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Encyclopedia > Nature (journal)
Nature

The 15 February 2001 cover of Nature
Abbreviated title None
Discipline Interdisciplinary
Language English
Publication details
Publisher Nature Publishing Group ( Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom)
Publication history 1869 to present
Frequency Weekly
Indexing
ISSN 0028-0836
Links

Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. Although most scientific journals are now highly specialized, Nature is one of the few journals, along with other weekly journals such as Science and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, which still publishes original research articles across a wide range of scientific fields. In many fields of scientific research, important new advances and original research are published as articles or letters in Nature. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (528x700, 120 KB) Summary Nature cover from 2001 - Topic: The human genome Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Contents   Overviews   Academia   Topics   Basic topics   Glossaries   Portals   Categories // This is a list of academic disciplines. ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... Nature Publishing Group (NPG) is an international publishing company that publishes scientific journals. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ... This article is about the concept. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... An article is a stand-alone section of a larger written work. ... For other uses, see Letter (disambiguation). ...


Research scientists are the primary audience for the journal, but summaries and accompanying articles make many of the most important papers understandable for the general public and to scientists in other fields. Toward the front of each issue are editorials, news and feature articles on issues of general interest to scientists, including current affairs, science funding, business, scientific ethics and research breakthroughs. There are also sections on books and arts. The remainder of the journal consists mostly of research articles, which are often dense and highly technical. Due to strict limits on the length of articles, in many cases the printed text is actually a summary of the work in question with many details relegated to accompanying supplemental material on the journal's website. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Editorial and Op-ed. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Scientific magazines and journals preceding Nature

Nineteenth-century Britain was home to a great deal of scientific progress; particularly in the latter half of the 19th century, Britain underwent enormous technological and industrial changes and advances.[1] The most respected scientific journals of this time were the refereed journals of the Royal Society, which had published many of the great works from Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday through to early works from Charles Darwin. In addition, during this period, the number of popular science periodicals doubled from the 1850s to the 1860s.[2] According to the editors of these popular science magazines, the publications were designed to serve as “organs of science,” in essence, a means of connecting the public to the scientific world.[2] For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...


Nature, first created in 1869, was not the first magazine of its kind. One journal to precede Nature was titled Recreative Science: A Record and Remembrancer of Intellectual Observation, which, created in 1859, began as a natural history magazine and progressed to include more physical observational science and technical subjects and less natural history.[3] The journal’s name changed from its original title to Intellectual Observer: A Review of Natural History, Microscopic Research, and Recreative Science and then later to the Student and Intellectual Observer of Science, Literature, and Art.[4] While Recreative Science had attempted to include more physical sciences such as astronomy and archaeology, the Intellectual Observer broadened itself further to include literature and art as well.[4] Similar to Recreative Science was the scientific journal titled Popular Science Review, created in 1862[5], which covered different fields of science by creating subsections titled ‘Scientific Summary’ or ‘Quarterly Retrospect,’ with book reviews and commentary on the latest scientific works and publications.[5] Two other journals produced in England prior to the development of Nature were titled the Quarterly Journal of Science and Scientific Opinion, founded in 1864 and 1868, respectively.[4] The journal most closely related to Nature in its editorship and format was titled The Reader, created in 1864; the publication mixed science with literature and art in an attempt to reach an audience outside of the scientific community, similar to Popular Science Review.[4]


These similar journals all ultimately failed. The Popular Science Review was the longest to survive, lasting 20 years and ending its publication in 1881; Recreative Science ceased publication as the Student and Intellectual Observer in 1871. The Quarterly Journal, after undergoing a number of editorial changes, ceased publication in 1885. The Reader terminated in 1867, and finally, Scientific Opinion lasted a mere 2 years, until June 1870.[3]


The creation of Nature

First title page, November 4, 1869
First title page, November 4, 1869

Not long after the conclusion of The Reader, a former editor, Norman Lockyer, decided to create a new scientific journal titled Nature.[6] First owned and published by Alexander MacMillan, Nature was similar to its predecessors in its attempt to “provide cultivated readers with an accessible forum for reading about advances in scientific knowledge.”[6] Janet Browne has proposed that “far more than any other science journal of the period, Nature was conceived, born, and raised to serve polemic purpose.”[6] Many of the early editions of Nature consisted of articles written by members of a group that called itself the X Club, a group of scientists known for having liberal, progressive, and somewhat controversial scientific beliefs relative to the time period.[6] Initiated by Thomas Henry Huxley, the group consisted of such important scientists as Joseph Hooker, Herbert Spencer, and John Tyndall, along with another five scientists and mathematicians; these scientists were all avid supporters of Darwin’s theory of evolution, a theory which, during the latter-half of the 19th century, received a great deal of criticism among more conservative groups of scientists.[7] Perhaps it was in part its scientific liberality that made Nature a longer-lasting success than its predecessors. John Maddox, editor of Nature from 1966 to 1973 as well as from 1980 to 1995, suggested at a celebratory dinner for the journal’s centennial edition that perhaps it was the journalistic qualities of Nature that drew readers in; “journalism” Maddox states, “is a way of creating a sense of community among people who would otherwise be isolated from each other. This is what Lockyer’s journal did from the start.”[8] In addition, Maddox mentions that the financial backing of the journal in its first years by the Macmillan family also allowed the journal to flourish and develop more freely than scientific journals before it.[8] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1345x1959, 933 KB) First title page of the scientific journal Nature, November 4, 1869. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1345x1959, 933 KB) First title page of the scientific journal Nature, November 4, 1869. ... Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer or Norman Lockyer (May 17, 1836 – August 16, 1920) was an English scientist and astronomer. ... The X Club was an influential 19th century dining club. ... Thomas Henry Huxley PC, FRS (4 May 1825 Ealing – 29 June 1895 Eastbourne, Sussex) was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... For other persons named Herbert Spencer, see Herbert Spencer (disambiguation). ... John Tyndall. ... Sir John Royden Maddox (born November 27, 1925 in Penllergaer, Swansea), a trained chemist and physicist, is a prominent science writer. ...


Nature in the 20th century

Nature underwent a great deal of development and expansion during the 20th century, particularly during the latter half of the 90's.


Editors

In 1919, Sir Richard Gregory followed Sir Norman Lockyer to become the second editor of the journal.[9] Gregory helped to establish Nature in the international scientific community. His obituary by the Royal Society stated: “Gregory was always very interested in the international contacts of science, and in the columns of Nature he always gave generous space to accounts of the activities of the International Scientific Unions.”[10] During the years 1945 to 1973, editorship of Nature changed three times, first to A.J.V. Gale and L.J.F. Brimble in 1945 (who in 1958 became the sole editor), then to Sir John Maddox in 1965, and finally to David Davies in 1973.[9] In 1980, Sir John Maddox returned as editor and retained his position until 1995. Dr. Philip Campbell has since became Editor-in-chief of all Nature publications.[9] Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer or Norman Lockyer (May 17, 1836 – August 16, 1920) was an English scientist and astronomer. ... Sir John Royden Maddox (born November 27, 1925 in Penllergaer, Swansea), a trained chemist and physicist, is a prominent science writer. ... Sir John Royden Maddox (born November 27, 1925 in Penllergaer, Swansea), a trained chemist and physicist, is a prominent science writer. ...


Nature’s expansion and development

In 1970, Nature first opened its Washington office; other branches opened in New York, Tokyo, Munich, Paris, San Francisco, and Boston in 1985, 1987, 1987, 1989, 2001, and 2004, respectively. Starting in the 1980’s, the journal underwent a great deal of expansion, launching over ten new journals. These new journals comprise the Nature Publishing Group, which was created in 1999 and includes Nature, Nature Research Journals, Stockton Press Specialist Journals and Macmillan Reference (renamed NPG Reference).


In 1997, Nature created its own website, www.nature.com, and in 1999 Nature Publishing Group began its series of Nature Reviews.[9] Some articles and papers are available for free on the Nature Web site. Others require the purchase of premium access to the site.


Nature claims a readership of over 300,000 senior scientists and executives and over 600,000 total readers. The journal has a circulation of around 65,000 but studies have concluded that on average the journal is shared by as many as 10 people.[11]


Publishing in Nature

Having an article published in Nature is very prestigious, and the articles are often highly cited, which can lead to promotions, grant funding, and attention from the mainstream media. Because of these positive feedback effects, competition among scientists to publish in high-level journals like Nature and its closest competitor, Science, can be very fierce. Nature's impact factor, a measure of how many citations a journal generates in other works, was 29.273 in 2005 (as measured by Thomson ISI), among the highest of any science journal. Positive feedback is a feedback system in which the system responds to the perturbation in the same direction as the perturbation (It is sometimes referred to as cumulative causation). ... The Impact factor, often abbreviated IF, is a measure of the citations to science and social science journals. ... The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) was founded by Eugene Garfield in 1960. ...


As with most other professional scientific journals, articles undergo an initial screening by the editor, followed by peer review (in which other scientists, chosen by the editor for expertise with the subject matter but who have no connection to the research under review, will read and critique articles), before publication. In the case of Nature, they are only sent for review if it is decided that they deal with a topical subject and are sufficiently ground-breaking in that particular field. As a consequence, the majority of submitted articles are rejected without review. Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ...


According to Nature's mission statement: Look up mission statement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

It is intended, FIRST, to place before the general public the grand results of Scientific Work and Scientific Discovery; and to urge the claims of Science to a more general recognition in Education and in Daily Life; and, SECONDLY, to aid Scientific men themselves, by giving early information of all advances made in any branch of Natural knowledge throughout the world, and by affording them an opportunity of discussing the various Scientific questions which arise from time to time.

Landmark papers

Many of the most-significant scientific breakthroughs in modern history have been first published in Nature. The following is a selection of scientific breakthroughs published in Nature, all of which had far-reaching consequences, and the citation for the article in which they were published.

  • X-rays — W. C. Röntgen (1896). "On a new kind of rays". Nature 53: 274–276. 
  • Wave nature of particles — C. Davisson and L. H. Germer (1927). "The scattering of electrons by a single crystal of nickel". Nature 119: 558–560. 
  • The neutronJ. Chadwick (1932). "Possible existence of a neutron". Nature 129: 312. 
  • Nuclear fissionL. Meitner and O. R. Frisch (1939). "Disintegration of uranium by neutrons: a new type of nuclear reaction". Nature 143: 239–240. 
  • First molecular protein structure (myoglobin) — J. C. Kendrew, G. Bodo, H. M. Dintzis, R. G. Parrish, H. Wyckoff and D. C. Phillips (1958). "A three-dimensional model of the myoglobin molecule obtained by X-ray analysis". Nature 181: 662–666. 
  • Plate tectonicsJ. Tuzo Wilson (1966). "Did the Atlantic close and then re-open?". Nature 211 (5050): 676-681. 
  • The ozone holeJ. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner and J. D. Shanklin (1985). "Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction". Nature 315 (6016): 207–210. doi:10.1038/315207a0. 
  • First cloning of a mammal (Dolly the sheep) — I. Wilmut, A. E. Schnieke, J. McWhir, A. J. Kind and K. H. S. Campbell (1997). "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells". Nature 385 (6619): 810–813. doi:10.1038/385810a0. 
  • The human genomeInternational Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (2001). "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome". Nature 409 (6822): 860-921.  (See 15 February 2001 cover above.)

In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... In physics, wave-particle duality holds that light and matter simultaneously exhibit properties of waves and of particles (or photons). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... The Discovery of the DNA Double Helix Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid by James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... An X-ray diffraction image for the protein myoglobin. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Image of the largest antarctic ozone hole ever recorded in September 2000. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For other uses, see clone. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Dolly (July 5, 1996 – February 14, 2003), a ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ...

Peer review

Due to the intense competition to publish in Nature and the subsequent large volumes of submitted manuscripts, errors in peer review are inevitable due to human error. There are a number of well-known cases in Nature where such anomalies in the peer-review process occurred. Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ...


A series of five fraudulent papers by Jan Hendrik Schön were published in Nature in the 2000-2001 period. The papers, about superconductivity, were revealed to contain falsified data and other scientific fraud. In 2003 the papers were retracted by Nature. The Schön Scandal was not limited to Nature. Other prominent journals such as Science and Physical Review retracted Schön's papers.[12] Jan Hendrik Schön Jan Hendrik Schön (born 1970) is a German physicist who briefly rose to prominence after a series of apparent breakthroughs (recipient of Otto-Klung-Weberbank Prize for Physics in 2001, Braunschweig Prize in 2001 and Outstanding Young Investigator Award of the Materials Research Society in... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Physical Review is one of the oldest and most-respected scientific journals publishing research on all aspects of physics. ...


In publishing one of its most famous discoveries, Watson and Crick's 1953 paper on the structure of DNA in Nature the paper was not sent out for peer review. John Maddox, Nature's editor, stated that "the Watson and Crick paper was not peer-reviewed by Nature... the paper could not have been refereed: its correctness is self-evident. No referee working in the field ... could have kept his mouth shut once he saw the structure..." Watson and Crick refers to the duo of James D. Watson and Francis Crick, who, with the work of Rosalind Franklin, discovered the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 and for this discovery were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize award, along with Maurice Wilkins. ... Sir John Royden Maddox (born November 27, 1925 in Penllergaer, Swansea), a trained chemist and physicist, is a prominent science writer. ...


An earlier error occurred when Enrico Fermi submitted his breakthrough paper on the weak interaction theory of beta decay. Nature turned down the paper because it was considered too remote from reality. [13] Fermi's paper was published by Zeitschrift für Physik in 1934, and finally published by Nature 5 years later, after Fermi's work had been widely accepted.[14] Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... The Zeitschrift für Physik (Journal of Physics) was published from 1920 until 1997. ...


Publication of Nature and related journals

Nature is edited and published in the United Kingdom by Nature Publishing Group, a subsidiary of Macmillan Publishers which in turn is owned by the Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. Nature has offices in London, New York City, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Boston, Tokyo, Paris, Munich, and Basingstoke. Nature Publishing Group also publishes other specialized journals including Nature Neuroscience, Nature Biotechnology, Nature Methods, Nature Clinical Practice, Nature Structural & Molecular Biology and the Nature Reviews series of journals. Nature Publishing Group (NPG) is an international publishing company that publishes scientific journals. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group is a Stuttgart-based publishing holding company which owns publishing companies worldwide. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... “San Francisco” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... “Boston” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Basingstoke railway station, as seen from Alençon Link. ... Nature Neuroscience is a scientific journal published by Nature Publishing Group, the publisher of Nature. ...


Presently, each issue of Nature is accompanied by the Nature Podcast[15] presented by Naked Scientist, Chris Smith. The podcasts feature highlights from the issue and interviews with the articles' authors and the journalists covering the research. The Nature Podcast is a product of the science journal Nature. ... The Naked Scientists is a one-hour audience-interactive science radio talk show broadcast live by the BBC to a potential audience of 6 million people in the east of England, and internationally as a podcast. ... Dr Chris Smith - the Naked Scientist - is a medical doctor and a clinical lecturer in virology at Cambridge University. ... A podcast is a digital media file, or a series of such files, that is distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and personal computers. ...


Nature Publishing Group plans to initiate Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, “the official journal of the American Society of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics,” in 2007; Nature Publishing Group also plans to publish Molecular Therapy, intended to be the American Society of Gene Therapy’s official journal, as well as Nature Photonics and the International Society for Microbial Ecology (ISME) Journal. In 2008, Nature Geoscience is slated to commence publication.[9]


As of 2005, Nature had partially responded to the challenge from the Public Library of Science and its supporters, who in 2001 signed a petition calling for all scientists to pledge that from September of 2001 they would discontinue submission of papers to journals which did not make the full-text of their papers available to all, free and unfettered after a six-month period from publication. Nature's response was to allow authors to self-archive their original submission, after an embargo date, for example on the arXiv.org e-print archive. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Public Library of Science (PLoS) is a nonprofit open access scientific publishing project aimed at creating a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license. ... arXiv. ...


Nature family of journals

In addition to Nature itself, there are three families of Nature-branded journals published by the Nature Publishing Group: Nature Publishing Group (NPG) is an international publishing company that publishes scientific journals. ...

Nature research journals:
Nature Reviews journals:
Nature Clinical Practice journals:
Nature Online Publications:

Nature Biotechnology (Nat Biotechnol; ISSN 1087-0156) is an academic journal covering the science and business of biotechnology. ... Nature Chemical Biology The April 2006 cover of Nature Chemical Biology Nature Chemical Biology, published by the Nature Publishing Group, is a scientific journal publishing significant new research at the interface between chemistry and biology . ... January 2006 cover of Nature Materials Nature Materials is a monthly multi-disciplinary journal aimed at bringing together cutting-edge research across the entire spectrum of materials science. ... Nature Medicine (Nat Med; ISSN 1078-8956) is an academic journal publishing research articles, reviews, news and commentaries in the biomedical area, including both basic research and early-phase clinical research. ... // Nature Nanotechnology An example cover of Nature Nanotechnology Nature Nanotechnology, published by Nature Publishing Group, will be launched in October 2006. ... Nature Neuroscience is a scientific journal published by Nature Publishing Group, the publisher of Nature. ... // Nature Photonics An example cover of Nature Photonics Nature Photonics, published by the Nature Publishing Group, is a scientific journal publishing high-quality original research related to optoelectronics, laser science, imaging, communications and other areas of photonics. ... October 2005 cover of Nature Physics Nature Physics, published by the Nature Publishing Group, is a scientific journal focusing on pure and applied physics. ... Nature Protocols Nature Protocols, published by the Nature Publishing Group, is an on-line scientific journal publishing methods in a recipe-style format. ... A cover of Nature Reviews Cancer Nature Reviews Cancer [ISSN 1474-175X] is a highly respected cancer biology journal with an Impact Factor of 36. ... A cover of Nature Reviews Genetics Nature Reviews Genetics is a monthly review journal in genetics and covers the full breadth of modern genetics. ... A cover of Nature Reviews Immunology With an impact factor of 32. ... A cover of Nature Reviews Microbiology Launched in October 2003, Nature Reviews Microbiology is part of the Nature Publishing Group. ... Molecular cell biology is a marriage of two distinct disciplines. ... A cover of Nature Reviews Neuroscience Nature Reviews Neuroscience [ISSN 1471-0048] is a highly respected journal (Impact Factor for 2003 of 27. ... Nature Clinical Practice, peer-reviewed family of journals for clinicians, delivering timely, authoritative interpretations of key research developments, translating the latest findings into clinical practice. ... Nature Clinical Practice Cardiovascular Medicine, a peer-reviewed journal for cardiologists, delivers timely interpretations of key research developments, translating the latest findings into clinical practice. ... Nature Clinical Practice Gastroenterology & Hepatology, a peer-reviewed journal for clinicians, delivers timely interpretations of key research developments, translating the latest findings into clinical practice. ... Nature Clinical Practice Neurology, a peer-reviewed journal for neurologists, delivers timely interpretations of key research developments, translating the latest findings into clinical practice. ... Nature Clinical Practice Nephrology, a peer-reviewed journal for nephrologists, delivers timely interpretations of key research developments, translating the latest findings into clinical practice. ... Nature Clinical Practice Oncology, a peer-reviewed journal for oncologists, delivers timely interpretations of key research developments, translating the latest findings into clinical practice. ... Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology, a peer-reviewed journal for clinicians, delivers timely interpretations of key research developments, translating the latest findings into clinical practice. ... Nature Clinical Practice Urology, a peer-reviewed journal for urologists, delivers timely interpretations of key research developments, translating the latest findings into clinical practice. ... Nature China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is an online publication by Nature Publishing Group (NPG) that highlights the best research being produced in Hong Kong and Mainland China in science and medicine. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Siegel, "A Cooperative Publishing Model for Sustainable Scholarship," p. 88
  2. ^ a b Barton, "Just Before Nature," p. 3
  3. ^ a b Barton, "Just Before Nature," p. 7
  4. ^ a b c d Barton, "Just Before Nature," p. 6
  5. ^ a b Barton, "Just Before Nature," p. 13
  6. ^ a b c d Browne, Charles Darwin: The Power of Place, p. 248
  7. ^ Browne, Charles Darwin: The Power of Place, p. 247
  8. ^ a b "The Nature Centenary Dinner," p. 13
  9. ^ a b c d e "Nature Publishing Group: History", retrieved November 15, 2006
  10. ^ "Richard Arman Gregory, 1864-1952," p. 413
  11. ^ Demographics: Nature, a profile of Nature's readership.
  12. ^ (2003-03-06) "Retractions' realities". Nature 422 (6927): p. 1. 
  13. ^ Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, Touchstone, New York, 1986.
  14. ^ Fermi, E (1934).' Versuch einer Theorie der beta–strahlen', Zeitschrift für Physik, vol. 88, p. 161.
  15. ^ nature.com. Nature Podcast.

The Nature Podcast is a product of the science journal Nature. ...

References

  • (1953). "Richard Arman Gregory, 1864-1952." Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society 8(22).
  • (1970). "The 'Nature' Centenary Dinner." Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 25(1).
  • (2006). "Nature Publishing Group: History." Retrieved November 15, 2006, from http://npg.nature.com/npg/servlet/Content?data=xml/02_history.xml&style=xml/02_history.xsl
  • (2006). "About the journal: Nature." Retrieved November 20, 2006, from http://www.nature.com/nature/about/index.html
  • Barton, R. (1996). "Just Before Nature: The Purposes of Science and the Purposes of Popularization in Some English Popular Science Journals of the 1860s." Annals of Science 55: 33.
  • Browne, J. (2002). Charles Darwin: The Power of Place. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
  • Siegel, R. S. a. G. E. (2006). "A Cooperative Publishing Model for Sustainable Scholarship " Journal of Scholarly Publishing 37(2): 13.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nature (journal) - guideofcasinos.com (412 words)
Nature is one of the oldest and most reputable scientific journals, first published on November 4, 1869.
Research scientists are the primary audience for the journal, but article summaries in the front of the journal make many of the most important articles accessible for the general public.
Nature is edited and published in the United Kingdom by Nature Publishing Group, a subsidiary of Macmillan Publishers which in turn is owned by the Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Nature (journal) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (761 words)
Nature is one of the oldest and most reputable scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869.
Among the numerous scientific breakthroughs published in Nature are the discoveries of X-rays, the double-helix structure of DNA and the ozone hole.
Nature's impact factor for 2004 was 32.182 (as measured by Thomson ISI).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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