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Encyclopedia > Naval mine
Polish wz. 08/39 contact mine. The protuberances around the top of the mine, called Hertz horns, are part of the detonation mechanism.
Polish wz. 08/39 contact mine. The protuberances around the top of the mine, called Hertz horns, are part of the detonation mechanism.

A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to destroy ships or submarines. Unlike depth charges, they are deposited and left to wait until they are triggered by the approach of or contact with an enemy ship. Naval mines can be used offensively, to hamper enemy ships or lock them into a harbour; or defensively, to protect friendly ships and create "safe" zones. Download high resolution version (800x692, 118 KB)wz. ... Download high resolution version (800x692, 118 KB)wz. ... A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to destroy ships or submarines. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Depth Charge used by U.S. Navy later in World War II The depth charge is the oldest anti-submarine weapon. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ...


Mines can be laid in many ways: by purpose-built minelayers, refitted ships, submarines, or airplanes—and even by dropping them into a harbour by hand. They can be inexpensive: some variants can cost around a thousand United States dollars (USD) or so, although more sophisticated mines can cost millions of USD, be equipped with several kinds of sensors, and deliver a warhead by rocket or torpedo. A minelayer is a naval ship used for deploying sea mines. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... USD redirects here. ... A B61 nuclear bomb in various stages of assembly; the nuclear warhead is the bullet-shaped silver cannister in the middle-left of the photograph. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ...


Their flexibility and cost-effectiveness make mines attractive weapons in asymmetric warfare. The cost of producing and laying a mine is usually anywhere from 0.5% to 10% of the cost to remove it, and it can take up to 200 times as long to clear a minefield as to lay it. Parts of some World War II minefields still exist, because they are too spread out and expensive to clear—and theoretically, some of these mines might stay active for hundreds of years. Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors or groups whose relative power differs significantly. ...


There are three main uses of mines: offensive, defensive and psychological. Offensive mines are placed in enemy waters, outside harbours and in important shipping routes to sink civilian and military ships. Defensive minefields protect a coast from enemy ships and submarines and force them into areas that are easier to defend. Minefields designed for psychological effect are usually placed in trade routes and are used to stop shipping to an enemy nation. They are also spread out thinly, to create a feeling of random minefields in large areas. A single mine along a shipping route can stop shipping for days until the entire area is swept. The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ...


International law requires nations to declare when they mine an area, in order to make it easier for civil shipping to avoid the mines. The warnings do not have to be specific; during World War II, Britain declared simply that it had mined the English Channel, North Sea, and French coast. That did not stop Operation Sealion, Germany's planned invasion of Britain; Germany cancelled it for other reasons. Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Operation Sealion (Unternehmen (Undertaking) Seelöwe in German) was a World War II German plan to invade the United Kingdom. ...

In 1988, an Iranian M-08 mine put a 25-foot (8 m) hole in the hull of the USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58), forcing the ship to seek temporary repairs in a dry dock in Dubai, UAE.
In 1988, an Iranian M-08 mine put a 25-foot (8 m) hole in the hull of the USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58), forcing the ship to seek temporary repairs in a dry dock in Dubai, UAE.
Closeup of the Roberts' damaged hull.
Closeup of the Roberts' damaged hull.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x675, 214 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Naval mine ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x675, 214 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Naval mine ... USS (FFG-58) is one of the final ships in the United States Navys Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided missile frigates. ... U.S. Navy submarine USS Greeneville in dry dock following collision with a fishing boat. ... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x659, 194 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Naval mine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x659, 194 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Naval mine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... USS (FFG-58) is one of the final ships in the United States Navys Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided missile frigates. ...

History

A 14th century drawn illustration of a naval mine and page description from the Huolongjing.
A 14th century drawn illustration of a naval mine and page description from the Huolongjing.

The precursor to naval mines was first described by the early Ming Dynasty Chinese artillery officer Jiao Yu, in his 14th century military treatise known as the Huolongjing.[1] Chinese records tell of naval explosives in the 16th century, used to fight against Japanese pirates (Wokou). This kind of naval mine was loaded in a wooden box, sealed by putty. General Qi Jiguang made several timed explosive drifting explosives to harass Japanese pirate ships.[2] However, in the Tiangong Kaiwu ('The Exploitation of the Works of Nature') treatise, written by Song Yingxing in 1637 AD, it describes naval mines with a rip cord pulled from a hidden ambusher located on the nearby shore, which would in turn rotate a steel wheellock flint mechanism to produce sparks and ignite the fuse of the naval mine.[3] Although Song's writing represents the rotating steel wheellock's first use with naval mines, Jiao Yu had actually described their use for land mines back in the 14th century.[4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (687 × 1032 pixel, file size: 142 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (687 × 1032 pixel, file size: 142 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Ming Dynasty musketeers in drill formation. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) era matchlock firearms featuring serpentine levers. ... Ming Dynasty musketeers in drill formation. ... Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ... PuTTY is a terminal emulator application which can act as a client for the SSH, Telnet, rlogin, and raw TCP computing protocols. ... Statue of Qi Jiguang in Penglai, Shandong Province Qi Jiguang ( Simplified Chinese: 戚继光; Traditional Chinese: 戚繼光; Pinyin: qī jì gūang) ( November 12, 1528 - January 5, 1588) was a Chinese military general and national hero during the Ming Dynasty. ... Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese:宋應星; Simplified Chinese:宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). ... Wheellock, Wheel-Lock or Wheel lock, is a mechanism for firing a firearm. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ...


The first plan for a sea mine in the West was by Ralph Rabbards, who presented his design to Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1574.[3] The Dutch inventor Cornelius Drebbel was employed in the Office of Ordnance by King Charles I of England to make weapons, including a "floating petard" which proved a failure.[5] Weapons of this type were apparently tried by the English at the Siege of La Rochelle in 1627.[6] Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Cornelius Jacobszoon Drebbel (Alkmaar, 1572 - London, November 7, 1633) was the Dutch inventor of the first navigable submarine in 1620. ... Charles I King of England, Scotland and Ireland Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. ... Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle, Henri Motte, 1881. ...


However, an American, David Bushnell invented the first practical mine for use against the British in the American War of Independence. It was a watertight keg filled with gunpowder that was floated toward the enemy. It was detonated by a percussion lock if it struck a ship. A cross-section sketch of Bushnells Turtle. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as...


In 1812 Russian engineer Pavel Shilling exploded an underwater mine using an electrical circuit. In 1854, during the unsuccessful attempt of the Anglo-French fleet to seize Kronshtadt fortress, British steamships HMS Merlin, HMS Vulture and HMS Firefly were damaged by underwater explosions of Russian naval mines. Generally, more than 1500 naval mines, or infernal machines, designed by Moritz von Jacobi were set by Russian naval specialists in the Gulf of Finland during the Crimea War.[citation needed] Baron Pavel Lvovitch Schilling (c. ... An electrical network or electrical circuit is an interconnection of analog electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, switches and transistors. ... 1888 map of Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: Кронштадт; also Kronshtadt, Cronstadt) is a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, at 59°5930 N and 29°4630 E. It lies 20 miles west of Saint Petersburg, of which... This article might not be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Moritz Hermann von Jacobi Moritz Hermann (Boris Semyonovich) von Jacobi (Russian: ) (September 21, 1801 – March 10, 1874) was a Prussian engineer and physicist born in Potsdam. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Strength 250,000 British 400,000 French 10,000 Sardinian 1,200,000 Russian Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 110,000 killed, wounded and died...

Infernal machines in the Potomac River in 1861 during the American Civil War, sketch by Alfred Waud.
Infernal machines in the Potomac River in 1861 during the American Civil War, sketch by Alfred Waud.

The American Civil War saw the first successful Western use of mines by both sides. The first ship sunk by a mine was the USS Cairo in 1862 in the Yazoo River. Rear Admiral David Farragut's famous statement, "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!" refers to a minefield laid at Mobile, Alabama. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 409 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (539 × 789 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 409 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (539 × 789 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Alfred Waud (photograph by Timothy H. OSullivan). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... USS Cairo was an ironclad river gunboat in the United States Navy. ... hTe Yazoo River is a river in the U.S. state of Mississippi and the second longest tributary of the Mississippi River that flows into that river from the east (the longest is the Ohio River). ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... David Glasgow Farragut (July 5, 1801 – August 14, 1870) was the first senior officer of the U.S. Navy during the American Civil War. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ...


In the 19th century, mines were called torpedoes, a name likely conferred by Dennis Fletcher after the torpedo fish, which gives powerful electric shocks. A spar torpedo was a mine attached to a long pole and detonated when the ship carrying it rammed another one. The H. L. Hunley used one to sink the USS Housatonic on February 17, 1864. A Harvey Torpedo was a type of floating mine towed alongside a ship, and was briefly in service in the Royal Navy in the 1870s. Other "torpedoes" attached to ships or even launched under their own power. One such weapon, called the Whitehead Torpedo after its inventor, eventually drew the appellation from static devices to self-propelled underwater missiles. The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Families Narcinidae Torpedinidae If you came here looking for information about a fictional energy weapon, see raygun. ... Sign warning of possible electric shock hazard An electric shock can occur upon contact of a humans body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current flow through the muscles or hair. ... A spar torpedo is a weapon consisting of a bomb placed at the end of a long pole, or spar, and attached to a boat. ... H. L. Hunley was a submarine of the Confederate States of America that demonstrated both the advantages and the dangers of undersea warfare. ... USS Housatonic was a screw sloop-of-war of the United States Navy, named for one of the rivers of New England which rises in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, and flows southward into Connecticut before emptying into Long Island Sound a little east of Bridgeport, Connecticut. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


The next major use of mines was in the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, sinking the Russian battleship Petropavlovsk, killing the fleet commander, Admiral Makaroff, and most of the crew. On the other side, two Japanese battleships were sunk by Russian mines in one day.-1... Main article: Petropavlovsk class battleship (1897) The Petropavlovsk (Петропавловск) was the lead ship of the Petropavlovsk class of battleships built for the Imperial Russian Navy. ...


Many of early mines were fragile and dangerous to handle, with glass containers filled with nitroglycerin or mechanical devices that activated them upon tipping. Several mine-laying ships were destroyed when their cargo exploded. Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ...


The U-boat fleet, which dominated much of the battle of the Atlantic, was small at the beginning of the war and much of the early action by German forces involved mining convoy routes and ports around Britain. The German submarines also operated in the Mediterranean Sea and its coasts, in the Caribbean Sea, and along the U.S. coast. U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... For other uses, see Convoy (disambiguation). ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ...


Initially contact mines were employed -- meaning that a ship had to physically strike one of the mines to detonate it -- usually tethered at the end of a cable just below the surface of the water. By the beginning of World War II most nations had also developed mines that could be dropped from aircraft, making it possible to lay them in enemy harbours (although they simply floated on the surface). The use of dredging and nets was effective against this type of mine, but this process was time consuming and involved closing harbors while it was completed.


Into this arena came a new mine threat. Most contact mines leave holes in ship's hulls, but some ships survived mine blasts, limping into port with buckled plates and broken backs. This appeared to be due to a new type of magnetic mine, detonating at a distance from the ship, and doing damage with the shockwave of the explosion. Often ships that had successfully run the gauntlet of the Atlantic crossing were destroyed entering freshly mineswept harbors on Britain's coast. More shipping was being lost than could be replaced, and Churchill ordered that the intact recovery of one of these new mines was of highest priority. Churchill redirects here. ...


The British experienced a stroke of luck in November 1939. A German mine was dropped from an aircraft onto the mud flats of the Thames estuary during low tide. As if this was not sufficiently good fortune, the land belonged to the army, and a base with men and workshops was at hand. Experts were dispatched from London to investigate the mine. They had some idea that the mines used magnetic sensors, so everyone removed all metal, including their buttons, and made tools out of non-magnetic brass. They disarmed the mine and rushed it to labs at Portsmouth, where scientists discovered a new type of arming mechanism. The Thames Estuary is a large estuary where the River Thames flows into the North Sea. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ...


The mechanism had a sensitivity level that could be set, and the units of the scale were in milligauss. Gauss is a measurement for the strength of a magnetic field, demonstrating how it went off before coming into contact with the ship. Using the detector from the mine, they were able to study the effect of a ship passing near it. A ship or large ferrous object passing through the earth's magnetic field will concentrate the field at that point. The mine's detector was designed to go off at the mid-point of the ship passing overhead. For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ...


From this data, methods were developed to clear the mines. Early methods included the use of large electromagnets dragged behind ships, or on low-flying aircraft (a number of older bombers like the Vickers Wellington were used for this). Both of these methods had the disadvantage of "sweeping" only a small strip. A better solution was found in the "Double-L Sweep" [7] using electrical cables dragged behind ships that passed large pulses of current through the seawater. This induced a large magnetic field and swept the entire area between the two ships. The older methods continued to be used in smaller areas. The Suez Canal continued to be swept by aircraft, for instance. The Vickers Wellington was a twin-engine, medium bomber designed in the mid-1930s at Brooklands in Weybridge, Surrey, by Vickers-Armstrongs Chief Designer, R.K. Pierson. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ...


While these methods were useful for clearing mines from local ports, they were of little or no use for enemy-controlled areas. These were typically visited by warships, and the majority of the fleet then underwent a massive degaussing process, where their hulls had a slight "south" bias induced into them. This offset the concentration effect almost to zero. “Degausser” redirects here. ...


Initially major warships and large troopships had a copper degaussing coil fitted around the perimeter of the hull, energised by the ship's electrical system whenever in suspected magnetic-mined waters. Some of the first to be so-fitted being the carrier HMS Ark Royal and the liners RMS Queen Mary and RMS Queen Elizabeth which were used as troopships. This was felt to be impracticable for the myriad of smaller warships and merchant vessels, not least due to the amount of copper that would be required. It was found that 'wiping' a current-carrying cable up and down a ship' hull [8] temporarily cancelled the ships' magnetic signature sufficiently to nullify the threat. This started in late 1939, and by 1940 merchant vessels and the smaller British warships were largely immune for the few months at a time until they once again built up a field. Many of the boats that sailed to Dunkirk were degaussed in a marathon four day effort by degaussing stations. Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... HMS Ark Royal (91), the lead ship of her class of aircraft carrier, was the third ship of the Royal Navy to be named in honor of the flagship of the English fleet that defeated the Spanish Armada. ... Queen Mary 1936 RMS Queen Mary is an ocean liner that sailed the North Atlantic Ocean from 1936 to 1967 for Cunard Line (then Cunard White Star Line). ... RMS Queen Elizabeth was a steam-powered ocean liner of the Cunard Steamship Company. ... This article is about a Second World War battle in 1940, for the 1658 battle of the same name see Battle of the Dunes (1658) Combatants United Kingdom France Belgium Germany Commanders Lord Gort General Weygand Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Ewald von Kleist (Panzergruppe von Kleist) Strength approx. ...


The Germans had also developed a pressure-activated mine and planned to deploy it as well, but they saved it for later use when it became clear the British had defeated the magnetic system.


Since World War II, mines have damaged or sunk 14 US Navy ships, whereas air and missile attacks have damaged four. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... USN redirects here. ...


During the Korean War, mines laid by North Korean forces damaged 11 U.S. naval vessels. Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung...


During the Iran-Iraq War from 1980 to 1988, the belligerents mined several areas of the Persian Gulf and nearby waters. On April 14, 1988, the USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58) struck an Iranian M-08/39 mine in the central Gulf shipping lane, wounding 10 sailors. Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... USS (FFG-58) is one of the final ships in the United States Navys Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided missile frigates. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shipping route. ...


During the Gulf War, Iraqi naval mines severely damaged USS Princeton (CG-59) and USS Tripoli (LPH-10). For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Categories: Military stubs | Ticonderoga class cruisers ... The second USS Tripoli (LPH-10), an Iwo Jima class amphibious assault ship, was laid down on 15 June 1964 at Pascagoula, Mississippi, by the Ingalls Ship building Corporation; launched on 31 July 1965; sponsored by Mrs. ...


Types

Naval mines may be classified into two major groups.


Contact mines

The earliest mines were usually of this type. They are still used today, as they are extremely low cost compared to any other anti-ship weapon and are effective, both as a terror weapon and to sink enemy ships. Contact mines need to be very close to the target before they detonate, limiting the damage. (Read the section on damage, below, for explanation).


Early mines had mechanical mechanisms to detonate them, but these were superseded in the 1870s by the Hertz Horn (or chemical horn), which was found to work reliably even after the mine had been in the sea for several years. The mine's upper half is studded with hollow lead protuberances, each containing a glass vial filled with sulfuric acid. When a ship's hull crushes the metal horn, it cracks the vial inside it, allowing the acid to run down a tube and into a lead-acid battery which until then contains no acid electrolyte. This energizes the battery, which detonates the explosive. Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... For other uses, see Battery. ...


Earlier forms of the detonator used a vial filled with sulfuric acid, surrounded by the mixture of potassium perchlorate and sugar. When the vial was crushed, the acid ignited the perchlorate-sugar mix, and the resulting flame ignited the gunpowder charge. Potassium perchlorate, a perchlorate salt with the chemical formula KClO4, is a strong oxidizer. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ...


During World War I the British heavily mined the English Channel and later large areas of the North Sea to prevent German submarines from using it. As the submarine could be at any depth down to the seabed, an American invention, the antenna mine, was widely used. This had a copper wire attached to a buoy that floated above the mine. The top part of the cable connecting the buoy to the weight on the seabed was also made of copper. The copper wire was insulated from the steel cable below it. If a submarine's steel hull touched the copper wire, the slight voltage produced because of the contact between two dissimilar metals was amplified and detonated the explosive. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...


Limpet mines

Limpet mines are a special form of contact mine which are attached to the target by magnets and left, and are so named because of the superficial similarity to the mollusk, limpet. A swimmer or diver usually performs this task. Normally they are directly attached, but the warhead of the human torpedo was linked to the magnets by wires about one foot (30 cm) long. Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Suborders and families See text. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Professional diving. ... // CGI image of two frogmen with Siebe Gorman CDBA rebreathers riding a human torpedo. ...


Usually they are set off by a time fuze. They may also have an anti-removal system making it explode if the mine is torn off by enemy divers or by other explosions. Sometimes the limpet mine had a small propeller which would detonate when the ship had sailed a certain distance. This ensures that the ship was likely to sink in deep water out of reach of easy salvage and makes it harder to determine the reason for the sinking. Fuze is a brand of beverage. ... Marine salvage is the process of rescuing a ship, its cargo and sometimes the crew from peril. ...


Typically they have special compartments within them to ensure that the mine has only a slight negative buoyancy, making them easier to handle. In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ...


A British limpet mine was developed by Stuart MacRae (editor of 'Science Armchair Magazine') and Major C.V. Clarke in 1939 using improvised development techniques.[9][10]


An example of the use of limpet mines by British special forces was in Operation Frankton which had the objective of disabling and sinking merchant shipping moored at Bordeaux, France in 1942. The operation was also the subject of a feature film titled The Cockleshell Heroes. The "limpets" used by the British during World War II contained only 4 kg of explosive, but placed 2 meters below the water line they caused a hole in a ship one meter wide. During World War II, Operation Frankton was a British Combined Operations raid on shipping in Bordeaux harbour, France in December, 1942, by 12 men of the Boom Patrol Detachment, Royal Navy, in two-man Cockle MK II Canoes. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... The Cockleshell Heroes is a 1955 2nd World War film with Trevor Howard, Antony Newley and José Ferrer, who also directed. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In 1980 a limpet mine was used to sink the Sierra,[11] a pirate whaling vessel which docked in hiding in Portugal after a confrontation with Sea Shepherd, both exposing the Portuguese government for lying to international Governments about it being a safe haven for illegal whalers and encouraging a worldwide backlash against whaling in general, later that year approximately half the Spanish whaling fleet was sunk in a similar fashion,[12] rewards were also offered for the safe-sinking of whaling vessels by various ethical organisations. Sea Shepherd flag flying on the RV Farley Mowat. ...


Another well known use was the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior by the French DGSE in Auckland harbour, New Zealand, on July 10, 1985 to prevent them bringing attention to the nuclear testing underway. The sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, codenamed Operation Satanic[1], was a special operation by the action branch of the French foreign intelligence services, the Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (DGSE), carried out on July 10, 1985. ... The Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (generally known as DGSE) is Frances external intelligence agency. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

During World War II, Operation Frankton was a British Combined Operations raid on shipping in Bordeaux harbour, France in December, 1942, by 12 men of the Boom Patrol Detachment, Royal Navy, in two-man Cockle MK II Canoes. ...

Floating contact mines

A German contact mine laid in Australian waters during World War II
A German contact mine laid in Australian waters during World War II

Generally, this mine type is set to float just below the surface of the water or as deep as five meters. A steel cable connecting the mine to an anchor on the seabed prevents them from drifting away. The explosive and detonating mechanism is contained in a buoyant metal or plastic shell. The depth below the surface at which the mine floats can be set so that only deep draft vessels such as aircraft carriers, battleships or large cargo ships are at risk. By setting the depth to ten metres, this prevents a less valuable ship from detonating the mine. Similarly, in littoral waters it is important to ensure that the mine does not become visible when the sea level falls at low tide, so the preset cable length is adjusted to take account of tide variations. Even as far back as the Second World War, mines capable of being moored in 300 metres of ocean existed. Image File history File linksMetadata Mine_(AWM_304925). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mine_(AWM_304925). ... A propaganda poster calling on Australians to avenge the sinking of the Australian Hospital Ship Centaur by the Japanese submarine I-177 in May 1943. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anchor (disambiguation). ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Generally, floating mines have a weight of around 200 kg, including 80 kg of explosives e.g. TNT, minol or amatol. R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... The logo of Minol from 1980 The VEB Kombinat Minol, founded on 1 January 1956, was the state-owned gasoline and lubricant reseller of the German Democratic Republic. ... Amatol is a highly explosive material, a mixture of TNT and ammonium nitrate, and used as an explosive in military weapons. ...


During WWII mine traps were used for blocking port entrances. Two floating mines were anchored some distance apart on either side of a shipping channel, linked by a chain. When a deep draft vessel passed through the trap, the chain would be pulled along by it, and drag both mines into opposite sides of the ship. The resulting double explosion often sank the ship. This system was not used extensively, but proved effective in blocking ports.


Drifting contact mines

Drifting mines were occasionally used during World War I and World War II. However, they were more feared than effective. A drifting mine is simply a floating mine without any mooring. Sometimes floating mines break from their moorings and become drifting mines, but modern mines should be constructed to deactivate in this event. After several years at sea, the deactivation mechanism might not function as intended and the mines may remain active. Admiral Jellicoe's British fleet did not pursue and destroy the outnumbered German High Seas Fleet when it turned away at the Battle of Jutland because he thought they were leading him into a trap. He believed that the Germans either were leaving floating mines in their wake, or were drawing him towards submarines. Both dangers were imaginary - the German fleet did not carry mines. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Admiral of the Fleet Lord Jellicoe Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe (December 5, 1859–November 20, 1935) was a British Royal Navy admiral. ... Belligerents Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy High Seas Fleet of the Kaiserliche Marine Commanders Sir John Jellicoe Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships 9 battlecruisers 8 armoured cruisers 26 light cruisers 78 destroyers 1 minelayer 1 seaplane carrier 16 battleships 5 battlecruisers 6 pre...


Churchill promoted "Operation Royal Marine" in 1940 and again in 1944 where floating mines were put into the Rhine in France to float down the river, becoming active after a fixed interval by which time they should have reached German territory. Operation Royal Marine was a military operation in World War II, in which naval mines were floated down rivers from France into Germany to destroy bridges and shipping. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ...


After World War I the drifting contact mine was banned, but was occasionally used during World War II. The drifting mines were much harder to remove after the war and they caused about as much damage to both sides.


These mines usually weighed 120 kg, including 80 kg of explosives (TNT).


Bottom contact mines

A bottom contact mine is the simplest form of mine. It is merely an explosive charge and a trigger lying on the seafloor. They have been used against submarines, as submarines sometimes lie on the seafloor to reduce their acoustic signature. They are also used to prevent landing craft from reaching the shore and were a major obstacle during the D-Day landings. The Germans used antitank mines here with minor modifications to make them more reliable underwater, attaching the mines to the front of many of the obstacles seen in photos of the landing. This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ...


These mines usually weighed 2 to 50 kg, including 1 to 40 kg of explosives (TNT or hexatonal). RDX redirects here. ...


Remotely controlled mines

Frequently used in combination with coastal artillery and hydrophones, remote controlled (or command detonation) mines can be in place in peacetime, which is a huge advantage in blocking important shipping routes. The mines are usually equipped to be turned into "normal" mines with a switch (which prevents the enemy from simply capturing the controlling station and deactivating the mines), detonated by hand or be allowed to detonate on their own. The earliest ones were developed around 1812 by Robert Fulton. The first use was moored mines used in the American Civil War, detonated electrically from shore. These were seen as superior to contact mines because they only deprived the waterway to the enemy. For other persons named Robert Fulton, see Robert Fulton (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Modern examples usually weigh 200 kg (440 lb), including 80 kg (175 lb) of explosives (TNT or hexatonal).


Moored mines

The moored mine is the backbone of modern mine systems. They are deployed where water is too deep for bottom mines. Using several kinds of instruments to detect an enemy, usually a combination of acoustic, magnetic and pressure sensors. More exotic ones include optical shadows or electro potential sensors. These cost many times more than contact mines. Moored mines are effective against most kinds of ships. Being cost-efficient compared to other anti-ship weapons, they can be deployed in large numbers, making them useful area denial or "channelizing" weapons. Moored mines usually have lifetimes over 10 years, and some almost unlimited. These mines usually weigh 200 kg (440 lb), including 80 kg (175 lb) of explosives (hexatonal). In excess of 150 kg (330 lb) of explosives the mine becomes inefficient, as it becomes too large to handle and the extra explosives add little to the mine's effectiveness. This article is with regards ships and submarines, for the article with regard audio files see Acoustic fingerprint Acoustic signature is used to describe a combination of acoustic emissions of ships and submarines. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... Digital air pressure sensor A pressure sensor measures the pressure, typically of gases or fluids. ... Image:RBS-15 missile launch. ... Area Denial Weapons - Aka Active Denial Technology Weapons (ADT) RF Weapons include Radio Frequency Weapons which can manipulate electro magnetic fields, from Atmospheric RF environment enhancement to residential electroshock and electromagnetic pulse deterent / sleep deprivation intimidation and disorientation systems. ... RDX redirects here. ...


Bottom mines

Bottom mines are used when the water is no more than 60 meters (180 ft) deep or when mining for submarines down to around 200 meters (660 ft). They are much harder to detect and sweep, and can carry a much larger warhead than a moored mine. Bottom mines commonly use pressure sensitive exploders, which are less sensitive to sweeping.


These mines usually weigh between 150 and 1,500 kilograms (330 to 3,300 pounds), including between 125 and 1,400 kg (275 to 3,090 pounds) of explosives.


Influence mines

These mines are triggered by the influence of a ship or submarine, rather than direct contact. Such mines incorporate electronic sensors designed to detect the presence of a vessel and detonate when it comes within the blast range of the warhead. The fuzes on such mines may incorporate one or more of the following sensors: magnetic, passive acoustic or water pressure displacement caused by the proximity of a vessel. Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... Detonation is a process of supersonic combustion that involves a shock wave and a reaction zone behind it. ... Explode redirects here. ... A B61 nuclear bomb in various stages of assembly; the nuclear warhead is the bullet-shaped silver cannister in the middle-left of the photograph. ... Fuze is a brand of beverage. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... Look up Acoustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the study of sound, a branch of physics, see acoustics. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ...


First used during the Second World War, the sophistication of influence mine fuzes has increased considerably over the years as first transistors and then microprocessors have been incorporated into designs. Simple magnetic sensors have been superseded by total-field magnetometers. Whereas early magnetic mine fuzes would respond only to changes in a single component of a target vessel's magnetic field, a total field magnetometer responds to changes in the magnitude of the total background field. Similarly, the original broadband hydrophones of 1940s acoustic mines (which operate on the integrated volume of all frequencies) have been replaced by narrow-band sensors which are much more sensitive and selective. Mines can now be programmed to listen for highly specific acoustic signatures (e.g. a gas turbine powerplant and/or cavitation sounds from a particular design of propellor) and ignore all others. The sophistication of modern electronic mine fuzes incorporating these Digital Signal Processing capabilities makes it much more difficult to "trick" the sensors with electronic countermeasures because the combined range of sensors working together (e.g. magnetic, passive acoustic and water pressure) means they are very discriminating against false inputs. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Fuze is a brand of beverage. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). ... A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument. ... A hydrophone is a sound-to-electricity transducer for use in water or other liquids, analogous to a microphone for air. ... This article is with regards ships and submarines, for the article with regard audio files see Acoustic fingerprint Acoustic signature is used to describe a combination of acoustic emissions of ships and submarines. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... Cavitating propeller model in a water tunnel experiment High speed jet of fluid impact on a fixed surface. ... A propeller can be seen as a rotating fin in water or a wing in air. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... Digital signal processing (DSP) is the study of signals in a digital representation and the processing methods of these signals. ... Inspecting an AN/ALQ-184 Electronic Attack Pod Electronic countermeasures (ECM) are a subsection of electronic warfare which includes any sort of electrical or electronic device designed to fool radar, sonar, or other detection systems like IR (infrared) and Laser. ...


Modern influence mines are computerised, with all the programmability that this implies e.g. the ability to quickly load new acoustic signatures into fuzes, or program them to detect a single, highly distinct target signature. In this way, a mine with a passive acoustic fuze can be programmed to ignore all friendly vessels plus small enemy vessels, only detonating when a very large enemy target passes over it. Alternatively, the mine can be programmed specifically to ignore all surface vessels regardless of size and exclusively target submarines. For the IEEE magazine see Computer (magazine). ... This article is with regards ships and submarines, for the article with regard audio files see Acoustic fingerprint Acoustic signature is used to describe a combination of acoustic emissions of ships and submarines. ... Detonation is a process of supersonic combustion that involves a shock wave and a reaction zone behind it. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ...


Even as far back as the Second World War it was possible to incorporate a "ship counter" facility into mine fuzes i.e. set the mine to ignore the first two ships to pass over it (which could be mine-sweepers deliberately trying to trigger mines) but detonate when the third ship passes overhead - which could be a high value target such as an aircraft carrier or oil tanker. Even though modern mines are generally powered by a long life lithium battery, it is important to conserve power because they may need to remain active for months or even years. For this reason, most influence mines are designed to remain in a semi-dormant state until an unpowered (e.g. deflection of a magnetic compass needle) or low-powered sensor detects the possible presence of a vessel, at which point the mine fuze powers up fully and the passive acoustic sensors will begin to operate for some minutes. Obviously, it is possible to program computerised mines to delay activation for days or weeks after being laid. Similarly, they can be programmed to self-destruct or render themselves safe after a preset period of time e.g. 12 days or 12 months. As a general rule of thumb, the more sophisticated the mine design, the more likely it is to have some form of anti-handling device fitted in order to hinder clearance by divers or remotely piloted submersibles. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ... Detonation is a process of supersonic combustion that involves a shock wave and a reaction zone behind it. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... A tanker is usually a vehicle carrying large amounts of liquid fuel. ... CR2032 lithium battery Lithium batteries are primary batteries that have lithium metal or lithium compounds as an anode. ... This article is about the navigational tool. ... Fuze is a brand of beverage. ... A self-destruct is a mechanism which causes a device to destroy itself under a predefined set of circumstances. ... The typical configuration of anti-handling devices used with anti-tank landmines. ...


Unusual mines


Several specialized mines have been developed for other purposes than the common minefield. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Anti sweep mine

The anti sweep mine is a very small mine (40 kg warhead) with as small a floating device as possible. When the wire of a mine sweep hits the mine, it "sinks", letting the sweep wire drag along the anchoring wire of the mine until the sweep hits the mine.[clarify] That detonates the mine and cuts the sweeping wire. They are very cheap and usually used in combination with other mines in a minefield to make sweeping more difficult.[clarify]

Rocket mine

A Russian invention, the rocket mine is a bottom distance mine that fires a homing high-speed rocket (not torpedo) upwards towards the target.[clarify] It is intended to allow a bottom mine to attack surface ships as well as submarines from a greater depth.

Torpedo mine

The torpedo mine is a self-propelled variety, able to lie in wait for a target and then pursue it e.g. the CAPTOR mine. Other designs such as the Mk 67 Submarine Launched Mobile Mine [4] (which is based on a Mark 37 torpedo) are capable of swimming as far as 10 miles through or into a channel, harbor, shallow water area and other zones which would normally be inaccessible to craft laying the device. After reaching the target area they sink to the sea bed and act like conventionally laid influence mines. As a general rule, torpedo mines incorporate computerised acoustic and magnetic fuzes. A captor mine is an American naval mine. ... The Mark 37 torpedo is a torpedo with electrical propulsion, developed for US Navy. ... For the IEEE magazine see Computer (magazine). ... Fuze is a brand of beverage. ...


The U.S. Mark 24 "mine", code-named FIDO, was actually an ASW homing torpedo. The mine designation was disinformation to conceal its function. The Mark 24 FIDO Torpedo was a US air-dropped passive acoustic homing anti-submarine torpedo used during the Second World War against German and Japanese submarines. ... “A/S” redirects here. ...

Bouquet mine

The bouquet mine is a single anchor attached to several floating mines. It is designed so that when one mine is swept/detonated, another takes its place.[citation needed] It is a very sensitive construction and lacks reliability.

Ascending mine

The ascending mine is a floating distance mine that may cut its mooring or in some other way float higher when it detects a target.[citation needed] It lets a single floating mine cover a much larger depth range.

Daisy-chained mine

This comprises two moored, floating contact mines which are tethered together by a length of steel cable or chain. Typically, each mine is situated approximately 60 feet (18 m) away from its neighbour, and each floats a few metres below the surface of the ocean. When the target ship hits the steel cable, the mines on either side are drawn down the side of the ship's hull, exploding on contact. In this manner it is possible to target ships which might pass safely between two individually moored mines. Daisy-chained mines are a very simple concept which was used during the Second World War. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...

Dummy mine

Plastic drums filled with sand or concrete are periodically rolled off the side of ships as real mines are laid in large mine-fields. These false targets (designed to be of a similar shape and size as genuine mines) are intended to slow down the process of mine clearance: a mine-hunter is forced to investigate each suspicious sonar contact on the sea bed, whether it is real or not. This article is about the construction material. ...


Mine laying

Historically several methods were used to lay mines. During the First and Second World Wars, the Germans used U-boats to lay mines around the UK. In the Second World War, aircraft came into favour for mine laying with the one of largest such examples is the mining of the Japanese sea routes in Operation Starvation. U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Operation Starvation was an American mining operation conducted in World War II by the Army Air Force, in which vital water routes and ports of Japan were mined by air in order to disrupt enemy shipping. ...


Laying a minefield is a relatively fast process with specialized ships, which is still today the most common method. These minelayers can carry several thousand mines and manoeuvre with high precision. The mines are dropped at a predefined interval into the water behind the ship. Each mine is recorded for later clearing, but it is not unusual for these recordings to be lost together with the ships. Therefore many countries demand that all mining operations shall be planned on land and records kept so the mines can later be recovered more easily. A minelayer is a naval ship used for deploying sea mines. ...


Other methods to lay minefields include:

  • Converted merchant ships - rolled or slid down ramps
  • Aircraft - descent to the water is slowed by a parachute
  • Submarines - launched from torpedo tubes or deployed from specialized mine racks on the sides of the submarine
  • Combat boats - rolled off the side of the boat
  • Camouflaged boats - masquerading as fishing boats
  • Dropping from the shore - typically smaller, shallow-water mines
  • Attack divers - smaller shallow-water mines

In some cases, mines are automatically activated upon contact with the water. In others, a safety lanyard is pulled (e.g. one end attached to the rail of a ship) which starts an automatic timer countdown before the arming process is complete. Typically, the automatic safety-arming process takes some minutes to complete. This is in order to give the people laying the mines sufficient time to move out of its activation/blast zone.-1... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... A lanyard (sword knot) fixed to an infantry sword handle A lanyard, also spelled laniard, is a rope or cord often worn around the neck or wrist to carry something. ...


Aerial mining in World War II

Germany

In the 1930s, Germany had experimented with the laying of mines by aircraft; it became a crucial element in their overall mining strategy. Aircraft had the advantage of speed, and they would never get caught in their own minefields. German mines held a large 1,000 lb. (450 kg) explosive charge. From April to June 1940, the Luftwaffe laid 1,000 mines in British waters. Soviet ports were mined, as was the Arctic convoy route to Murmansk.[13] The Heinkel He 115 could carry two medium or one large mine while the Heinkel He 59, Dornier Do 18, Junkers Ju 88 and Heinkel He 111 could carry more.   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ... The Arctic convoys of World War II travelled from the United States and the United Kingdom to the northern ports of the Soviet Union - Archangel and Murmansk. ... The Heinkel He 115 was World War II Luftwaffe seaplane with three seats and used as a torpedo bomber and for general seaplane duties such as reconnaissance, mine laying. ... Heinkel HE 59 Designed in 1930, the He 59 resulted from a requirement for a torpedo bomber and reconnaissance warplane able to operate with equal facility on wheeled landing gear or twin-float alighting gear. ... Categories: Stub | German airliners 1930-1939 | German patrol aircraft 1930-1939 | Seaplanes and flying boats | World War II German patrol aircraft ... The Junkers Ju 88 was a WW2 Luftwaffe twin-engine multi-role aircraft. ... The Heinkel He 111 was the primary Luftwaffe medium bomber during the early stages of World War II, and is perhaps the most famous symbol of the German side of the Battle of Britain. ...


Soviet Union

The USSR was relatively ineffective in its use of naval mines in WWII in comparison with its record in previous wars.[14] Small mines were developed for use in rivers and lakes, and special mines for shallow water. A very large chemical mine was designed to sink through ice with the aid of a melting compound. Special aerial mine designs finally arrived in 1943-1944, the AMD-500 and AMD-1000.[15] Various Soviet Naval Aviation torpedo bombers were pressed into the role of aerial mining in the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea, including Ilyushin DB-3s, Il-4s and Lend Lease Douglas Boston IIIs.[16] Soviet Naval Aviation (Авиация военно-морского флота in Russian, or Aviatsiya Voenno-Morskogo Flota, literally aviation of the military sea fleet) was a part of the Soviet Navy. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... DB-3 bomber at Monino museum The Ilyushin DB-3 (for Дальний бомбардировщик - Dalniy Bombardirovschik - long-range bomber) was a Soviet bomber aircraft of World War II. It was a twin-engined, low-wing monoplane that first flew in 1935. ... The Ilyushin Il-4 was a Soviet World War II bomber aircraft, widely used by the Soviet Air Force (VVS, Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily) although not well known. ... This article is about the World War II program. ... The Douglas A-20 series, Douglas model DB-7, was a family of bomber and fighter aircraft of World War II, serving with United States, British, Soviet, French and Australian services. ...


United Kingdom

In September 1939, the UK announced the placement of extensive defensive minefields in waters surrounding the Home Islands. Offensive aerial mining operations began in April 1940 when 38 mines were laid at each of these locations: the Elbe River, the port of Lubeck and the German naval base at Kiel. In the next 20 months, mines delivered by aircraft sank or damaged 164 Axis ships with the loss of 94 aircraft. By comparison, direct aerial attacks on Axis shipping had sunk or damaged 105 vessels at a cost of 373 aircraft lost. The advantage of aerial mining became clear. The United Kingdom geared up for mining; a total of 48,000 aerial mines were laid by the Royal Air Force (RAF) in the European Theatre during World War II.[17] The Elbe River (Czech Labe, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ... Statistics State: Schleswig-Holstein District: Independent city Area: 214. ... , For the city in the United States, see Kiel, Wisconsin. ... RAF redirects here. ... Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ...


United States

The United States's early aerial mining efforts used smaller aircraft unable to carry many mines. Using TBF Avenger torpedo bombers, the US Navy mounted a direct aerial mining attack on enemy shipping in Palau on 30 March 1944 in concert with simultaneous conventional bombing and strafing attacks. The dropping of 78 mines stopped 32 Japanese ships from escaping Koror harbor; the combined operation sank or damaged 36 ships.[18] Two Avengers were lost; their crews were recovered.[19] The mines brought port usage to a halt for 20 days; further mine-laying in the area contributed to the Japanese abandoning Palau as a base.[20] Grumman TBF Avengers in 1942 The Grumman TBF Avenger (designated TBM for aircraft manufactured by General Motors) was an American torpedo bomber, developed initially for the United States Navy and Marine Corps and used by a large number of air forces around the world. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Palau boatyard on Malakal Island, August 1973 Koror is the state comprising the main commercial center of the country of Palau. ...


As early as 1942, American mining experts such as Naval Ordnance Laboratory scientist Dr. Ellis A. Johnson, Commander, Naval Reserve, suggested massive aerial mining operations against Japan's "outer zone" (Korea and northern China) as well as the "inner zone", their home islands. First, aerial mines would have to be developed further and manufactured in large numbers. Second, laying the mines would require a sizable air group. The US Army Air Force had the carrying capacity but considered mining to be the Navy's job. The US Navy lacked suitable aircraft. Johnson set about convincing General Curtis LeMay of the efficacy of very heavy bombers laying aerial mines.[21] The Japanese Archipelago which forms the country of Japan extends from north to south along the eastern coast of the Eurasian Continent, the western shore of the Pacific Ocean. ... USAAF recruitment poster. ... Curtis Emerson LeMay (November 15, 1906–October 3, 1990) was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of independent candidate George C. Wallace in 1968. ...


In the meantime, B-24 Liberator, PBY Catalina and other available bomber aircraft took part in localized mining operations in the Southwest Pacific and the China Burma India (CBI) Theaters, beginning with a very successful attack on the Yangon River in February 1943. Aerial minelaying operations involved a coalition of British, Australian and American aircrews, with the RAF and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) carrying out 60% of the sorties and the USAAF and US Navy covering 40%. Both British and American mines were used. Japanese merchant shipping suffered tremendous losses, while Japanese mine sweeping forces were spread too thin attending to far-flung ports and extensive coastlines. Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid, who directed nearly all RAAF mining operations in CBI, heartily endorsed aerial mining, writing in July 1944 that "aerial mining operations were of the order of 100 times as destructive to the enemy as an equal number of bombing missions against land targets."[22] The Consolidated B-24 Liberator was an American heavy bomber that was produced in greater numbers than any other American combat aircraft during World War II and still holds the record as the most produced allied aircraft. ... PBY Catalina was the United States Navy designation for an American and Canadian-built flying boat of the 1930s and 1940s. ... The South West Pacific was one of two theatres of World War II in the Pacific region, between 1942 and 1945. ... China Burma India Theater (CBI) was the name used by the United States Army for its forces in China, Burma, India during World War II. Well-known US units in this theater included the Flying Tigers, transport and bomber units flying the Hump, the engineers who built Ledo Road, and... The Yangon River (also known as Rangoon River or Hlaing River) is an estuary that runs from Yangon to the Andaman Sea. ... RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the Air Force branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... Thomas Cassin Kinkaid (3 April 1888 – 17 November 1972) was an admiral of the United States Navy, who commanded the 7th Fleet in the Pacific during World War II. Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid watches landing operations in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, from the bridge of his flagship, USS Wasatch (AGC-9...


Finally, in March 1945, Operation Starvation began in earnest, using 160 of LeMay's B-29 Superfortress bombers to attack Japan's inner zone. Almost half of the mines were the US-built Mark 25 model, carrying 1250 lbs of explosives and weighing about 2,000 lbs. Other mines used included the smaller 1,000 lb Mark 26.[23] 15 B-29s were lost while 293 enemy merchant ships were sunk or damaged.[24] 12,000 aerial mines were laid, a significant barrier to Japan's access to outside resources. Prince Fumimaro Konoe said after the war that the aerial mining by B-29s had been "equally as effective as the B-29 attacks on Japanese industry at the closing stages of the war when all food supplies and critical material were prevented from reaching the Japanese home islands."[25] The United States Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific War) concluded that it would have been more efficient to combine the United States's effective anti-shipping submarine effort with land- and carrier-based air power to strike harder against merchant shipping and begin a more extensive aerial mining campaign earlier in the war. Survey analysts projected that this would have starved Japan, forcing an earlier end to the war.[26] After the war, Dr. Johnson looked at the Japan inner zone shipping results, comparing the total economic cost of submarine-delivered mines versus air-dropped mines and found that, though 1 in 12 submarine mines connected with the enemy as opposed to 1 in 21 for aircraft mines, the aerial mining operation was about ten times less expensive per enemy ton sunk.[27] Operation Starvation was an American mining operation conducted in World War II by the Army Air Force, in which vital water routes and ports of Japan were mined by air in order to disrupt enemy shipping. ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... Fumimaro Konoe Prince Fumimaro Konoe (近衞{衛 in Shinjitai} 文麿 Konoe Fumimaro) (sometimes Konoye, October 12, 1891–December 16, 1945) was a Japanese politician and the 34th (June 4, 1937–January 5, 1939), 38th (July 22, 1940–July 18, 1941) and 39th (July 18, 1941–October 18, 1941) Prime Minister of Japan. ... The Strategic bombing survey (Pacific War) was a U.S. Army report on the impact of strategic bombing in World War II in the Pacific Campaign. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...


Clearing WWII aerial mines

Between 600,000 and 1,000,000 naval mines of all types were laid in World War II. Advancing military forces worked to clear mines from newly-taken areas, but extensive minefields remained in place after the war. Air-dropped mines had an additional problem for mine sweeping operations: they weren't meticulously charted. In Japan, much of the B-29 mine-laying work had been performed at high altitude, with the drifting on the wind of mines carried by parachute adding a randomizing factor to their placement. Generalized danger areas were identified, with only the quantity of mines given in detail. Mines used in Operation Starvation were supposed to be self-sterilizing, but the circuit did not always work. Clearing the mines took so many years that the task was eventually given to the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force.[28] The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force ), or JMSDF, is the maritime branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan and formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II.[1] The force is based strictly on defensive armament, largely lacking...


Damage

The damage that may be received from a mine depends on the distance that the target is away from the area of detonation. The amount of damage that a ship takes is not always directly connected to the explosive physical impact of the mine.

Direct damage

Usually only created by contact mines, direct damage is a hole blown in the ship. Among the crew, shrapnel wounds are the most common form of damage.[citation needed] This rarely sinks the ship, but might flood one or two compartments – usually in the bow.

Bubble jet effect[citation needed]

The bubble jet effect occurs when a mine detonates in the water some distance away from the ship. The explosion creates a "hole" in the water[citation needed], and due to the difference in pressure, this sphere will collapse from the bottom[citation needed]. This creates a "pillar" of water that can go over a hundred meters into the air[citation needed]. The damage to the ship is heavy{{Fact||. The water breaks a meter wide hole straight through the ship[citation needed], flooding one or more compartments[citation needed], and might break the ship apart[citation needed]. The crew in the areas hit by the pillar are usually killed instantly.[citation needed] Other damage is usually limited.[citation needed]

Shaking effect

If the mine detonates at a distance from the ship, the change in water pressure causes the ship to resonate. This is frequently the most deadly type of explosion, if strong enough.[citation needed] The whole ship is dangerously shaken and everything onboard is tossed around. Engines rip from their beds, cables from their holders, etc. A badly shaken ship usually sinks quickly, with hundreds, or even thousands of small leaks all over the ship and no way to power the pumps.[citation needed] The crew fare no better, as the violent shaking tosses them around.

  • Photos of damage done to the USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG 58) by an Iranian M-08 moored mine in 1988.

USS (FFG-58) is one of the final ships in the United States Navys Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided missile frigates. ...

Countermeasures

Weapons are frequently a few steps ahead of countermeasures, and mines are no exception. In this field the British, with their large sea-going navy, have had the bulk of world experience, and most anti-mine developments, such as de-gaussing and the double-L sweep were British inventions. When on operational missions, such as the recent invasion of Iraq, the US still rely on British and Canadian minesweeping services. The US have worked on some innovative mine hunting countermeasures, such as the use of military dolphins to detect and flag mines. However, they are of questionable effectiveness. “Degausser” redirects here. ... A U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program dolphin named K-Dog wearing a locating pinger, performed mine clearance work in the Persian Gulf during the Iraq War. ...


Passive countermeasures

By building ships with as low signature as possible one can avoid detonating mines. This is especially true for minesweepers and mine hunters that work in minefields. These ships are built out of glass fibre or even wood instead of steel to avoid magnetic signatures, they use special propulsion systems, such as Voith-Schneider propellers, to limit the acoustic signature. They are built with hulls that produce a minimal pressure signature. These measures create other problems. They are expensive, slow, and vulnerable to enemy fire. Therefore, they need protection. Many modern ships have a mine warning sonar—a simple sonar looking forward and warning the crew if it detects possible mines ahead. It is only effective when moving slowly. The Voith-Schneider propeller is a specialized marine propulsion system. ... This article is with regards ships and submarines, for the article with regard audio files see Acoustic fingerprint Acoustic signature is used to describe a combination of acoustic emissions of ships and submarines. ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ...


A steel-hulled ship can be degaussed (more correctly, deoerstedted or depermed) using a special degaussing station that contains many large coils and induces a magnetic field in the hull with alternating current to demagnetize the hull. This is a rather problematic solution, as magnetic compasses need recalibration and all metal objects must be kept in exactly the same place. Ships slowly regain their magnetic field as they travel through the Earth's magnetic field, so the process has to be repeated every six months. “Degausser” redirects here. ... Deperming is a procedure for erasing the permanent magnetism from ships and submarines to camouflage them against magnetic detection vessels and enemy marine mines. ...


A variation on this technique, called wiping, was developed by Dr. Charles F. Goodeve, RCNVR, which saved time and resources. Charles Frederick Goodeve (21 February 1904 – 7 April 1980) was a Canadian chemist and pioneer in operations research. ... The Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve (RCNVR) was a naval reserve force of the Royal Canadian Navy, which replaced the Royal Navy Canadian Volunteer Reserve (RNCVR). ...


Between 1941 and 1943 the US Naval Gun factory (a division of the Naval Ordinance Laboratory) in Washington D.C. built physical models of all US Naval ships. Three kinds of steel were used in shipbuilding: mild steel for bulkheads, a mixture of mild steel and high tensile steel for the hull, and special treatment steel for armor plate. The models were placed within coils which would simulate the earth's magnetic field at any location. The magnetic signatures were measured with degaussing coils. The objective was to reduce the vertical component of the Earth's field combined with the ships field at the usual depth of German mines. From the measurements, coils were placed and coil currents determined to minimize the chance of detonation for any ship at any heading at any latitude.


Some ships are built with magnetic inductors, large coils placed along the ship to counter the ship's magnetic field. Using magnetic probes in strategic parts of the ship, the strength of the current in the coils can be adjusted to minimize the total magnetic field. This is a heavy and clumsy solution, suited only to smaller ships.


Active countermeasures

Active countermeasures are ways to clear a path through a minefield or remove it completely. This is one of the most important tasks of any mine warfare flotilla.


Mine sweeping

An MH-53E from HM-15 tows a minesweeping sled while conducting simulated mine clearing operations
An MH-53E from HM-15 tows a minesweeping sled while conducting simulated mine clearing operations

A sweep is either a contact sweep, a wire dragged through the water by one or two ships to cut the mooring wire of floating mines, or a distance sweep that mimics a ship to detonate the mines. The sweeps are dragged by minesweepers, either military ships or converted trawlers. Each run covers between one and two hundred meters, and the ships must move slowly in a straight line, making them vulnerable to enemy fire. This was exploited by the Turkish army in the Battle of Gallipoli in 1915, when mobile howitzer batteries prevented the British and French from clearing a way through minefields. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 408 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1950 × 2866 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 408 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1950 × 2866 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Sikorsky CH-53E Super Stallion (Sikorsky S-80E), is the largest and heaviest helicopter in the United States military. ... Helicopter Mine Countermeasures Squadron 15 (HM-15) is a United States Navy helicopter squadron based at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Texas. ... USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ... Belligerents British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal Ottoman Empire German Empire[2] Austria-Hungary[3] Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto Liman von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with...


If a contact sweep hits a mine, the wire of the sweep rubs against the mooring wire until it is cut. Sometimes "cutters", explosive devices to cut the mine's wire, are used to lessen the strain on the sweeping wire. Mines cut free are recorded and collected for research or shot with a deck gun.


Minesweepers protect themselves with an oropesa or paravane instead of a second minesweeper. These are torpedo-shaped towed bodies, similar in shape to a Harvey Torpedo, that are streamed from the sweeping vessel thus keeping the sweep at a determined depth and position. Some large warships were routinely equipped with paravane sweeps near the bows in case they inadvertently sailed into minefields — the mine would be deflected towards the paravane by the wire instead of towards the ship by its wake. More recently, heavy-lift helicopters have dragged minesweeping sleds, as in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. An Oropesa is a streamlined towed body used in the process of minesweeping. ... The Paravane is a form of towed underwater glider. It was developed by Cdr Usborne and Lt Burney financed by Sir George White, founder of the Bristol Aeroplane Company. ...


The distance sweep mimics the sound and magnetism of a ship and is pulled behind the sweeper. It has floating coils and large underwater drums. It is the only sweep effective against bottom mines.


During the Second World War, RAF Coastal Command used Vickers Wellington bombers fitted with degaussing coils to trigger magnetic mines. Coastal Command was an organization within the Royal Air Force tasked with protecting the United Kingdom from naval threats. ... The Vickers Wellington was a twin-engine, medium bomber designed in the mid-1930s at Brooklands in Weybridge, Surrey, by Vickers-Armstrongs Chief Designer, R.K. Pierson. ...


Modern influence mines have the ability to discriminate against false inputs and are therefore much harder to sweep. They often contain inherent anti-sweeping mechanisms. For example, they may be programmed to respond to the unique noise of a particular ship-type, its associated magnetic signature and the typical pressure displacement of such a vessel. As a result, a mine-sweeper must accurately guess and mimic the required target signature in order to trigger detonation. The task is complicated by the fact that an influence mine may have one or more of a hundred different potential target signatures programmed into it.


Another anti-sweeping mechanism is a ship-counter in the mine fuze. When enabled, this only allows detonation after the mine fuze has been triggered a pre-set number of times. To further complicate matters, influence mines may be programmed to arm themselves (or disarm automatically - known as self-sterilization) after a pre-set time. Obviously, during the pre-set arming delay (which could last days or even weeks) the mine would remain dormant and completely ignore any target stimulus, whether it was genuine or faked. Fuze is a brand of beverage. ...


When influence mines are laid in an ocean minefield, they may have various combinations of fuze settings configured. For example, some mines (with the acoustic sensor enabled) may become active within three hours of being laid, others (with the acoustic and magnetic sensors enabled) may become active after two weeks, but have the ship counter mechanism set to ignore the first two trigger events, and still others in the same minefield (with the magnetic and pressure sensors enabled) will not become armed until three weeks have passed. Naturally, groups of mines within this mine-field can have different target signatures programmed into them which may or may not have a degree of overlap in them. Suffice to say the fuzes on influence mines allow many different permutations, which complicates the clearance process.


Using ship-counters, arming delays and highly specific target signatures in mine fuzes can create a dangerous illusion for mariners in shipping lanes i.e. that mines do not exist in a particular area (because a succession of vessels have already passed through safely) or alternatively that recent mine-sweeping operations have been successful and all mines in the zone have been located and cleared.


Mine hunting

Pinguin B3 mine hunting drone, such are operated from Frankenthal class mine hunters of the German Navy
Pinguin B3 mine hunting drone, such are operated from Frankenthal class mine hunters of the German Navy

Mine hunting is very different from sweeping, even if some minehunters can do both tasks. When mine hunting, the mines are located using sonar, then inspected and destroyed either by divers or ROVs (remote controlled unmanned mini submarines). It is slow, but also the most secure way to remove mines. Mine hunting started during the Second World War, but it was only after the war that it became a truly effective method. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 936 KB) Summary A Pinguin B3 mine hunting drone (ROV), used to inspect and destroy naval mines. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 936 KB) Summary A Pinguin B3 mine hunting drone (ROV), used to inspect and destroy naval mines. ... M1064 Grömitz The Type 332 Frankenthal class mine hunter is a 12-ship class of German mine hunters. ... German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern air... A Pinguin B3 minehunting ROV of the German Navy, explosive charges can be seen underneath the main body. ... Variety of ROVs: Work Class, General, Mini Remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) is the common accepted name for tethered underwater robots in the offshore industry. ...


Sea mammals (mainly the Bottlenose Dolphin) have also been trained to hunt and mark mines, most famously by the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program. Mine-clearance dolphins were deployed in the Persian Gulf during the Iraq War in 2003. The Navy claims that these dolphins were effective in helping to clear more than 100 antiship mines and underwater booby traps from the port of Umm Qasr.[29] Needless to say, animal rights activists have depreciated the practice, some complaining that dolphins are in fact "our betters" and should not be risked to save the lives of humans, particularly humans who wage war and knowingly take war's risks. Binomial name Montagu, 1821 Bottlenose Dolphin range (in blue) The Bottlenose Dolphin is one of the most common and well-known dolphins. ... The U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (NMMP) is a program administered by the U.S. Navy which studies the military use of marine mammals  — principally Bottlenose Dolphins and California Sea Lions  — and trains circus animals to perform tasks such as ship and harbor protection, mine detection and clearance, and... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... This article is about an antipersonnel trap designed for use against humans. ... Cranes at Umm Qasr await cargo. ... A man holds a monkey by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ...


French naval officerJacques Yves Cousteau's Undersea Research Group was once involved in mine-hunting operations: They removed or detonated a variety of German mines, but one particularly nasty batch—equipped with acutely sensitive pressure, magnetic, and acoustic sensors and wired together so that one explosion would trigger the rest—was simply left undisturbed for years until corrosion would (hopefully) disable the mines.[30]) Jacques-Yves Cousteau (June 11, 1910 - June 25, 1997) was a French naval officer, explorer and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water. ...


Mine breaking

A more drastic method is simply to take a cargo ship, load her with cargo that makes her less vulnerable to sinking (wood for example) and drive her through the minefield, letting the ship to be protected follow the same path. This method was employed by the German Kriegsmarine during WWII, using converted ships known as Sperrbrecher. Alternatively, a shallow draught vessel can be steamed through the minefield at high speed to generate a pressure wave sufficient to trigger mines, with the minesweeper moving fast enough to be sufficiently clear of the pressure wave so that triggered mines do not destroy the ship itself. These techniques are the only way to sweep pressure mines. The technique can be simply countered by use of a ship-counter, set to allow a certain number of passes before the mine is actually triggered. Modern doctrine calls for ground mines to be hunted rather than swept.

Seehund ROVs of the German Navy used for minesweeping/breaking
Seehund ROVs of the German Navy used for minesweeping/breaking

An updated form of mine breaking is the use of small unmanned ROVs that simulate the acoustic and magnetic signatures of larger ships and are built to survive exploding mines. Repeated sweeps would be required in case one or more of the mines had its "ship counter" facility enabled i.e. were programmed to ignore the first 2, 3, or even 6 target activations. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 761 KB) Summary Three Seehunde (Hohlstäbe) mine sweeping ROVs of the Troika system. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 761 KB) Summary Three Seehunde (Hohlstäbe) mine sweeping ROVs of the Troika system. ... M1093 Auerbach/Oberpfalz The five ships of the Type 352 Ensdorf class are former Type 343 Hameln class minesweepers that have been upgraded with the TROIKA PLUS system. ... German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern air... Variety of ROVs: Work Class, General, Mini Remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) is the common accepted name for tethered underwater robots in the offshore industry. ...


National arsenals

US Mines

The United States Navy MK56 ASW mine (the oldest still in use by the US) was developed in 1966. More advanced mines include the MK60 CAPTOR (short for "encapsulated torpedo"), the MK62 and MK63 Quickstrike and the MK67 SLMM (Submarine Launched Mobile Mine). Today, most U.S. naval mines are delivered by aircraft. USN redirects here. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... A captor mine is an American naval mine. ...


MK67 SLMM Submarine Launched Mobile Mine
The SLMM was developed by the United States as a submarine deployed mine for use in areas inaccessible for other mine deployment techniques or for covert mining of hostile environments. The SLMM is a shallow-water mine and is basically a modified Mark 37 torpedo. The Mark 37 torpedo is a torpedo with electrical propulsion, developed for US Navy. ...


General characteristics

  • Type: Submarine-laid bottom mine
  • Detection System: Magnetic/seismic/pressure target detection devices (TDDs)
  • Dimensions: 485 mm by 4.09 m (19 by 161 in)
  • Depth Range: Shallow water
  • Weight: 754 kg (1658 lb)
  • Explosives: 230 kg (510 lb) high explosive
  • Date Deployed: 1987

MK65 Quickstrike
The Quickstrike[5] is a family of shallow-water aircraft-laid mines used by the United States, primarily against surface craft. The MK65 is a 2,000-lb (900 kg) dedicated, purpose-built mine. However, other Quickstrike versions (MK62, MK63, and MK64) are converted general-purpose bombs. These latter three mines are actually a single type of electronic fuze fitted to Mk82, Mk83 and Mk84 air-dropped bombs. Because this latter type of Quickstrike fuze only takes up a small amount of storage space compared to a dedicated sea mine, the air-dropped bomb casings have dual purpose i.e. can be fitted with conventional contact fuzes and dropped on land targets, or have a Quickstrike fuze fitted which converts them into sea mines. Fuze is a brand of beverage. ... Fuze is a brand of beverage. ...


General characteristics

  • Type: aircraft-laid bottom mine
  • Detection System: Magnetic/seismic/pressure target detection devices (TDDs)
  • Dimensions: 740 mm by 3.25 m (29 by 128 in)
  • Depth Range: Shallow water
  • Weight: 1086 kg (2390 lb)
  • Explosives: Various loads
  • Date Deployed: 1983

MK56
General characteristics

  • Type: Aircraft laid moored mine
  • Detection System: Total field magnetic exploder
  • Dimensions: 570 mm by 2.9 m (22.4 by 114.3 in)
  • Depth Range: Moderate depths
  • Weight: 909 kg (2000 lb)
  • Explosives: 164 kg (360 lb) HBX-3
  • Date Deployed: 1966

Royal Navy

According to a statement made to the UK Parliament in 2002:[31]

"...the Royal Navy does not have any mine stocks and has not had since 1992. Notwithstanding this, the United Kingdom retains the capability to lay mines and continues research into mine exploitation. Practice mines, used for exercises, continue to be laid in order to retain the necessary skills".

However, a British company (BAE Systems) does manufacture the 'Stonefish' influence mine for export[6] to friendly countries such as Australia, which has both war stock and training versions. The computerised fuze on a Stonefish mine contains acoustic, magnetic and water pressure displacement target detection sensors. Stonefish can be deployed by fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, surface vessels and submarines. A optional kit is available to allow Stonefish to be air-dropped, comprising an aerodynamic tail-fin section and parachute pack to retard the weapon's descent. The operating depth of Stonefish ranges between 30 and 200 metres. The mine weighs 990 kilograms and contains a 600 kilogram aluminised PBX explosive warhead. The shelf life of a Stonefish mine is 20 years, and it has an operational lifetime of 700 days after being deployed on the seabed. Stonefish incorporates arming delays, ship counting and self-sterilisation features which can be configured by the user. , BAE Systems plc (BAE) is a British defence and aerospace company headquartered at Farnborough, England, UK, that has worldwide interests, particularly in North America through its subsidiary BAE Systems Inc. ... For the IEEE magazine see Computer (magazine). ... Fuze is a brand of beverage. ... Look up Acoustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the study of sound, a branch of physics, see acoustics. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Aerodynamics is a branch of fluid dynamics concerned with the study of gas flows, first analysed by George Cayley in the 1800s. ... -1... Aluminum redirects here. ... A polymer-bonded explosive, also called PBX or plastic-bonded explosive, is an explosive material in which particles of explosive are set into a matrix of a synthetic polymer (plastic). Polymer-bonded explosives have several potential advantages: If the polymer matrix is an elastomer (rubbery material), it tends to absorb... A B61 nuclear bomb in various stages of assembly; the nuclear warhead is the bullet-shaped silver cannister in the middle-left of the photograph. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

The Admiralty Mining Establishment was a technical department of the Royal Navy responsible for both the design of naval mines and the development of suitable countermeasures. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... HMHS Britannic (1914), the third Olympic-class ocean liner of the White Star Line, sister ship of RMS Olympic and RMS Titanic, sank in 1916 after hitting a mine with the loss of 30 lives. ...

References

  1. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 203-205.
  2. ^ http://www.csonline.com.cn/gb/content/2001-12/27/content_89017.htm (in chinese).
  3. ^ a b Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 205.
  4. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 199.
  5. ^ Historic Figures: Cornelius Drebbel (1572 - 1633). BBC History. Retrieved on 2007-03-05.
  6. ^ Robert Routledge (1989). Discoveries and inventions of the 19th Century, 161. ISBN 1-85170-2679. 
  7. ^ The Double-L Sweep -- Biography of Sir Charles Goodeve.
  8. ^ Wiping -- Biography of Sir Charles Goodeve.
  9. ^ WW2 People's War (BBC). Aniseed Balls and the Limpet Mine. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  10. ^ MacRae 1971
  11. ^ The Sea Shepherd. Sea Shepherd. Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
  12. ^ The Sea Shepherd. Sea Shepherd. Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
  13. ^ Youngblood, Norman (2006). The Development of Mine Warfare: A Most Murderous and Barbarous Conduct. Greenwood, 127. ISBN 0275984192. 
  14. ^ Levie, Howard S. (1992). Mine Warfare At Sea. Springer, 92. ISBN 079231526X. 
  15. ^ Rusnavy.com. The Soviet Navy at the Outbreak and During the Great Patriotic War: Introduction
  16. ^ George Mellinger. Sovet Air Forces "Autumn Storm" Air Order of Battle (2001)
  17. ^ Youngblood, Norman (2006). The Development of Mine Warfare: A Most Murderous and Barbarous Conduct. Greenwood, 129-130. ISBN 0275984192. 
  18. ^ National Park Service. Peleliu. Appendices.
  19. ^ Youngblood, Norman (2006). The Development of Mine Warfare: A Most Murderous and Barbarous Conduct. Greenwood, 138. ISBN 0275984192. 
  20. ^ (1992) Mines Away!: The Significance of US Army Air Forces Minelaying in World War II. Diane. 
  21. ^ Ziegler, Charles A. (1995). Spying Without Spies: Origins of America's Secret Nuclear Surveillance System. Praeger, 118. ISBN 0275950492. 
  22. ^ (1992) Mines Away!: The Significance of US Army Air Forces Minelaying in World War II. Diane. 
  23. ^ (1992) Mines Away!: The Significance of US Army Air Forces Minelaying in World War II. Diane. 
  24. ^ The United States Strategic Bombing Surveys (European War) (Pacific War)
  25. ^ Youngblood, Norman (2006). The Development of Mine Warfare: A Most Murderous and Barbarous Conduct. Greenwood, 139. ISBN 0275984192. 
  26. ^ United States Strategic Bombing Survey, Summary Report (Pacific War). July 1, 1946
  27. ^ Levie, Howard S. (1992). Mine Warfare At Sea. Springer, 89. ISBN 079231526X. 
  28. ^ Youngblood, Norman (2006). The Development of Mine Warfare: A Most Murderous and Barbarous Conduct. Greenwood, 141. ISBN 0275984192. 
  29. ^ Uncle Sam's Dolphins. Smithsonian Magazine article about the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program's mine-clearance work in Iraq.
  30. ^ Cousteau, Jacques Yves. The Silent World, p. 58. New York: 1953, Harper & Row.
  31. ^ Hansard Written Answers, 4 November 2002. Available on-line at www.publications.parliament.uk

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Smithsonian is a monthly magazine published by the Smithsonian Institution of the United States in Washington, DC External link Smithsonian webpage Categories: Smithsonian Institution | United States magazines | Stub ... The U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (NMMP) is a program administered by the U.S. Navy which studies the military use of marine mammals  — principally Bottlenose Dolphins and California Sea Lions  — and trains circus animals to perform tasks such as ship and harbor protection, mine detection and clearance, and...

Sources

  • MacRae, Stuart (1971). Winston Churchill's Toyshop. Roundwood Press. SBN 900093-22-6. 
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Part 7. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
  • WW2 People's War - An archive of World War Two memories - written by the public, gathered by the BBC. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Hartmann, Gregory K. with Scott C. Truver (1991). Weapons That Wait: Mine Warfare in the U.S. Navy. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-753-4.  (Canonical general text about U.S. mine warfare)
  • Hewitt, James Terrance (1998). Desert Sailor: A War of Mine. Clementsport: The Canadian Peacekeeping Press. ISBN 1-896551-17-3.  (Personal account of mine countermeasures operations in Operation Desert Storm during the Gulf War 1991, including the mining of USS Tripoli.)
  • Peniston, Bradley (2006). No Higher Honor: Saving the USS Samuel B. Roberts in the Persian Gulf. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-661-5.  (Describes mine damage to a U.S. frigate)
  • Wise, Harold Lee (2007). Inside the Danger Zone: The U.S. Military in the Persian Gulf 1987-88. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-970-3.  (Describes American efforts to combat Iranian mine campaign in the Persian Gulf)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Naval Mine

  Results from FactBites:
 
Naval Mine History [AMCM] (1029 words)
The naval mine (still called the torpedo) was the adopted by the Confederates and used effectively against the Federal Navy.
Japan was completely unprepared to cope with these influence mines which saturated her home waters; and those not sunk by mines were either forced to stay in closed ports or divert to a few overcrowded ports where they were prey to attack by aircraft and submarine.
Naval mines may not get the press coverage that carriers, missiles and submarines receive, but they remain the most inexpensive and prolific weapon for control of the seas.
Naval mine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4540 words)
Limpet mines are a special form of contact mine which are attached to the target by magnets and left, and are so named because of the superficial similarity to the mollusk limpet.
The mines are usually equipped to be turned into "normal" mines with a switch (which prevents the enemy from simply capturing the controlling station and deactivating the mines), detonated by hand or be allowed to detonate on their own.
This deep-water mine is laid by aircraft or submarine, and is anchored to the ocean floor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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