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Encyclopedia > Natural theology

Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. The expression 'natural theology' (theologia naturalis) seems to have been first used by Augustine with reference to the deepest theological insights of the clasical philosophers. Natural theology (or natural religion) is theology based on reason and ordinary experience. Thus it is distinguished from revealed theology (or revealed religion) which is based on scripture and religious experiences of various kinds; and also from transcendental theology, theology from a priori reasoning (see Immanuel Kant et alia). Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... Reason is a term used in philosophy and other human sciences to refer to the higher cognitive faculties of the human mind. ... Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... In religious experience, or sacred experience, the believer comes in contact with transcendental reality. ... It has been suggested that Kantianism be merged into this article or section. ...


Natural theology was originally part of philosophy and theology, and theologians still study it; but most of its content also forms part of the philosophy of religion. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ...

Contents


Key Proponents

English bishop Thomas Barlow wrote Execreitationes aliquot metaphysicae de Deo(1637) and spoke often of natural theology during the reign of Charles II. Thomas Barlow is the name of several notable historical personages. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... Charles II or The Merry Monarch (29 May 1630–6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (retrospectively de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ...


John Ray (1627-1705) also known as John Wray, was an English naturalist, sometimes referred to as the father of English natural history. He published important works on plants, animals, and natural theology. John Ray. ... The English are an ethnic group generally associated with England and the English language. ... Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now usually viewed as a number of distinct scientific disciplines. ... u fuck in ua ... Phyla Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Placozoa (trichoplax) Subregnum Bilateria (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Orthonectida (parasitic to flatworms, echinoderms, etc. ...


Thomas Aquinas is the most famous classical proponent of this approach. A later form of natural theology known as deism rejected scripture and prophecy altogether. Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Historical and modern Deism is defined by the view that reason, rather than revelation or tradition, should be the basis of belief in God. ... Prophecy, in a broad sense, is the prediction of future events. ...


In An Essay on the Principle of Population, the first edition published in 1798, Thomas Malthus ended with two chapters on natural theology and population. Malthus - a devout Christian - argued that revelation would "damp the soaring wings of intellect", and thus never let "the difficulties and doubts of parts of the scripture" interefere with his work. An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798. ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Rev. ... For information on the last book of the New Testament see the Book of Revelation. ...


William Paley gave a well-known rendition of the teleological argument for God. In 1802 he published Natural Theology, or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity collected from the Appearances of Nature. In this he described the Watchmaker analogy, for which he is probably best known. Criticisms of arguments like Paley's are found in David Hume's posthumous Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. William Paley William Paley (July, 1743 - May 25, 1805), English divine, Christian apologist and philosopher, was born at Peterborough, Northamptonshire. ... The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. ... The watchmaker analogy is often used as a teleological argument (argument from design) in support of the view that the universe (or features of it) are the product of a conscious designer or designers. ... David Hume (April 26, 1711 – August 25, 1776*) was a Scottish philosopher and historian. ...


American education reformer and abolitionist, Horace Mann taught political economy, intellectual and moral philosophy, and natural theology. This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... image courtesy of the University of Texas Horace Mann (May 4, 1796 – August 2, 1859), American education reformer and abolitionist, was born in Franklin, Massachusetts. ... Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ...


Professor of chemistry and natural history, Edward Hitchcock also studied and wrote on natural theology. He attempted to unify and reconcile science and religion, focusing on geology. His major work in this area was The Religion of Geology and its Connected Sciences (Boston, 1851). Edward Hitchcock (24 May 1793 – 27 February 1864) was the third President of Amherst College, from 1845 to 1854. ... Boston is a town and small port c. ... 1851 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The Gifford Lectures are lectures established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford. They were established to "promote and diffuse the study of Natural Theology in the widest sense of the term— in other words, the knowledge of God." The term natural theology as used by Gifford means theology supported by science and not dependent on the miraculous. The Gifford Lectures are lectures established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (d. ... Adam Lord Gifford (1820-1887) was a Scottish judge, born in Edinburgh. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Science For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... For the U.S. hockey teams victory in the 1980 Winter Olympics, see Miracle on Ice, or Miracle (movie) According to many religions, a miracle is an intervention by God in the universe. ...


Bridgewater Treatises

The Earl of Bridgewater commissioned the Bridgewater Treatises: Francis Henry Egerton, 8th Earl of Bridgewater (1756 - February 12, 1829) was a noted British eccentric. ...

  1. The Adaptation of External Nature to the Moral and Intellectual Condition of Man, by Thomas Chalmers, D. D.
  2. The Adaptation of External Nature to the Physical Condition of Man, by John Kidd, M. D.
  3. Astronomy and General Physics considered with reference to Natural Theology, by William Whewell, D. D.
  4. The hand, its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as evincing Design, by Sir Charles Bell.
  5. Animal and Vegetable Physiology considered with reference to Natural Theology, by Peter Mark Roget.
  6. Geology and Mineralogy considered with reference to Natural Theology, by William Buckland, D.D.
  7. The Habits and Instincts of Animals with reference to Natural Theology, by William Kirby.
  8. Chemistry, Meteorology, and the Function of Digestion, considered with reference to Natural Theology, by William Prout, M.D.

There is also a fragment of a ninth, by Charles Babbage. There was a supplement to this, also fragmentary and posthumously published, by Thomas Hill. Thomas Chalmers Thomas Chalmers (March 17, 1780 - May 31, 1847), Scottish divine, was born at Anstruther in Fife. ... John Kidd (September 10, 1775 - September 7, 1851) was an English physician, chemist and geologist. ... William Whewell William Whewell (May 24, 1794 – March 6, 1866) was a scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, natural theologian and historian of science. ... Sir Charles Bell Sir Charles Bell (November 1774, in Doun in Monteath, Edinburgh- April 28, 1842, in North Hallow, Worcestershire) was a Scottish anatomist, surgeon, and physiologist. ... Peter Mark Roget, (January 18, 1779 - September 12, 1869) Studied at Edinburgh University and became a distinguished medical doctor and lexicographer. ... William Buckland (12 March 1784 - 24 August 1856) was a prominent English geologist and palaeontologist who wrote the first full account of a fossil dinosaur, a proponent of Old Earth creationism and Flood geology who later became convinced by the glaciation theory of Louis Agassiz. ... William Kirby. ... William Prout (January 15, 1785 – April 9, 1850) was an English chemist and physician. ... Charles Babbage Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English mathematician, analytical philosopher, mechanical engineer and (proto-) computer scientist who originated the idea of a programmable computer. ... Thomas Hill (1818 - 1891) was an American clergyman and educator. ...


A notable critic of the Bridgewater Treatises was Edgar Allen Poe, who wrote Criticism (1850) Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809–October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, editor and critic. ...


See also

The Creation of Light by Gustave Doré. In Abrahamic religions, creationism or creation theology is the origin belief that humans, life, the Earth, and the universe were created by a supreme being or deitys supernatural intervention. ... Intelligent design (ID) is the concept that certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection. ... Many arguments about the Existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and other thinkers. ...

Further reading

This is a list of works addressing the subject or the themes of intelligent design. ... William Dembski Dr William Albert Bill Dembski (born July 18, 1960) is an American mathematician, philosopher and theologian known for advocating the controversial idea of intelligent design. ... Robert T. Pennock is a philosopher now working on the Avida digital organism project at Michigan State University where he is an associate professor. ... Michael Ruse (born June 21, 1940 in Birmingham, England) is a philosopher of science, a professor of philosophy and zoology largely concerned with the argument between creationism and evolutionary biology. ... John Bascom born at Genoa, New York, May 1, 1827. ... Dr. Stanley Hauerwas Stanley Hauerwas (July 24, 1940- ) is a United Methodist theologian and ethicist who is currently the Gilbert T. Rowe Professor of Theological Ethics at Duke Divinity School in Durham, NC. In his career, he has attempted to emphasize the importance of virtue and character within the Church. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Natural theology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (641 words)
Thus it is distinguished from revealed theology (or revealed religion) which is based on scripture and religious experiences of various kinds; and also from transcendental theology, theology from a priori reasoning (see Immanuel Kant et alia).
Natural theology was originally part of philosophy and theology, and theologians still study it; but most of its content also forms part of the philosophy of religion.
They were established to "promote and diffuse the study of Natural Theology in the widest sense of the term— in other words, the knowledge of God." The term natural theology as used by Gifford means theology supported by science and not dependent on the miraculous.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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