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Encyclopedia > Nature park

A national park is a reserve of land, usually declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. A National Park also has a set of rules which the public must abide by, such as no littering. National parks are a protected area of IUCN category II. The largest national park in the world is the Northeast Greenland National Park, which was established in 1974. The number of areas managed by the National Park Service in the United States of America consists of 390 different sites, of which only 58 carry the designation of National Park. Part of the Brecon Beacons National Park, looking from the highest point Pen Y Fan (2907 feet, 886 metres) to Corn Du (2864 feet, 873 metres). ... Part of the Brecon Beacons National Park, looking from the highest point Pen Y Fan (2907 feet, 886 metres) to Corn Du (2864 feet, 873 metres). ... Part of the Brecon Beacons National Park, looking from the highest point Pen Y Fan, 886 m (2907 feet), to Corn Du, 873 m (2864 feet) The Brecon Beacons National Park is one of three national parks in Wales. ... Motto: (Welsh for Wales for ever) Anthem: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff Official language(s) English, Welsh Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056  Area    - Total 20,779 km² (3rd... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Location in Greenland Northeast Greenland National Park is the largest national park in the world, with an area of 972,000 square kilometres. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ...

Contents


History

Prologue

In 1810 the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a "sort of national property in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy". The painter George Catlin, in his travels though the American West, wrote in 1832 that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved: by some great protecting policy of government . . . in a magnificent park . . . A nation's park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty!. Similar ideas were expressed in other countries – In Sweden, for instance, Baron Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld made such a proposition in 1880. The Scottish-American naturalist John Muir was to prove inspirational in the foundation of national parks, anticipating many ideas of conservationism, environmentalism, and the animal rights movement. 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... William Wordsworth, English poet William Wordsworth (April 7, 1770 – April 23, 1850) was a major English romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their 1798 joint publication, Lyrical Ballads. ... The panorama across Eskdale from Ill Crag. ... George Catlin (1796 in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania – December 23, 1872 in Jersey City, New Jersey) was an American painter who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. ... The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... An Atsina named Assiniboin Boy Photo by Edward S. Curtis. ... Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld by Georg von Rosen Baron (Nils) Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, also known as A. E. Nordenskioeld (November 18, 1832, Helsinki, Finland (then the Grand Duchy of Finland) — August 12, 1901, Dalby, SkÃ¥ne, Sweden) was a geologist, mineralogist and arctic explorer of Finland-Swedish extraction. ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... John Muir (1838-1914) John Muir (April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) was one of the earliest, and perhaps the most important of, modern conservationists. ...


Establishment

The first effort by any government to set aside such protective lands was in the United States, when President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act of Congress on June 30, 1864, ceding the Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias (later becoming the Yosemite National Park) to the state of California: Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... A congress is a gathering of people, especially a gathering for a political purpose. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance. ... Giant Sequoia in the Mariposa Grove, Yosemite Mariposa Grove is a sequoia grove located near Wawona, California in the southernmost part of Yosemite National Park, at 37°31′ N 119°36′ W. It is the largest grove of Giant Sequoias in the park, with several hundred mature examples of the... Binomial name Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl. ... Yosemite redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...

[T]he said State shall accept this grant upon the express conditions that the premises shall he held for public use, resort, and recreation; shall be inalienable for all time.

In 1872, Yellowstone National Park was established as the world's first truly national park. When news of the natural wonders of the Yellowstone were first published, the land was part of a territory. Unlike Yosemite, there was no state government that could assume stewardship of the land, so the Federal Government took on direct responsibility for the park, a process formally completed in October 1, 1890. It took the combined effort and interest of conservationists, politicians and especially businesses - namely, the Northern Pacific Railroad, whose route through Montana would greatly benefit by the creation of this new tourist attraction - to ensure the passage of the legislation by the United States Congress to create Yellowstone National Park. Image taken in May 2002 by Daniel Mayer. ... Image taken in May 2002 by Daniel Mayer. ... Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance. ... Yosemite redirects here. ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... For the next-generation airliner series from Boeing, see Boeing Yellowstone Project. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ...


The 'dean of western writers,' American Pulitzer prize-winning author Wallace Stegner has written that national parks are 'America's best idea,' - a departure from the royal preserves that Old World sovereigns enjoyed for themselves - inherently democratic, open to all, "they reflect us at our best, not our worst." [1] Even with the creation of Yellowstone, Yosemite, and nearly 37 other national parks and monuments, another 44 years passed before an agency was created in the United States to administer these units in a comprehensive way - the U.S. National Park Service (NPS). Interestingly, it was a businessman, Stephen Mather, who pushed hardest for the creation of the NPS, writing then-Secretary of the Interior Franklin Knight Lane about such a need. Lane invited Mather to come to Washington, DC to work with him to draft and see passage of the NPS Organic Act, which was approved by Congress and signed into law on August 25, 1916. Wallace Earle Stegner (February 18, 1909—April 13, 1993) was an American novelist, short story writer, and environmentalist. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Stephen Mather (1867 - 1930) was a pioneering American industrialist and conservationist. ... Franklin Knight Lane (1864–1921) was a Canadian-American Democratic politician who served as United States Secretary of the Interior under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1920. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Following the idea established in Yellowstone there soon followed parks in other nations. In Australia, the Royal National Park was established just south of Sydney in 1879. In Canada, Banff National Park (then known as Rocky Mountain National Park) became its first national park in 1885. New Zealand had its first national park in 1887. In Europe the first national parks were a set of nine parks in Sweden in 1909. Europe has 359 national parks at the moment.[2] Winter at Wattamolla beach. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Castle Mountain in Banff. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


After World War II, national parks were founded all over the world. The Vanoise National Park in the Alps was the first French national park, created in 1963 after public mobilization against a touristic project. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the use of images on this page may require cleanup, involving adjustment of image placement, formatting, size, or other adjustments. ... Vanoise National Park ( Parc National de la Vanoise), is a national park in the mountains of France. ... The West face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... El Nido, Philippines Tourism is the act of travel for the purpose of recreation and business, and the provision of services for this act. ...


Features preserved

Bryce Canyon National Park, in southern Utah, was established in 1928. It had previously been a National Monument.
Enlarge
Bryce Canyon National Park, in southern Utah, was established in 1928. It had previously been a National Monument.

National parks are usually located in places which have been largely undeveloped, and often feature areas with exceptional native animals, plants and ecosystems (particularly endangered examples of such), biodiversity, or unusual geological features. Occasionally, national parks are declared in developed areas with the goal of returning the area to resemble its original state as closely as possible. Bryce Canyon National Park is a national park located in southwestern Utah in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Salt Lake City Largest city Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,876 sq mi (219,887 km²)  - Width 270 miles (435 km)  - Length 350 miles (565 km)  - % water 3. ... Navajo National Monument Devils Tower National Monument Statue of Liberty National Monument Fort Matanzas National Monument A National Monument is a protected area of the United States that is similar to a national park (specifically a U.S. National Park) except that the President of the United States can quickly... In ecology, an ecosystem is a combination of all the living and non-living elements of an area. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of life. ...


In some countries, such as England and Wales, areas designated as a national park are not wilderness, nor owned by the government, and can include substantial settlements and land uses which are often integral parts of the landscape.


Park mandates

Most national parks have a dual role as offering a refuge for wildlife and as serving as popular tourist areas. Managing the potential for conflict between these two roles can become problematic, particularly as tourists often generate revenue for the parks which, in turn, are spent on conservation projects. Parks also serve as reserves for substantial natural resources, such as timber, minerals and other valuable commodities. The balance of the demand for extraction of these resources, against the damage this might cause, is often a very important challenge in national park management. National parks have been subject to illegal logging and other exploitation, sometimes because of political corruption. This threatens the integrity of many valuable habitats. Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Illegal logging is a term used to describe logging operations that government agencies have not authorized. ... World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index In broad terms, political corruption is the misuse of public (governmental) power for illegitimate, usually secret, private advantage. ... Habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species lives and grows. ...


Other sites designated for preservation

Some countries also designate sites of special cultural, scientific or historical importance as national parks, or as special entities within their national park systems. Other countries use a different scheme for historical site preservation. Some of these sites, if they meet the criteria required, are awarded the title World Heritage Site by the UNESCO. Site #86: Memphis and its Necropolis, including the Pyramids of Giza (Egypt). ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


In many countries, local governmental bodies may be responsible for the maintenance of park systems. Some of these are also called national parks. Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state. ...


See also

This is a list of national parks ordered by nation. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Map of land managed by the US Federal Government Federal lands are lands for which ownership is claimed by the Federal Government. ... The International Network of Geoparks (INoG) is a UNESCO Geoparks programme established in 1998. ... A Transboundary Protected Area is a protected area that spans across boundaries of multiple countries, where the political border sections that are enclosed within its area are abolished. ... This article is on national forests in the United States. ... At nearly all of the 388 American National Park units, one or more cancellation stamps can be acquired. ... Sustainable development is a process of developing (land, cities, business, communities, etc) that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs according to the Brundtland Report, a 1987 report from the United Nations. ... Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Exec. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:National Parks

  Results from FactBites:
 
NATURE PARKS (1974 words)
The Kaziranga Park lies in the fertile planes of the Brahmaputra River at the foothills of the Himalayas in Assam.
The park is home to the tiger, elephant, panther, sloth bear, bison, barking deer, sambar and a variety of birds Nagarhole is close to tourist spots such as Mysore, Belur, Halebid or Ooty and the best time to visit is October to April.
The glory of the park is increased by the water falls, tribal settlements and mountain peaks.
Parks.it - parks and other protected areas in Germany (344 words)
Nature parks are large protected areas, which are particularly suitable for recreational activities.
The main goal of nature parks is to match the recreational activities in the park with the protection of nature.
A park should be recognized and supported by the people living in the park, so that the protection of nature integrates with the needs of those who search for rest and fun in the parks.
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