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Encyclopedia > Natural science
The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. This 19th century concept was then superseded by Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity.
The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. This 19th century concept was then superseded by Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity.

In science, the term natural science refers to a ir -rational approach to the study of the universe, which is understood as obeying rules or laws of natural origin. The term natural science is also used to distinguish those fields that use the scientific method to study nature from the social sciences, which use the scientific method to study human behavior and society, and from the formal sciences, such as mathematics and logic, which use a different methodology. Image File history File links A simplified Michelson-Morley diagram. ... Image File history File links A simplified Michelson-Morley diagram. ... data The Michelson–Morley experiment, one of the most important and famous experiments in the history of physics, was performed in 1887 by Albert Michelson and Edward Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University. ... The luminiferous aether: it was hypothesised that the Earth moves through a medium of aether that carries light In the late 19th century luminiferous aether (light-bearing aether) was the term used to describe a medium for the propagation of light. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Special relativity (SR) or the special theory of relativity is the physical theory published in 1905 by Albert Einstein. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Rule has several meanings: A rule in mathematics is something which is always true. ... This article is about law in society. ... “Natural” redirects here. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... “Natural” redirects here. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... A formal science is any one of several sciences that is predominantly concerned with abstract form, for instance, logic, mathematics, and the theoretical branches of computer science, information theory, and statistics. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Methodology is defined as the analysis of the // == Headline text == principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline or the development of methods, to be applied within a discipline a particular procedure or set of procedures. [1]. It should be noted that methodology is frequently used when method...

Contents

Overview

Natural sciences form the basis for the applied sciences. Together, the natural and applied sciences are distinguished from the social sciences on the one hand, and from the humanities, theology and the arts on the other. Mathematics, statistics and computer science are not considered natural sciences, but provide many tools and frameworks used within the natural sciences. For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... The humanities are those academic disciplines which study the human condition using methods that are largely analytic, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural and social sciences. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ...


Alongside this traditional usage, the phrase natural sciences is also sometimes used more narrowly to refer to its everyday usage, that is, related to natural history. In this sense "natural sciences" may refer to the biological sciences and perhaps also the earth sciences, as distinguished from the physical sciences, including astronomy, physics, and chemistry. Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... == Headline text ==cant there be some kind of picture somewhere so i can see by picture???? Physical science is a encompassing term for the branches of natural science, and science, that study non-living systems, in contrast to the biological sciences. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ...


Within the natural sciences, the term hard science is sometimes used to describe those sub-fields that rely on experimental, quantifiable data or the scientific method and focus on accuracy and objectivity. These usually include physics, chemistry and many of the sub-fields of biology. By contrast, soft science is often used to describe the scientific fields that are more reliant on qualitative research, including the social sciences. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pure science. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Soft science is a colloquial term, often used pejoratively, for academic research or scholarship which is purportedly not based on reproducible experimental data and a mathematical explanation of that data. ...


There is some research, collectivelly known as graphism thesis, that indicates that natural science relies on graphs more than soft sciences and mathematics do. In sociology of science, the graphism thesis is a proposition of Bruno Latour that graphs are important in science. ...


History

Prior to the 17th century, the objective study of nature was known as natural philosophy. Over the next two centuries, however, a philosophical interpretation of nature was gradually replaced by a scientific approach using inductive methodology. The works of Sir Francis Bacon popularized this approach, thereby helping to forge the scientific revolution. Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ... For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the period or event in history. ...


By the 19th century the study of science had come into the purview of professionals and institutions, and in so doing it gradually acquired the more modern name of natural science. The term scientist was coined by William Whewell in an 1834 review of Mary Somerville's On the Connexion of the Sciences. However the word did not enter general use until nearly the end of the same century. William Whewell In later life William Whewell (May 24, 1794 – March 6, 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science. ... Mary Somerville Mary Somerville (December 26, 1780 – November 28, 1872) was a Scottish science writer and polymath, at a time when womens participation in science was discouraged. ...


According to a famous 1923 textbook Thermodynamics – and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances by the American chemist Gilbert N. Lewis and the American physical chemist Merle Randall, the natural sciences contain three great branches: Lewis in the Berkeley Lab Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 23, 1875-March 23, 1946) was a famous American physical chemist. ... Merle Randall was an American physical chemist famous for his work, over the period of 25 years, in measuring free energy calculations of compounds with Gilbert N. Lewis. ...

Aside from the logical and mathematical sciences, there are three great branches of natural science which stand apart by reason of the variety of far reaching deductions drawn from a small number of primary postulates – they are the mechanics, electrodynamics, and thermodynamics. For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ...

Disciplines of natural sciences

Astronomy

Main article: Astronomy
Space missions have been used to image distant locations within the Solar System, such as this Apollo 11 view of Daedalus crater on the far side of the Moon.

This discipline is the science of celestial objects and phenomena that originate outside the Earth's atmosphere. It is concerned with the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects, as well as the formation and development of the universe. Astronomy includes the examination, study and modeling of stars, planets, comets, galaxies and the cosmos. Most of the information used by astronomers is gathered by remote observation, although some laboratory reproduction of celestial phenomenon has been performed (such as the molecular chemistry of the interstellar medium.) For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Download high resolution version (750x774, 105 KB) Lunar Farside from Apollo 11. ... Download high resolution version (750x774, 105 KB) Lunar Farside from Apollo 11. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... The Apollo 11 mission was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ... Daedalus is a prominent crater located near the center of the far side of the Moon. ... Far side of the Moon. ... Astronomical objects are significant physical entities, associations or structures which current science has confirmed to exist in space. ... A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, especially something special (literally something that can be seen from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ... “Air” redirects here. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the physics subject. ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galaxy (disambiguation). ... The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... The interstellar medium (or ISM) is the name astronomers give to the tenuous gas and dust that pervade interstellar space. ...


While the origins of the study of celestial features and phenomenon can be traced back to antiquity, the scientific methodology of this field began to develop in the middle of the seventeenth century. A key factor was Galileo's introduction of the telescope to examine the night sky in more detail. The mathematical treatment of astronomy began with Newton's development of celestial mechanics and the laws of gravitation, although it was triggered by earlier work of astronomers such as Kepler. By the nineteenth century, astronomy had developed into a formal science with the introduction of instruments such as the spectroscope and photography, along with much improved telescopes and the creation of professional observatories. Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Celestial mechanics is a division of astronomy dealing with the motions and gravitational effects of celestial objects. ... “Gravity” redirects here. ... Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. ... A spectroscope is a device which measures the spectrum of light. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ...

A fragment of DNA, the chemical sequence that contains genetic instructions for the development and functioning of living organisms.
A fragment of DNA, the chemical sequence that contains genetic instructions for the development and functioning of living organisms.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (907x1000, 478 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): DNA Wikipedia:Long term abuse/The DNA Vandal ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (907x1000, 478 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): DNA Wikipedia:Long term abuse/The DNA Vandal ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ...

Biology

Main article: Biology

This field encompasses a set of disciplines that examines phenomena related to living organisms. The scale of study can range from sub-component biophysics up to complex ecologies. Biology is concerned with the characteristics, classification and behaviors of organisms, as well as how species were formed and their interactions with each other and the natural environment. Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physics, to questions of biology. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Look up Characteristic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Life on Earth” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about the natural environment. ...


The biological fields of botany, zoology, and medicine date back to early periods of civilization, while microbiology was introduced in the 17th century with the invention of the microscope. However it was not until the 19th century that biology became a unified science; once scientists discovered commonalities between all living things it was decided they were best studied as a whole. Some key developments in the science of biology were the discovery of genetics; Darwin's theory of evolution through natural selection; the germ theory of disease and the application of the techniques of chemistry and physics at the level of the cell or organic molecule. Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physics, to questions of biology. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates and carbon oxides. ...


Modern Biology is divided into sub-disciplines by the type of organism and by the scale being studied. Molecular biology is the study of the fundamental chemistry of life, while cellular biology is the examination of the cell; the basic building block of all life. At a higher level, Physiology looks at the internal structure of organism, while ecology looks at how various organisms interrelate. Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Cell biology (cellular biology) is an academic discipline which studies the physiological properties of cells, as well as their behaviours, interactions, and environment; this is done both on a microscopic and molecular level. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ...


Chemistry

Main article: Chemistry
This structural formula for molecule caffeine shows a graphical representation of how the atoms are arranged.
This structural formula for molecule caffeine shows a graphical representation of how the atoms are arranged.

Constituting the scientific study of matter at the atomic and molecular scale, chemistry deals primarily with collections of atoms, such as gases, molecules, crystals, and metals. The composition, statistical properties, transformations and reactions of these materials are studied. Chemistry also involves understanding the properties and interactions of individual atoms for use in larger-scale applications. Most chemical processes can be studied directly in a laboratory, using a series of (often well-tested) techniques for manipulating materials, as well as an understanding of the underlying processes. Chemistry is often called "the central science" because of its role in connecting the other natural sciences. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Caffeine. ... Image File history File links Caffeine. ... The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphical representation of the molecular structure showing how the atoms are arranged. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... This article is about metallic materials. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into chemistry. ...


Early experiments in chemistry had their roots in the system of Alchemy, a set of beliefs combining mysticism with physical experiments. The science of chemistry began to develop with the work of Robert Boyle, the discoverer of gas, and Antoine Lavoisier, who developed the theory of the Conservation of mass. The discovery of the chemical elements and the concept of Atomic Theory began to systematize this science, and researchers developed a fundamental understanding of states of matter, ions, chemical bonds and chemical reactions. The success of this science led to a complementary chemical industry that now plays a significant role in the world economy. For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794), the father of modern chemistry [1], was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... The discovery of the elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order. ... In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms, as opposed to obsolete beliefs that matter could be divided into any arbitrarily small quantity. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... Chemical tanks in Lillebonne, France Chemical industry includes those industries involved in the production of petrochemicals, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers, paints, oleochemicals etc. ...


Earth science

Main article: Earth science

Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth, including geology, geophysics, hydrology, meteorology, physical geography, oceanography, and soil science. Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Soil science deals with soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils per se; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils. ...


Although mining and precious stones have been human interests throughout the history of civilisation, their development into the sciences of economic geology and mineralogy did not occur until the 18th century. The study of the earth, particularly palaeontology, blossomed in the 19th century and the growth of other disciplines like geophysics in the 20th century led to the development of plate tectonics in the 1960s, which has had a similar impact on the Earth sciences as the theory of evolution had on biology. Earth sciences today are closely linked to climate research and the petroleum and mineral exploration industries. Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... Gemology (gemmology outside the United States) is the science, art and profession of identifying and evaluating gemstones. ... Economic geology is concerned with earth materials that can be utilized for economic and/or industrial purposes. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Mineral exploration is the process undertaken by companies, partnerships or corporations in the endeavour of finding ore (commercially viable concentrations of minerals) to mine. ...


Physics

Main article: Physics
This free body diagram illustrates the different forces acting on a projectile.
This free body diagram illustrates the different forces acting on a projectile.

Physics embodies the study of the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces and interactions they exert on one another, and the results produced by these interactions. In general, the physics is regarded as the fundamental science as all other natural sciences utilize and obey the principles and laws set down by the field. Physics relies heavily on mathematics as the logical framework for formulation and quantification of principles. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Image File history File links Trajectory_of_a_projectile_with_air_resistance. ... Image File history File links Trajectory_of_a_projectile_with_air_resistance. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... its made by jaypeeng magandang google wikepedia For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... In physics, the ballistic trajectory of a projectile is the path that a thrown object will take under the action of gravity, neglecting all other forces, such as friction from air resistance, or propulsion. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... In physics, a net force acting on a body causes that body to accelerate; that is, to change its velocity. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ...


The study of the principles of the universe has a long history and largely derives from direct observation and experimentation. The formulation of theories about the governing laws of the universe has been central to the study of physics from very early on, with philosophy gradually yielding to systematic, quantitative experimental testing and observation as the source of verification. Key historical developments in physics include Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation and classical mechanics, an understanding of electricity and it's relation to magnetism, Einstein's theories of special and general relativity, the development of thermodynamics, and the quantum mechanical model of atomic and subatomic physics. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gravity. ... Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ... For other uses, see Electricity (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ...


The field of physics is extremely broad, and can include such diverse studies as quantum mechanics and theoretical physics to applied physics and optics. Modern physics is becoming increasingly specialized, where researchers tend to focus on a particular area rather than being "universalists" like Albert Einstein and Lev Landau, who worked in multiple areas. For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics, as opposed to experimental processes, in an attempt to understand nature. ... Cutout of the ITER project Applied physics is physics that is intended for a particular technological or practical use, as for example in engineering, as opposed to basic research. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Lev Davidovich Landau Lev Davidovich Landau (Russian language: Ле́в Дави́дович Ланда́у) (January 22, 1908 – April 1, 1968) was a prominent Soviet physicist, who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics. ...


Cross-disciplines

The distinctions between the natural science disciplines is not always sharp, and they share a number of cross-discipline fields. Physics plays a significant role in the other natural sciences, as represented by astrophysics, geophysics, physical chemistry and biophysics. Likewise chemistry is represented by such fields as biochemistry, geochemistry and astrochemistry. Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physics, to questions of biology. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with... Astrochemistry is the study of the chemicals found in outer space, usually in molecular gas clouds, and their formation, interaction and destruction. ...


A particular example of a scientific discipline that draws upon multiple natural sciences is environmental science. This field studies the interactions of physical, chemical and biological components of the environment, with a particular regard to the effect of human activities and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability. This science also draws upon expertise from other fields such as economics, law and social sciences. Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ...


See also

Contents   Overviews   Academia   Topics   Basic topics   Glossaries   Portals   Categories // This is a list of academic disciplines. ... “Natural” redirects here. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Fields of science are widely-recognized categories of specialized expertise within science, and typically embody their own terminology and nomenclature. ... Natural Sciences (or NatSci) is one of the most popular degree programmes offered by the University of Durham, administered by the Sub-Dean of Science (Dr Dave Robson as of March 2007), offering either BSc (3 years) or MSc (4 year undergraduate) Natural Sciences degrees or a named route/joint... Affiliations 1994 Group European University Association Association of MBAs EQUIS Universities UK N8 Group Association of Commonwealth Universities Website http://www. ... The University of Cambridge has an undergraduate degree program in the sciences that differs from most other universities, in that one cannot read only one science, but a student must study several different broad bases of the sciences in their 1st year, specialising further in the 2nd year of their... Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior is interesting and worthy of scientific research. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous, and most useful technologies. ...

External links

  • Natural Sciences at Durham University
  • Natural Sciences at Cambridge University
  • Natural Sciences at the University of Bath
  • The History of Recent Science and Technology
  • Reviews of Books About Natural Science This site contains over 50 previously published reviews of books about natural science, plus selected essays on timely topics in natural science.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Natural Science - Hampshire College - Amherst, MA (441 words)
Natural Science - Hampshire College - Amherst, MA Academics
In our view the natural sciences form a set of theories, methods, and data for understanding the world in which we live.
Beyond the foundational skills and core studies on which all scientific work is based, the School of Natural Science provides depth, focus and unusually rich learning and research opportunities for interdisciplinary study in two topical areas: environmental sciences/agriculture studies and health sciences.
Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - Natural science (285 words)
Thus the traditional description of natural science is the study of nature: the physical, nonhuman aspects of the earth and the cosmos.
Together, the natural and applied sciences are distinguished from the social sciences on the one hand, and from the humanities, theology and the arts on the other.
In this sense "natural sciences" can be an alternative phrase for biological sciences, involved in biological processes, or perhaps also the earth sciences, as might distinguished from the physical sciences (more directly involved in the study of physical and chemical laws underlying the universe).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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