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Encyclopedia > Natural philosophy
For the current in the 19th century German idealism, see Naturphilosophie

Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. It is considered the precursor of what is now called natural science, especially physics. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Naturphilosophie (philosophy of nature) was a current in the philosophical tradition of German idealism in the 19th century, particularly associated with Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... In science, the ideal of objectivity is an essential aspect of the scientific method, and is generally considered by the scientific community to come about as a result of strict observance of the scientific method, including the scientists willingness to submit their methods and results to an open debate by... This article is about the physical universe. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


Forms of science historically developed out of philosophy or more specifically natural philosophy. At older universities, long-established Chairs of Natural Philosophy are nowadays occupied mainly by physics professors. Modern notions of science and scientists date only to the 19th century (Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary dates the origin of the word "scientist" to 1834). Before then, the word "science" simply meant knowledge and the label of scientist did not exist. Isaac Newton's 1687 scientific treatise is known as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with handwritten corrections for the second edition. ...

Contents

Origin and evolution of the term

Natural philosophy was the term describing a field of study whose usage preceded our current term natural science (from scientia in Latin, which means "knowledge") when the subject of that knowledge or study was "the workings of nature". Natural philosophy pertains to the work of analysis and synthesis of common experience and argumentation attempting to explain or describe nature, while the term science in the 16th century and prior was also used, and used exclusively, as a synonym for knowledge or study. The term "science", as in "natural science", gained the meaning of science in the modern sense when knowledge acquisition through experiments (special experiences) regulated by the scientific method became its own specialized branch of study over and above natural philosophy. The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... -1...


In the 18th and 19th centuries, natural philosophy referred to what is now called physical science. From the mid-19th century, when it became increasingly unusual for scientists to contribute to both physics and chemistry, it just meant physics, and is still used in that sense in degree titles at the University of Oxford. Natural philosophy was distinguished from the other pre-cursor of modern science, natural history, in that the former involved reasoning and explanations about nature (and after Galileo, quantitative reasoning), whereas the latter was essentially qualitative and descriptive. == Headline text ==cant there be some kind of picture somewhere so i can see by picture???? Physical science is a encompassing term for the branches of natural science, and science, that study non-living systems, in contrast to the biological sciences. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... A scale for measuring mass A quantitative property is one that exists in a range of magnitudes, and can therefore be measured. ... Qualitative is an important qualifier in the following subject titles: Qualitative identity Qualitative marketing research Qualitative method Qualitative research THE BIG J This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...


Scope of natural philosophy

In what is thought to be one of Plato's earliest dialogues, Charmides, the distinction is drawn between sciences or bodies of knowledge which produce a physical result, and those which do not. Natural philosophy has been categorized as a theoretical rather than a practical branch of philosophy (like ethics). Sciences that guide arts and which draw upon the philosophical knowledge of nature can of course produce many practical results, but these subsidiary sciences (e.g. architecture or medicine) are considered to go beyond natural philosophy. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... The Charmides (ancient Greek ) is a dialogue of Plato, in which Socrates engages a handsome and popular boy in a conversation about the meaning of sophrosune, a Greek word usually translated into English as temperance, self-control, or restraint. As is typical with Platonic dialogues, the two never arrive at...


The study of natural philosophy presupposes that change is a reality. Although this may seem obvious, there have been some philosophers who have denied change, such as Plato's teacher Parmenides and later Greek philosopher Sextus Empiricus and perhaps some Eastern philosophers as well. George Santayana in his Scepticism and Animal Faith attempted to show that the reality of change cannot be proven. If his reasoning is sound, it follows that to be a physicist, one must restrain one's skepticism enough to trust one's senses. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Change For other uses, see Change (disambiguation). ... Parmenides of Elea (Greek: , early 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Hellenic city on the southern coast of Italy. ... Sextus Empiricus (fl. ... George Santayana George Santayana (December 16, 1863, Madrid – September 26, 1952, Rome), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. ...


Beginning with Schelling, the mode of change studied in natural philosophy has been development, rather than evolution. Development is predictable directional change, while evolution is the irreversible accumulation of historically mediated information. Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (January 27, 1775 – August 20, 1854), later von Schelling, was a German philosopher. ...


In René Descartes' metaphysical system of dualism, there are two kinds of substance: matter and mind. According to this system, everything which is "matter" is deterministic and natural—and so belongs to natural philosophy—and everything which is "mind" is volitional and non-natural, and falls outside the domain of philosophy of nature. René Descartes (French IPA:  Latin:Renatus Cartesius) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the general notion of determinism in philosophy. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ...


Branches and subject matter of natural philosophy

Major branches of natural philosophy include astronomy and cosmology, the study of nature on the grand scale; etiology, the study of (intrinsic and sometimes extrinsic) causes; the study of chance, probability and randomness; the study of elements; the study of the infinite and the unlimited (virtual or actual); the study of matter; mechanics, the study of translation of motion and change; the study of nature or the various sources of actions; the study of natural qualities; the study of physical quantities; the study of relations between physical entities; and the philosophy of space and time. (Adler, 1993) For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογος (logos) word, reason, plan) is the quantitative (usually mathematical) study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ... This article is about the medical term. ... This article is about causality as it is used in many different fields. ... Look up chance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... Infinity is a word carrying a number of different meanings in mathematics, philosophy, theology and everyday life. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... This article is about the physical universe. ... For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ... Quantity is a kind of property which exists as magnitude or multitude. ... Look up Relation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In mathematics, a relation is a generalization of arithmetic relations, such as = and <, which occur in statements, such as 5 < 6 or 2 + 2 = 4. See relation (mathematics), binary relation (of set theory and logic) and relational algebra. ... Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time. ...


History of natural philosophy

See History of physics, History of chemistry and History of astronomy for the history of natural philosophy prior to the 17th century.

Since antiquity, human beings have sought to understand the workings of nature: why unsupported objects drop to the ground, why different materials have different properties, the character of the universe such as the form of the Earth and the behavior of celestial objects such as the Sun and the Moon... Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David The history of chemistry is long and convoluted. ... Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, and astrological practices of pre-history: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a...

Figures in natural philosophy

While proposals for a much more 'inquisitive' and practical approach to the study of nature originated with Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle wrote what is considered to be a seminal work on the distinction between nature and metaphysics called A Free Enquiry into the Vulgarly Received Notion of Nature. This book, written in 1686, marked the point where the scene was set for natural philosophy to turn into science. It represented a radical departure from the scholasticism of the Middle Ages, and while features of natural philosophy retained some of the trappings of the elitism associated with its precursor, natural philosophy was arguably empirical while previous attempts to describe nature were not. An important distinguishing characteristic of science and natural philosophy is the fact that natural philosophers generally did not feel compelled to test their ideas in a practical way. Instead, they observed phenomena and came up with 'philosophical' conclusions. For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... For the American art director and production designer, see Robert F. Boyle Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was a natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, especially something special (literally something that can be seen from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ...


Boyle, while he is the first to fully embrace such an approach in both his experimental endeavours and his writings, shares with Bacon (and Galileo who was the inspiration in these matters for both Bacon and Boyle) a conviction that practical experimental observation was the key to a more satisfactory understanding of nature than would have otherwise been sought through either exclusive reference to received authority or a purely speculative approach. Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht...


Although Galileo's 'natural philosophy' is hardly distinguishable from science in many ways, the connection between his experiments and his writings about them is characteristically philosophical, rather than being cluttered with the results of meticulously recorded observational detail of practical scientific research, in the way that Boyle subsequently advocated.


Even though Boyle described what he practiced as 'natural philosophy', the very innovations that Boyle introduced can be seen as a basis for delineating a transition from proto-science to science. Among these innovations are an insistence upon the publication of detailed experimental results, including the results of unsuccessful experiments; and also a requirement for the replication of experiments as a means of validating observational claims.


Thus Boyle's application of the term 'natural philosophy' to his own work may be regarded an anachronistic conflation with earlier proto-science, since the distinction between the terms 'natural philosophy' and 'science' only arose after Boyle's passing.


Boyle would therefore describe his work as 'natural philosophy', whereas we would describe it as 'science'; and yet Boyle's use was correct for his own time. Nonetheless, he is in many ways the architect of the modern distinction between the two terms.


The ancient emphasis on deduction has its representative in Aristotle's Organum, and the new emphasis on induction and research has its representative in Francis Bacon's treatise Novum Organum. For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

In popular culture

The writer Nat Hillard maintains a weekly column for the Stanford Daily newspaper entitled "Nat-ural Philosophy".Nat-ural Philosophy


Novelist Neal Stephenson focuses on a number of real and fictional natural philosophers (including Isaac Newton, who is a major supporting character) in his trilogy "The Baroque Cycle". [1]


References

  • Adler, Mortimer J. (1993). The Four Dimensions of Philosophy: Metaphysical, Moral, Objective, Categorical. Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-500574-X. 
  • Philip Kitcher, Science, Truth, and Democracy. Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Science. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. LCCN:2001036144 ISBN 0-19-514583-6
  • Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy and Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day (1945) Simon & Schuster, 1972.
  • Santayana, George (1923). Scepticism and Animal Faith. Dover Publications, 27-41. ISBN 0-486-20236-4. 
  • David Snoke, Natural Philosophy: A Survey of Physics and Western Thought. Access Research Network, 2003. ISBN 1-931796-25-4.[2] [3]

Mortimer Jerome Adler (December 28, 1902 – June 28, 2001) was an American philosopher and author. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... A History of Western Philosophy And Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day (1945) by the philosopher Bertrand Russell is a guide to Western philosophy from the pre-Socratic philosophers to the early 20th century. ... George Santayana George Santayana (December 16, 1863, Madrid – September 26, 1952, Rome), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. ... Dover Publications is a book publisher founded in 1941. ...

See also

Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... This article is about methodological naturalism. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... A gentleman scientist was a scientist with a private income who could pursue scientific study independently as he wished without excessive external financial pressures, in the days before large-scale government funding was available, up to the Victorian era, especially in England. ...

External links

  • Past Exhibit in Philosophical Hall by APS.
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Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... For other uses, see John Toland (disambiguation). ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... Joseph Black Joseph Black (April 16, 1728 - December 6, 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist. ... James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck and 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... Adam Ferguson, also known as Ferguson of Raith (June 20, 1723 (O.S.) - February 22, 1816) was a philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... Francis Hutcheson (August 8, 1694–August 8, 1746) was an Irish philosopher and one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ... James Hutton, painted by Abner Lowe. ... Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696 - December 27, 1782) was a Scottish philosopher of the 18th century. ... James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ... James Macpherson (October 27, 1736–February 17, 1796), was a Scottish poet, known as the translator of the Ossian cycle of poems (also known as the Oisín cycle). ... For the Scottish footballer, see Thomas Reid (footballer). ... This article is about the Scottish historian. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Dugald Stewart. ... George Turnbull (1698-1748) was a Scottish philosopher and writer on education. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... Pierre Bayle. ... For other uses of Fontenelle, see Fontenelle (disambiguation). ... Montesquieu redirects here. ... François Quesnay (June 4, 1694 - December 16, 1774) was a French economist of the Physiocratic school. ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, by François-Hubert Drouais (1727-1775). ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Claude Adrien Helvétius (February 26, 1715 - December 26, 1771) was a French philosopher and litterateur. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Baron dHolbach Paul-Henri Thiry, baron dHolbach (1723 – 1789) was a German-French author, philosopher and encyclopedist. ... Julien Offray de La Mettrie (December 25, 1709 - November 11, 1751) was a French physician and philosopher, the earliest of the materialist writers of the Enlightenment. ... Donatien Alphonse François de Sade (Marquis de Sade) (June 2, 1740 – December 2, 1814) (pronounced IPA: ) was a French aristocrat, french revolutionary and writer of philosophy-laden and often violent pornography. ... “Condorcet” redirects here. ... Lavoisier redirects here. ... Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (September 30, 1715 – August 3, 1780) was a French philosopher. ... Olympe de Gouges (born Marie Gouze; May 7, 1748 – November 3, 1793) was a playwright and journalist whose feminist writings reached a large audience. ... Tocqueville redirects here. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria-Bonesana (March 15, 1738 – November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of criminology. ... Detail of Pietro Verri monument in Milan. ... Alessandro Verri (November 9, 1741 - September 23, 1816) was an Italian author. ... Giuseppe Parini (Bosisio, now in Lecco province, May 23, 1729 - Milan, 1799) was an Italian satirist and poet. ... Carlo Goldoni Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni (25 February 1707 - 6 February 1793) was a celebrated Italian playwright, whom critics today rank among the European theatres greatest authors. ... Vittorio Alfieri painted by Davids pupil François-Xavier Fabre, in Florence 1793. ... Giuseppe MarcAntonio Baretti (April 24, 1719 - May 5, 1789) was an Italian critic. ... Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis of Pombal, by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1766) Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Count of Oeiras, 1st Marquis of Pombal (in Portuguese, Marquês de Pombal, pron. ... John V, King of Portugal (Portuguese João pron. ... Joseph I (Portuguese José, pron. ... Ienăchiţă Văcărescu (1740-1797) Romanian poet and boyar of Phanariote origin. ... Anton Pann (in the 1790s, Sliven, in Rumelia—November 2, 1854, Bucharest) born Antonie Pantoleon-Petroveanu (also mentioned as Anton Pantoleon), was a Wallachian poet and composer. ... Gheorghe Åžincai Gheorghe Åžincai (February 28, 1754 – November 2, 1816) was an ethnic Romanian Transylvanian historian, philologist, translator, poet, and representative of the Enlightenment-influenced Transylvanian School. ... Jovellanos painted by Goya Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (5 January 1744 - 27 November 1811), Spanish statesman and author, was born at Gijón in Asturias, Spain. ... Leandro Fernández de Moratín, born March 10, 1760 – died June 21, 1828, was a Spanish dramatist and neoclassical poet. ... Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro (8 October 1676 - 26 September 1764) was a Spanish monk and scholar noted for encouraging scientific thought in Spain. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jorge Juan y Santacilia Jorge Juan y Santacilia (January 5, 1713–June 21, 1773) was a Spanish mathematician, scientist, naval officer, and mariner. ... Antonio de Ulloa (January 12, 1716 _ July 3, 1795) was a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. ... José Moñino, conde de Floridablanca, painted by Goya José Moñino, conde de Floridablanca Don José Moñino y Redondo, Count of Floridablanca (es: José Moñino y Redondo, conde de Floridablanca) (October 21, 1728 - December 30, 1808), Spanish statesman. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Jens Schielderup Sneedorff Jens Schielderup Sneedorff (22 August 1724–5 June 1764) was a Danish author, professor of political science and royal teacher and a central figure in Denmark-Norway in the Age of Enlightenment. ... Johann Friedrich Struensee By Jens Juel, 1771, Collection of Bomann Museum, Celle, Germany. ... {{unreferenced|article|date=March 2007]] Copper engraving depicting Eggert Ólafssons death. ... Anders Chydenius Anders Chydenius (26 February 1729 – 1 February 1803) was the leading classical liberal of Nordic history. ... Peter ForsskÃ¥l (sometimes also Pehr ForsskÃ¥l, Peter Forskaol, Petrus ForskÃ¥l or Pehr ForsskÃ¥hl) (born in Helsinki, 11 January 1732, died in Yemen, 11 July 1763), Swedish explorer, orientalist and naturalist. ... Gustav III, King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends, etc. ... Field Marshal and Count Arvid Bernhard Horn (April 6, 1664 â€“ April 17, 1742) was a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish empire during the period of Sweden-Finland). ... Johan Henrik Kellgren Johan Henrik Kellgren (1 December 1751-1795), Swedish poet and critic, was born at Floby in West Gothland. ... Emanuel Swedenborg, 75, holding the manuscript of Apocalypsis Revelata (1766). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Rationality as a term is related to the idea of reason, a word which following Websters may be derived as much from older terms referring to thinking itself as from giving an account or an explanation. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about secularism. ... The Encyclopédistes were a group of 18th century writers in France who compiled the Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia) edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond dAlembert. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ...

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George Santayana (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (8644 words)
Science provides explanations of natural phenomena, but poetry and religion are festive celebrations of human life born of consciousness generated from the interaction of one's psyche (the natural structure and heritable traits of ones physical body) and the physical environment.
If the spiritual disciplines of philosophy are to thrive, philosophers have to take off the bandages of epistemology and metaphysics altogether, accept the finite and fallible status of their knowledge claims, and get on with confessing their belief in the things that make life worth living.
The nature of truth simply is correspondence with what is, but since humans, nor any other conscious being, are able to see beyond the determinant limits of their nature and environment, pragmatism becomes the test of truth rather than correspondence.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Naturalism (philosophy) (818 words)
Naturalism does not necessarily claim that phenomena or hypotheses commonly labeled as supernatural do not exist or are wrong, but insists that all phenomena and hypotheses can be studied by the same methods and therefore anything considered supernatural is either nonexistent, unknowable, or not inherently different from natural phenomena or hypotheses.
Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences.
Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science.
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