize the Gallipoli peninsula and capture the forts, clearing the way for the navy to pass through into the Sea of Marmara. Preparations for the landing took a month, giving the Turkish defenders ample time to reinforce. The Mediterranean Expeditionary Force (MEF) was a World War I British Army headquarters formed in March 1915 that commanded all Allied forces at Gallipoli and Salonika. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (72nd in leap years). ... Sir Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton (January 16, 1853 - October 12, 1947) was a general in the British Army and is most notably known for commanding the ill-fated Mediterranean Expeditionary Force during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in leap years). ...


The British planners still underestimated the ability of the Turks and, at the outset, it was expected that the invasion would be over swiftly. A British force, landing at Cape Helles, would advance six miles (11 km) on the first day and, on the second, would seize the Kilitbahir plateau, overlooking the Narrows. As it happened, in eight months of fighting, the British would never advance much more than five miles (9 km) and their first day objectives of Krithia and the hill Achi Baba would remain out of reach.


The Gallipoli landings were the largest amphibious operation of the war. The initial landings were made at Cape Helles by the British 29th Division and at Gaba Tepe by the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. In the latter case, the landing miscarried and the troops went ashore too far north at a place now known as Anzac Cove. In both landings, the covering force went ashore from warships with the exception of V Beach at Helles where the SS River Clyde was used as an improvised landing craft for 2,000 men. This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... The British 29th Division, known as the Incomparable Division, was a First World War regular army infantry division formed in early 1915 by combining various units that had been acting as garrisons about the British Empire. ... The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was a First World War army corps of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force that was formed in Egypt in 1915 and operated during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Anzac Cove looking towards Ari Burnu, 1915. ... The SS River Clyde was a 4,000 ton collier built in Glasgow in 1905 and named after the River Clyde in Scotland. ...

Map of the landing of the covering force from battleships (red) and destroyers (orange) at Anzac Cove, 25 April 1915.
Map of the landing of the covering force from battleships (red) and destroyers (orange) at Anzac Cove, 25 April 1915.

In the landing at Anzac Cove, the first wave went ashore from the boats of three Formidable-class battleships; HMS London, Prince of Wales and Queen. The second wave went ashore from seven destroyers. In support were Triumph, Majestic and the cruiser Bacchante as well as the seaplane carrier Ark Royal and the kite-balloon ship, Manica from which a tethered balloon was trailed to provide artillery spotting. Image File history File links Anzac_covering_force_landing_April_25_1915. ... Image File history File links Anzac_covering_force_landing_April_25_1915. ... The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Anzac Cove looking towards Ari Burnu, 1915. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders William Birdwood Mustafa Kemal Strength 2 divisions 1 battalion 1 div. ... HMS Implacable The Royal Navys Formidable class of battleships were an eight-ship class of pre-Dreadnoughts built in the late 1890s. ... HMS London (1899) was a Formidable class of battleship in the British Royal Navy. ... HMS Prince of Wales was a Formidable-class battleship of the British Royal Navy. ... HMS Queen (1902) was a Formidable class of battleship in the British Royal Navy. ... HMS Bacchante was a Cressy-class armoured cruiser launched in 1901 for the Royal Navy. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... The Royal Navy had been using a converted cruiser, HMS Hermes, as a seaplane carrier, to conduct trials in 1913. ... HMS Manica in dock, c. ... Balloons, like greeting cards or flowers, are given for special occasions. ...


The landing at Cape Helles was spread over five beaches with the main ones being V & W Beaches at the tip of the peninsula. While the landing at Anzac had was planned as a surprise without a preliminary bombardment, the Helles landing was made after the beaches and forts were bombarded by the warships. The landing at S Beach inside the straits was made from the battleship Cornwallis and was virtually unopposed. The W Beach force came from the cruiser HMS Euryalus and the battleship Implacable which also carried the troops bound for X Beach. The cruiser HMS Dublin and battleship Goliath supported the X Beach landing as well as a small landing to the north on the Aegean coast at Y Beach, later abandoned. Landing at Cape Helles Conflict First World War Date 25 April 1915 Place Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result British victory The Landing at Cape Helles was part of the amphibious invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula by British and French forces on April 25, 1915 during World War I. Helles, at... HMS Implacable was a Formidable-class battleship of the British Royal Navy. ... HMS Goliath was one of the six Canopus-class battleships built by the Royal Navy in the late 19th century. ...


The role of the navy was to support the landing, using naval guns instead of field artillery, of which there was a severe shortage in 1915. However, with a few spectacular exceptions, the performance of naval guns on land targets was inadequate, particularly against entrenched positions. The guns lacked elevation and so fired on a flat trajectory which, coupled with the inherently unstable gun platform, resulted in reduced accuracy. Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Mathematically the term trajectory refers to the ordered set of states which are assumed by a dynamical system over time (see e. ...


The battleship's guns did prove effective against exposed lines of troops. On April 27, during the first Turkish counter-attack at Anzac, the Turkish 57th Regiment attacked down the seaward slope of Battleship Hill within view of the Queen Elizabeth which fired a salvo of six 15-in shells, halting the attack completely. On April 28, near the old Y Beach landing, the Queen Elizabeth sighted a party of about 100 Turks. One 15-in shrapnel shell containing 24,000 pellets was fired at short range and wiped out the entire party. For the rest of the campaign the Turks were very wary of moving within view of battleships. April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... A sectioned Shrapnel shell displayed at the Canadian War Museum, Ottawa For other uses, see Shrapnel (disambiguation). ...

The last moments of Majestic, torpedoed by U-21 on 27 May.
The last moments of Majestic, torpedoed by U-21 on 27 May.

Also on April 27, a kite-balloon ship had spotted a Turkish transport ship moving near the Narrows. The Queen Elizabeth, stationed off Gaba Tepe, had fired across the peninsula, at a range of over 10 miles (about 20 km), and sank the transport with her third shot. For much of the campaign the Turks transported troops via rail though other supplies continued to be transported by ship on the Sea of Marmara and Dardanelles. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (624x768, 132 KB) The last moments of British battleship HMS Majestic, torpedoed by the U-21 off Cape Helles, Dardanelles, on 27 May 1915. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (624x768, 132 KB) The last moments of British battleship HMS Majestic, torpedoed by the U-21 off Cape Helles, Dardanelles, on 27 May 1915. ... HMS Majestic was a Majestic-class pre-Dreadnought battleship of the Royal Navy, built at Portsmouth Dockyard and commissioned into the Channel Squadron in December 1895. ... Unterseeboot 21 or U-21 has been the name of several German submarines or U-boats during the First World War, the Second World War and in the post-war Bundesmarine. ...


It quickly became evident that the battle for Gallipoli would not be a swift or easy operation. At Helles, which was initially the main battlefield, a series of costly battles only managed to edge the front line closer to Krithia. Through the early battles the navy continued to provide support via bombardments. However, in May three battleships were torpedoed; Goliath in Morto Bay on May 12, Triumph off Anzac on May 25 and Majestic off W Beach on May 27. Goliath was sunk by the Turkish torpedo boat Muavenet while the other two were sunk by the German U-boat U-21. Following these losses, the permanent battleship support was withdrawn with the valuable Queen Elizabeth recalled by the Admiralty as soon as the news of the loss of Goliath arrived. In place of the battleships, naval artillery support was provided by cruisers, destroyers and purpose-built monitors which were designed for coastal bombardment. May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... Four ships of the Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri (the Turkish Navy) have been named TCG Muavenet. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Unterseeboot 21 or U-21 has been the name of several German submarines or U-boats during the First World War, the Second World War and in the post-war Bundesmarine. ... Old Admiralty House, Whitehall, London, Thomas Ripley, architect, 1723-26, was not admired by his contemporaries and earned him some scathing couplets from Alexander Pope The Admiralty was historically the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... USS Monitor became the prototype of a form of ship built by several navies for coastal defence in the 1860s and 1870s and known as a monitor. ...


Once the navy became wary of the submarine threat, losses ceased. With the exception of the continued activity of Allied submarines in the Dardanelles and Sea of Marmara, the only significant naval loss after May was the Laforey-class destroyer HMS Louis which on October 31 ran aground off Suvla during a gale and was wrecked. The destruction of the stranded ship was accelerated by Turkish gunfire. The Laforey class was a class of 22 torpedo boat destroyers of the Royal Navy, launched between 1913 and 1915, that served during the First World War. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... Suvla is a bay on the Aegean coast of the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey, south of the Gulf of Saros. ...


See also

German battlecruiser Goeben. ... This is a list of Allied warships that served at the Battle of Gallipoli in 1915: Royal Navy warships Aircraft carriers Ark Royal Ben-my-Chree (converted fast packet seaplane carrier) Battleships Queen Elizabeth Battlecruisers Indefatigable Indomitable Inflexible (mined & damaged March 18) Pre-dreadnought battleships Agamemnon Albion Canopus Cornwallis Exmouth...

External links


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