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Encyclopedia > Nature versus nurture

The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature") versus personal experiences ("nurture") in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. The view that humans acquire all or almost all their behavioral traits from "nurture" is known as tabula rasa ("blank slate"). With the development of human genetics, many important human traits have been proven to be partially or mostly genetic. For a discussion of nature versus nurture in language and other human universals, see also psychological nativism. See also : Human nature (disambiguation) Human nature is the fundamental nature and substance of humans, as well as the range of human behavior that is believed to be invariant over long periods of time and across very different cultural contexts. ... Nurture is usually defined as the process of caring for and teaching a child as they grow. ... Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man, an important early achievement in the study of physiology. ... Behavior or behaviour refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... Tabula rasa (Latin: scraped tablet or clean slate) refers to the epistemological thesis that individual human beings are born with no innate or built-in mental content, in a word, blank, and that their entire resource of knowledge is built up gradually from their experiences and sensory perceptions of the... A karyotype of a human male, showing 46 chromosomes including XY sex chromosomes. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... In the field of psychology, nativism is the view that certain skills or abilities are native or hard wired into the brain at birth. ...

Contents

The Scientific Approach

In order to disentangle the effects of genes and environment, behavioral geneticists perform adoption and twin studies. Behavioral geneticists do not generally use the term "nature" in order to explain that portion of the variance for a given trait (such as IQ or the Big Five personality traits) that can be attributed to environmental effects. Instead, two different types of environmental effects are distinguished: shared family factors (i.e., those shared by siblings, making them more similar) and nonshared factors (i.e., those that uniquely affect individuals, making siblings different). In order to express the portion of the variance that is due to the "nature" component, behavioral geneticists generally refer to the heritability of a trait. Behavioural genetics is the field of biology that studies the role of genetics in animal behaviour. ... Adoption is the legal act of permanently placing a child with a parent (or parents) other than the birth parents. ... Twin study - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Behavioural genetics is the field of biology that studies the role of genetics in animal behaviour. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ... In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad factors or dimensions of personality discovered through empirical research (Goldberg, 1993). ... Heritability, as used professionally in genetics, has a very precise definition. ...


With regard to the Big Five personality traits as well as adult IQ in the general U.S. population, the portion of the overall variance that can be attributed to shared family effects is often negligible. [1] On the other hand, most traits are thought to be at least partially heritable. In this context, the "nature" component of the variance is generally thought to be more important than that ascribed to the influence of family upbringing. However, because the studies upon which these conclusions are based were primarily conducted upon individuals in the general white population of modern Western countries, conclusions from studies in behavioral genetics cannot necessarily be extrapolated to other populations. In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad factors or dimensions of personality discovered through empirical research (Goldberg, 1993). ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ... The term white people (also whites or white race) has been defined as being a member of a group or race characterized by light pigmentation of the skin and to a human group having light-colored skin, especially of European ancestry. ...


In her book The Nurture Assumption, author Judith Harris argues that "nuture," as traditionally defined in terms family upbringing and socioeconomic status, does not effectively explain the variance for most traits (such as adult IQ and the Big Five personality traits) in the general population of the United States. On the contrary, Harris suggests that either peer groups or random environmental factors (i.e., those that are independent of family upbringing) are more important than family environmental effects [2] [3] The book was a 1999 Pulitzer Prize finalist. The Nurture Assumption is a book written by Judith Harris with the foreword by Steven Pinker. ... Judith Rich Harris (February 10, 1938 - ) is a psychologist and the author of The Nurture Assumption, a book criticizing the belief that parents are the most important factor in child development. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ... In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad factors or dimensions of personality discovered through empirical research (Goldberg, 1993). ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ...


Although "nurture" has historically been referred to as the care given to children by the parents, with the mother playing a role of paritcular importance, this term is now regarded by some as any environmental (not genetic) factor in the contemporary nature versus nurture debate. Thus the definition of "nurture" has been expanded in order to include the influences on development arising from prenatal, parental, extended family and peer experiences, extending to influences such as media, marketing and socio-economic status. Indeed, a substantial source of environmental input to human nature may arise from stochastic variations in prenatal development.[citation needed]


Philosophical Approach

While classical theories regarding these matters were primarily concerned with the line between that which was voluntary (the ego, the self, and the personal will) and the involuntary (of Nature, Gods, etc.), this view was self-centric, which is to say deferential to authorities over the personal concepts; i.e. religious teaching and doctrine. This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... The self is a key construct in several schools of psychology. ... // For the racing driver, see Will Power. ...


As science developed with new understandings of life's elemental nature (determined in its nature and behavior by the behaviors of constituent elements and prevailing physical phenomena, e.g. atoms, molecules, genes, force, and time), the categories that classical formalism defined came to be seen as arbitrary, and the trend of science since has been to develop away from the human-centered view to a more elemental, deterministic, reductionist view. Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... In physics, force is an influence that may cause a body to accelerate. ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. ... Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homines 1622. ...


Scientific culture to this day functions within a social boundary imposed by the prevalence among laypeople of classical views. This boundary contains the impact of any scientific discoveries or observations on matters of human society. Thus nature versus nurture debates can be seen as attempts to fit new scientific ideas and developments into the classical formalist and self-based mold, since these debates arose from problems associated with reconciling the formalist notions of classical theories with emerging theories and new data. The gap between prevailing scientific opinion and prevailing lay opinion is reflected in popular science. This article is not about the magazine, Popular Science Popular science is interpretation of science intended for a general audience, rather than for other scientists or students. ...


Advocates of a formalist view may discount completely the influence of one contributor or the other for the sake of some agenda, for example denying the influence of "nature" in order to preserve the idea of free will as the sole important determinant of behavior, a notion held to be of central importance in many religious, ethical, and legal systems, particularly in establishing culpability. Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Culpability (Blameworthiness) is the state of deserving to be blamed for a crime or offence. ...


Heritability Estimates

This chart illustrates three patterns one might see when studying the influence of genes and environment on traits in individuals. Trait A shows a high sibling correlation, but little heritability (i.e. high shared environmental variance c2; low heritability h2). Trait B shows a high heritability since correlation of trait rises sharply with degree of genetic similarity. Trait C shows low heritibility, but also low correlations generally; this means Trait C has a high nonshared environmental variance e2. In other words, the degree to which individuals display Trait C has little to do with either genes or broadly predictable environmental factors—roughly, the outcome approaches random for an individual. Notice also that even identical twins raised in a common family rarely show 100% trait correlation.
This chart illustrates three patterns one might see when studying the influence of genes and environment on traits in individuals. Trait A shows a high sibling correlation, but little heritability (i.e. high shared environmental variance c2; low heritability h2). Trait B shows a high heritability since correlation of trait rises sharply with degree of genetic similarity. Trait C shows low heritibility, but also low correlations generally; this means Trait C has a high nonshared environmental variance e2. In other words, the degree to which individuals display Trait C has little to do with either genes or broadly predictable environmental factors—roughly, the outcome approaches random for an individual. Notice also that even identical twins raised in a common family rarely show 100% trait correlation.

Current thinking in biology discredits the notion that genes alone can determine a trait because genes are never sufficient in isolation. At the molecular level, DNA interacts in complex ways with signals from other genes and from the environment. At the level of individuals, particular genes influence the development of a trait in the context of a particular environment. Thus, measurements of the degree to which a trait is influenced by genes versus environment will depend on the particular environment and genes examined. In many cases, it has been found that genes may have a substantial contribution, including psychological traits such as intelligence and personality[4]. Yet, these traits may be largely influenced by environment in other circumstances, such as environmental deprivation. Image File history File links Sibling-correlation-422. ... Image File history File links Sibling-correlation-422. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ...


A researcher seeking to quantify the influence of genes or environment on a trait needs to be able to separate the effects of one factor away from that of another. This kind of research often begins with attempts to calculate the heritability of a trait. Heritability quantifies the extent to which variation among individuals in a trait is due to variation in the genes those individuals carry. In animals where breeding and environments can be controlled experimentally, heritability can be determined relatively easily. Such experiments would be unethical for human research. This problem can be overcome by finding existing populations of humans that reflect the experimental setting the researcher wishes to create. Heritability, as used professionally in genetics, has a very precise definition. ...


One way to determine the contribution of genes and environment to a trait is to study twins. In one kind of study, identical twins reared apart are compared to randomly selected pairs of people. The twins share identical genes, but different family environments. In another kind of twin study, identical twins reared together (who share family environment and genes) are compared to fraternal twins reared together (who also share family environment but only share half their genes). Another condition that permits the disassociation of genes and environment is adoption. In one kind of adoption study, biological siblings reared together (who share the same family environment and half their genes) are compared to adoptive siblings (who share their family environment but none of their genes). A twin study is a kind of genetic study done to determine heritability. ... Adoption is the legal act of permanently placing a child with a parent (or parents) other than the birth parents. ...


Some have rightly pointed out that environmental inputs affect the expression of genes. This is one explanation of how environment can influence the extent to which a genetic disposition will actually manifest. The interactions of genes with environment, called gene-environment interactions, are another component of the nature-nurture debate. A classic example of gene-environment interaction is the ability of a diet low in the amino acid phenylalanine to partially suppress the genetic disease phenylketonuria. Yet another complication to the nature-nurture debate is the existence of gene-environment correlations. These correlations indicate that individuals with certain genotypes are more likely to find themselves in certain environments. Thus, it appears that genes can shape (the selection or creation of) environments. Even using experiments like those described above, it can be very difficult to determine convincingly the relative contribution of genes and environment. Phe redirects here. ... Phenylketonuria (PKU; ) is a human genetic disorder in which the body does not contain the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, necessary to metabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine, and converts phenylalanine instead to phenylpyruvic acid. ...


Interaction of genes and environment

In only a very few cases is it fair to say that a trait is due almost entirely to nature, or almost entirely to nurture.[citation needed] In the case of most diseases now strictly identified as genetic, such as Huntington's disease, there is a better than 99.9% correlation between having the identified gene and the disease and a similar correlation for not having either. On the other hand, such traits as one's native language are entirely environmentally determined: linguists have found that any child (if capable of learning a language at all) can learn any human language with equal facility. With virtually all psychological traits however, there is an intermediate mix of nature and nurture, and opinions about the relative importance of each will often vary widely. Native Language Music, founded in 1996 by musicians Joe Sherbanee and Theo Bishop, is an independent adult contemporary record company based in Southern California that produces, markets, and distributes premium jazz, world, and new age music. ...


Examples of environmental, interactional, and genetic traits are:

Predominantly Environmental Interactional Predominantly Genetic
Language Height Blood type
Religion Weight Eye color
Skin color
IQ test results[citation needed]
The "two buckets" view of heritability.
The "two buckets" view of heritability.
More realistic "homogenous mudpie" view of heritability.
More realistic "homogenous mudpie" view of heritability.

Steven Pinker (2004) likewise described several examples: Image File history File links GxE-herit-fig2. ... Image File history File links GxE-herit-fig2. ... Image File history File links GxE-herit-fig1. ... Image File history File links GxE-herit-fig1. ... Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ...

concrete behavioral traits that patently depend on content provided by the home or culture—which language one speaks, which religion one practices, which political party one supports—are not heritable at all. But traits that reflect the underlying talents and temperaments—how proficient with language a person is, how religious, how liberal or conservative—are partially heritable.

When traits are determined by a complex interaction of genotype and environment it is possible to measure the heritability of a trait within a population. However, many non-scientists who encounter a report of a trait having a certain percentage heritability, imagine non-interactional, additive contributions of genes and environment to the trait. As an analogy, some laypeople may think of the degree of a trait being made up of two "buckets", genes and environment, each able to hold a certain capacity of the trait. But even for intermediate heritabilities, a trait is always shaped by both genetic dispositions and the environments in which people develop, merely with greater and lesser plasticities associated with these heritability measures. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Heritability, as used professionally in genetics, has a very precise definition. ...


Nature Versus Nurture in the IQ Debate

Evidence suggests that family environmental factors may have an effect upon childhood IQ, accounting for up to a quarter of the variance. On the other hand, by late adolescence this correlation disappears, such that adoptive siblings are no more similar in IQ than strangers.[5] Moreover, adoption studies indicate that, by adulthood, adoptive siblings are no more similar in IQ than strangers (IQ correlation near zero), while full siblings show an IQ correlation of 0.6. Twin studies reinforce this pattern: monozygotic (identical) twins raised separately are highly similar in IQ (0.86), more so than dizygotic (fraternal) twins raised together (0.6) and much more than adoptive siblings (~0.0). [6] Consequentely, in the context of the "nature versus nuture" debate, the "nature" component appears to be much more important that the "nuture" component in explaining IQ variance in the general adult population of the United States. However, it has also been suggested that these findings may not apply to non-white populations[citation needed].


Nature versus Nurture in Personality Traits

Personality is a frequently cited example of a heritable trait that has been studied in twins and adoptions. Identical twins reared apart are far more similar in personality than randomly selected pairs of people. Likewise, identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins. Also, biological siblings are more similar in personality than adoptive siblings. Each observation suggests that personality is heritable to a certain extent. However, these same study designs allow for the examination of environment as well as genes. Adoption studies also directly measure the strength of shared family effects. Adopted siblings share only family environment. Unexpectedly, some adoption studies indicate that by adulthood the personalities of adopted siblings are no more similar than random pairs of strangers. This would mean that shared family effects on personality are zero by adulthood. As is the case with personality, non-shared environmental effects are often found to out-weigh shared environmental effects. That is, environmental effects that are typically thought to be life-shaping (such as family life) may have less of an impact than non-shared effects, which are harder to identify. One possible source of non-shared effects is the environment of pre-natal development. Random variations in the genetic program of development may be a substantial source of non-shared environment. These results suggest that "nurture" may not be the predominant factor in "environment".


Advanced techniques

The power of quantitative studies of heritable traits has been expanded by the development of new techniques. Developmental genetic analysis examines the effects of genes over the course of a human lifespan. For example, early studies of intelligence, which mostly examined young children, found heritability measures of 40 to 50 percent. Subsequent developmental genetic analyses have found that genetic contribution to intelligence increases over a lifespan,[7][8][9] reaching a heritability of 80 percent in adulthood. Heritability, as used professionally in genetics, has a very precise definition. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ...


Another advanced technique, multivariate genetic analysis, examines the genetic contribution to several traits that vary together. For example, multivariate genetic analysis has demonstrated that the genetic determinants of all specific cognitive abilities (e.g., memory, spatial reasoning, processing speed) overlap greatly, such that the genes associated with any specific cognitive ability will affect all others. Similarly, multivariate genetic analysis has found that genes that affect scholastic achievement completely overlap with the genes that affect cognitive ability.


Extremes analysis, examines the link between normal and pathological traits. For example, it is hypothesized that a given behavioral disorder may represent an extreme of a continuous distribution of a normal behavior and hence an extreme of a continuous distribution of genetic and environmental variation. Depression, phobias, and reading disabilities have been examined in this context.


For highly heritable traits, it is now possible to search for individual genes that contribute to variation in that trait. For example, several research groups have identified genetic loci that contribute to schizophrenia (Harrison and Owen, 2003).


Moral difficulties: eugenics, etc.

Some observers believe that modern science tends to give too much weight to the nature side of the argument, in part because of social consciousness. Historically, much of this debate has had undertones of racist and eugenicist policies — the notion of race as a scientific truth has often been assumed as a prerequisite in various incarnations of the nature versus nurture debate. In the past, heredity was often used as "scientific" justification for various forms of discrimination and oppression along racial and class lines. Works published in the United States since the 1960s that argue for the primacy of "nature" over "nurture" in determining certain characteristics, such as The Bell Curve, have been greeted with considerable controversy and scorn. A necessary part of society, social consciousness brings moral implications into all aspects of science. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Blood libel · Black Legend Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Ku Klux Klan National Party (South Africa) American Nazi Party Kahanism · Supremacism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The Bell Curve is a controversial, best-selling 1994 book by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray exploring the role of genes in American life. ...


A critique of moral arguments against the nature side of the argument could be that they cross the is-ought gap. That is, they apply values to facts. David Hume raised the is-ought problem in his Treatise of Human Nature. ...


Philosophical difficulties: are the traits real?

It is sometimes a question whether the "trait" being measured is even a real thing. Much energy has been devoted to calculating the heritability of intelligence (usually the I.Q., or intelligence quotient), but there is still some disagreement as to what exactly "intelligence" is. IQ tests are designed to give approximately this Gaussian distribution. ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ...


Philosophical difficulties: Biological determinism

If genes do contribute substantially to the development of personal characteristics such as intelligence and personality, then many wonder if this implies that genes determine who we are. Biological determinism is the thesis that genes determine who we are. Few if any scientists would make such a claim[citation needed]; however, many are accused of doing so. Categories: Biology stubs ...


Others have pointed out that the premise of the "nature versus nurture" debate seems to negate the significance of free will[citation needed]. More specifically, if all our traits are determined by our genes, by our environment, by chance, or by some combination of these acting together, then there seems to be little room for free will. In any case, this line of reasoning suggests that the "nature versus nurture" debate tends to exaggerate the degree to which individual human behavior can be predicted based on knowledge of genetics and the environment. It should also be pointed out that biology may determine our abilities, but free will still determines what we do with our abilities. Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Chance can be used in any of the following contexts: Probability Luck Randomness See also the Ancient Greek concept of Chance Chance, a 1913 novel by Joseph Conrad. ...


Philosophical difficulties: is the problem real?

Many scientists feel that the very question opposing nature to nurture is a fallacy. Already in 1951, Calvin Hall in his seminal chapter[10] remarked that the discussion opposing nature and nurture was fruitless. If an environment is changed fundamentally, then the heritability of a character changes, too. Conversely, if the genetic composition of a population changes, then heritability will also change. As an example, we may use phenylketonuria (PKU), which causes brain damage and progressive mental retardation. PKU can be treated by the elimination of phenylalanine from the diet. Hence, a character (PKU) that used to have a virtually perfect heritability is not heritable any more if modern medicine is available. Similarly, within, say, an inbred strain of mice, no genetic variation is present and every character will have a zero heritability. If the complications of gene-environment interactions and correlations (see above) are added, then it appears to many that heritability, the epitome of the nature-nurture opposition, is "a station passed"[11] Heritability, as used professionally in genetics, has a very precise definition. ... Heritability, as used professionally in genetics, has a very precise definition. ... Phenylketonuria (PKU; ) is a human genetic disorder in which the body does not contain the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, necessary to metabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine, and converts phenylalanine instead to phenylpyruvic acid. ... Phenylketonuria (PKU; ) is a human genetic disorder in which the body does not contain the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, necessary to metabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine, and converts phenylalanine instead to phenylpyruvic acid. ... Linear animals or inbred strains are animals of a particular species which are nearly identical to each other in genotype due to long inbreeding. ... Heritability, as used professionally in genetics, has a very precise definition. ...


Myths about identity

Within the debates surrounding cloning, for example, is the far-fetched contention that a Jesus or a Hitler could be "re-created" through genetic cloning. Current thinking finds this largely innaccurate, and discounts the possibility that the clone of anyone would grow up to be the same individual due to environmental variation. For example, like clones, identical twins are genetically identical, and unlike the hypothetical clones share the same family environment, yet they are not identical in personality and other traits. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... For other uses, see clone. ...


See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Diathesis-stress model is a psychological theory that explains behavior as both a result of biological and genetic factors (nature), and life experiences (nurture). This theory is often used to describe the pronunciation of mental disorders, like schizophrenia, that are produced by the interaction of a vulnerable hereditary predisposition... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Genetic determinism is the belief that genes largely determine physical and behavioral phenotypes. ... Scientific interest in the correlation between genetic factors and violence dates back to the eugenics movement of the 19th century. ... See also : Human nature (disambiguation) Human nature is the fundamental nature and substance of humans, as well as the range of human behavior that is believed to be invariant over long periods of time and across very different cultural contexts. ... The subject of the inheritance of intelligence is the genetics of mental abilities. ... Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... The Nurture Assumption is a book written by Judith Harris with the foreword by Steven Pinker. ... Incarceration rates per 100,000 in the United States. ... David Reimer David Reimer (August 22, 1965 – May 5, 2004) was a Canadian man who was born as a mentally and biologically healthy boy, but was sexually reassigned and raised as a girl in an attempt to improve his life after his penis was inadvertently destroyed during circumcision. ... Social determinism is the hypothesis that social interactions and constructs alone determine individual behavior (as opposed to biological or objective factors). ... Tabula rasa (Latin: scraped tablet or clean slate) refers to the epistemological thesis that individual human beings are born with no innate or built-in mental content, in a word, blank, and that their entire resource of knowledge is built up gradually from their experiences and sensory perceptions of the... The Gene Illusion [1] is a book by clinical psychologist Jay Joseph[2] which challenges the evidence underlying genetic theories in psychiatry and psychology. ... A twin study is a kind of genetic study done to determine heritability. ... Judith Rich Harris (February 10, 1938 - ) is a psychologist and the author of The Nurture Assumption, a book criticizing the belief that parents are the most important factor in child development. ...

References

  1. ^ DeFries, J. C., McGuffin, P., McClearn, G. E., Plomin, R. (2000) Behavioral Genetics 4th ED. W H Freeman & Co.
  2. ^ http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:etWy56SPQQYJ:home.att.net/~xchar/tna. Website for "The Nurture Assumption."
  3. ^ http://home.att.net/~xchar/tna/edge2006.htm
  4. ^ Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. E., & McGuffin, P. 2001. Behavioral Genetics. (4th Edition). New York: Worth Publishers.
  5. ^ * Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. E. and McGuffin, P. (2001). Behavioral Genetics (4th Ed.). New York: Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-5159-3. 
  6. ^ Genetic and environmental influences on adult intelligence and special mental abilities. Human Biology, 70, 257–279. 1998
  7. ^ Plomin, R. 2004. Intelligence: genetics, genes, and genomics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86 112-129
  8. ^ M. McGue, T. J. Bouchard Jr., W. G. Iacono, & D. T. Lykken (1993) Behavioral Genetics of Cognitive Ability: A Life-Span Perspective, in Nature, Nurture, and Psychology, by R. Plomin & G. E. McClearn (Eds.) Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
  9. ^ R. Plomin, D. W. Fulker, R. Corley, & J. C. DeFries (1997) Nature, Nurture and Cognitive Development from 1 to 16 years: A Parent-Offspring Adoption Study Psychological Science 8 442–447
  10. ^ C. S. Hall (1951) The Genetics of Behavior, in Handbook of Experimental Psychology, by S. S. Stevens (Ed.) New York, NY, USA: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 304-329
  11. ^ W. E. Crusio (1990) Estimating heritabilities in quantitative behavior genetics: A station passed. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 127-128
  • Alarcon, M., Plomin, R., Fulker, D.W., Corley, R. & DeFries, J.C. (1998). Multivariate path analysis of specific cognitive abilities: data at 12 years of age in the Colorado Adoption Project. Behavior Genetics 28:255-264.
  • Jang, K.L., McCrae, R.R., Angleitner, A. Riemann, R. & Livesley, W.J. (1998). Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: support for a hierarchical model of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74:1556-1565.
  • Joseph, J. (2004)The Gene Illusion: Genetic Research in Psychiatry and Psychology Under the Microscope.New York: Algora. (2003 United Kingdom Edition by PCCS Books)
  • Joseph, J. (2006). The Missing Gene: Psychiatry, Heredity, and the Fruitless Search for Genes.New York: Algora.
  • Harrison PJ, Owen MJ. (2003) Genes for schizophrenia? Recent findings and their pathophysiological implications. Lancet, 361(9355), 417–9.
  • Neill, J. T. (2004). Nature vs nurture in intelligence. Wilderdom.
  • Pinker, S. (2004) Why nature & nurture won't go away. Dædalus.
  • Plomin, R., Fulker, D. W., Corley, R. & DeFries, J. C. (1997). Nature, nurture and cognitive development from 1 to 16 years: a parent-offspring adoption study. Psychological Science 8:442-447.
  • Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. E. and McGuffin, P. (2001). Behavioral Genetics (4th Ed.). New York: Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-5159-3. 
  • Ridley, M. (2003). Nature Via Nurture : Genes, Experience, and What Makes Us Human. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-000678-1.  (republished under the title The Agile Gene : How Nature Turns on Nurture)
  • Wahlsten, D. (1997). Leilani Muir versus the Philosopher King: eugenics on trial in Alberta. Genetica 99: 185-198.
  • At least two Science Fiction novels have plots which bear on this debate (in very different ways from each other): Cyteen by C. J. Cherryh (1988) and The Coming of the Quantum Cats by Frederik Pohl (1986).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nature vs Nurture - Search Results - MSN Encarta (207 words)
Nature vs. Nurture, theoretical debate over what portion of behavior or perception is learned and what portion an organism is born with.
Few topics in the social sciences have produced more controversy than the relative influences of nature and nurture on intelligence.
Scholars have long debated the relative importance of nature (hereditary influences) and nurture (environmental influences) in child development.
Wikinfo | Nature (443 words)
Nature is sometimes understood in the broad sense of the universe and all its phenomena, but a distinction is often drawn between the "natural" and the "artificial".
The boundary between the natural and the artificial, is a difficult one to draw, leading to ambiguities which animate much of art, literature and philosophy, and which echo those of the closely related mind-body problem.
Natural theology straddles the disciplines of theology and philosophy of religion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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