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Encyclopedia > Natural language
Neuropsychology
 
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Brain-computer interfacesBrain damage
Brain regionsClinical neuropsychology
Cognitive neuroscienceHuman brain
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PhrenologyCommon misconceptions
Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... // A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... // medulla oblongata medullary pyramids pons paramedian pontine reticular formation fourth ventricle cerebellum cerebellar vermis cerebellar hemispheres anterior lobe posterior lobe flocculonodular lobe cerebellar nuclei fastigial nucleus globose nucleus emboliform nucleus dentate nucleus tectum inferior colliculi superior colliculi mesencephalic duct (cerebral aqueduct, Aqueduct of Sylvius) cerebral peduncle midbrain tegmentum ventral tegmental... Clinical neuropsychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that specialises in the clinical assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ... Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ... Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν, phrēn, mind; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is a theory which claims to be able to determine character, personality traits and criminality on the basis of the shape of the head (i. ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ...

Brain functions

arousalattention
consciousnessdecision making
executive functionslanguage
learningmemory
motor coordinationperception
planningproblem solving
thought
Visual system Auditory system Olfactory system Gustatory system Somatosensory system Visual perception Motor cortex Brocas area (aka Language Area) Lateralization of brain function Phrenology Cybernetics Connectionism Modularity of mind Artificial intelligence Society of Mind Neuropsychology Electroencephalography Electrophysiology Magnetoencephalography Functional MRI Positron emission tomography Categories: | ... Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake. ... This article is about psychological concept of attention. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... Executive functions are the conscious control of ones thoughts, emotions, and movements. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Explain the dystonias connected with motor coordination. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... For planning in AI, see automated planning and scheduling. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ...

People

Arthur L. BentonDavid Bohm
António Damásio • Kenneth Heilman •
Phineas GageNorman Geschwind
Elkhonon Goldberg • Donald Hebb
Alexander LuriaMuriel D. Lezak
Brenda MilnerKarl Pribram
Oliver SacksRoger Sperry• H.M.• K.C.
Arthur Lester Benton, Ph. ... David Bohm. ... António Rosa Damásio, GOSE (IPA: ) (b. ... Kenneth M. Heilman is an American behavioral neurologist. ... Phineas P. Gage (1823 – May 21, 1860) was a railroad construction foreman who suffered a traumatic brain injury when a tamping iron accidentally passed through his skull, damaging the frontal lobes of his brain. ... Norman Geschwind can be considered the father of modern behavioral neurology in America. ... Elkhonon Goldberg (1946) is a neuropsychologist and cognitive neuroscientist. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Alexander Romanovich Luria Александр Романович Лурия (July 16, 1902-1977) was a famous Russian neuropsychologist. ... Muriel Deutsch Lezak is an American neuropsychologist best known for her book Neuropsychological Assessment, widely accepted as the standard in the field. ... Dr. Brenda Milner CC (born 15 July 1918, Manchester England) has contributed extensively to the research literature on various topics in the field of clinical neuropsychology. ... Karl H. Pribram (born February 25, 1919 in Vienna, Austria) is a research professor of Psychology and Cognitive Science at Georgetown University, Washington DC. He trained as a neurosurgeon and became a professor at Stanford University, where he did pioneering work on the cerebral cortex. ... Oliver Sacks in 2005. ... Image:Roger W Sperry. ... HM (also known as H.M. and Henry M., born 1926 in Connecticut) is an anonymous memory-impaired patient who has been widely studied since the late 1950s and has been very important in the development of theories that explain the link between brain function and memory, and in the...

Tests

Bender-Gestalt Test
Benton Visual Retention Test
Clinical Dementia Rating
Continuous Performance Task
Glasgow Coma Scale
Hayling and Brixton tests
Lexical decision task
Mini-mental state examination
Stroop effect
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Wisconsin card sorting task Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway. ... The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test or simply the Bender-Gestalt test is a psychological test first developed by child neuropsychiatrist Lauretta Bender. ... The Benton Visual Retention Test (or simply Benton Test) is an individually administered test for ages 8-adult that measures visual perception and visual memory . ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Continuous Performance Task, or CPT, is a psychological test that consists of a series of stimuli. ... The Glasgow Coma Scale is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person, for initial as well as continuing assessment. ... The Hayling and Brixton tests[1] are neuropsychological tests of executive function created by psychologists Paul W. Burgess and Tim Shallice. ... A lexical decision task is a type of experiment in psycholinguistics. ... The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to assess cognition. ... Demonstration Say the color of these words as fast as you can: According to the Stroop effect, the first set of colors would have had a faster reaction time. ... Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale or WAIS is a general test of intelligence (IQ), published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue test (1939), standardised for use with adults over the age of 16. ... The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) is a neuropsychological test of set-shifting, i. ...

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In the philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is a language that is spoken, written, or signed by humans for general-purpose communication, as distinguished from formal languages (such as computer-programming languages or the "languages" used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic) and from constructed languages. Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. ... Write redirects here. ... Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ... This article is about modern humans. ... In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a formal language is a language that is defined by precise mathematical or machine processable formulas. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Mathematical logic is a major area of mathematics, which grew out of symbolic logic. ... A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ...

Contents

Defining natural language

Though the exact definition is debatable, natural language is often contrasted with artificial or constructed languages such as Esperanto, Latino Sexione, and Occidental. An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose vocabulary and grammar were specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture as with natural languages. ... This article is about the language. ... The language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned language created by the Baltogerman naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl and published in 1922. ...


Linguists have an incomplete understanding of all aspects of the rules underlying natural languages, and these rules are therefore objects of study. The understanding of natural languages reveals much about not only how language works (in terms of syntax, semantics, phonetics, phonology, etc), but also about how the human mind and the human brain process language. In linguistic terms, 'natural language' only applies to a language that has evolved naturally, and the study of natural language primarily involves native (first language) speakers. For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ...


The theory of universal grammar proposes that all natural languages have certain underlying rules which constrain the structure of the specific grammar for any given language. Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans. ...


While grammarians, writers of dictionaries, and language policy-makers all have a certain influence on the evolution of language, their ability to influence what people think they 'ought' to say is distinct from what people actually say. Natural language applies to the latter, and is thus a 'descriptive' rather than a 'prescriptive' term. Thus non-standard language varieties (such as African American Vernacular English) are as natural as standard language varieties (such as Standard American English). Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... General American is a notional accent of American English based on speech patterns common in the Midwest of the United States and those used by many American network television broadcasters. ...


Native language learning

Main article: Language acquisition

The learning of one's own native language, typically that of one's parents, normally occurs spontaneously in early human childhood and is biologically driven. A crucial role of this process is performed by the neural activity of a portion of the human brain known as Broca's area. Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... Native Language Music, founded in 1996 by musicians Joe Sherbanee and Theo Bishop, is an independent adult contemporary record company based in Southern California that produces, markets, and distributes premium jazz, world, and new age music. ... A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Childhood (song) Childhood is a broad term usually applied to the phase of development in humans between infancy and adulthood. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are cells called neurons. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ...


There are approximately 7,000 current human languages, and many, if not most seem to share certain properties, leading to the belief in the existence of Universal Grammar, as shown by generative grammar studies pioneered by the work of Noam Chomsky. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a dedicated network in the human brain (crucially involving Broca's area, a portion of the left inferior frontal gyrus), is selectively activated by complex verbal structures (but not simple ones) of those languages that meet the Universal Grammar requirements.[1] [2] Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Generative linguistics. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ...


Origins of natural language

Main article: Origin of language

There is disagreement among anthropologists on when language was first used by humans (or their ancestors). Estimates range from about two million (2,000,000) years ago, during the time of Homo habilis, to as recently as forty thousand (40,000) years ago, during the time of Cro-Magnon man. However recent evidence suggests modern human language was invented or evolved in Africa prior to the dispersal of humans from Africa around 50,000 years ago. Since all people including the most isolated indigenous groups such as the Andamanese or the Tasmanian aboriginals possess language, then it must have been present in the ancestral populations in Africa before the human population split into various groups to colonize the rest of the world. [3] [4] The origin of language (glottogony) is a topic that has attracted considerable speculation throughout human history. ... Binomial name Leakey et al, 1964 Homo habilis (pronounced ) (handy man, skillful person) is a species of the genus Homo, which lived from approximately 2. ... For the avant garde collective, see Cromagnon (band). ... Comparative map showing the distributions of the various Andamanese peoples in the Andaman Islands- early 1800s versus present-day (2004). ... The Tasmanian Aboriginals are the indigenous people of the island state of Tasmania, Australia. ...


Linguistic diversity

See also: Multilingualism

As of early 2007, there are 6,912 known living human languages. [5] A "living language" is simply one which is in wide use by a specific group of living people. The exact number of known living languages will vary from 5,000 to 10,000, depending generally on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects. There are also many dead or extinct languages. Bilingual redirects here. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variant, or variety, of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. ... An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ...


There is no clear distinction between a language and a dialect, notwithstanding linguist Max Weinreich's famous aphorism that "a language is a dialect with an army and navy." In other words, the distinction may hinge on political considerations as much as on cultural differences, distinctive writing systems, or degree of mutual intelligibility. For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... Max Weinreich (1893/94 Goldingen(Kuldiga), Courland (Latvia) - 1969 New York) was a Yiddish linguist. ... An aphorism (literally distinction or definition, from Greek αφοριζειν to define) expresses a general truth in a pithy sentence. ... A language is a dialect with an army and navy is one of the most frequently used aphorisms in the discussion of the distinction between dialect and language. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


It is probably impossible to accurately enumerate the living languages because our worldwide knowledge is incomplete, and it is a "moving target", as explained in greater detail by the Ethnologue's Introduction, p. 7 - 8. With the 15th edition, the 103 newly added languages are not new but reclassified due to refinements in the definition of language. Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...


Although widely considered an encyclopedia, the Ethnologue actually presents itself as an incomplete catalog, including only named languages that its editors are able to document. With each edition, the number of catalogued languages has grown. Cyclopedia redirects here. ...


Beginning with the 14th edition (2000), an attempt was made to include all known living languages. SIL used an internal 3-letter code fashioned after airport codes to identify languages. This was the precursor to the modern ISO 639-3 standard, to which SIL contributed. The standard allows for over 14,000 languages. In turn, the 15th edition was revised to conform to the pending ISO 639-3 standard. An airport code is an acronym used to identify a specific airport. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ...


Of the catalogued languages, 497 have been flagged as "nearly extinct" due to trends in their usage.


Per the 15th edition, 6,912 living languages are shared by over 5.7 billion speakers. (p. 15)


Taxonomy

The classification of natural languages can be performed on the basis of different underlying principles (different closeness notions, respecting different properties and relations between languages); important directions of present classifications are: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Concept mining. ...

  • paying attention to the historical evolution of languages results in a genetic classification of languages—which is based on genetic relatedness of languages,
  • paying attention to the internal structure of languages (grammar) results in a typological classification of languages—which is based on similarity of one or more components of the language's grammar across languages,
  • and respecting geographical closeness and contacts between language-speaking communities results in areal groupings of languages.

The different classifications do not match each other and are not expected to, but the correlation between them is an important point for many linguistic research works. (There is a parallel to the classification of species in biological phylogenetics here: consider monophyletic vs. polyphyletic groups of species.) For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... In biology, a taxon is polyphyletic if it is descended from more than one root form (in Greek poly = many and phyletic = racial). ...


The task of genetic classification belongs to the field of historical-comparative linguistics, of typological—to linguistic typology. Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time, by means of examining languages which are recognizably related through similarities such as vocabulary, word formation, and syntax, as well as the surviving records of ancient languages. ... Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ...


See also Taxonomy, and Taxonomic classification for the general idea of classification and taxonomies. For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Concept mining. ...


Genetic classification

Main article: Language family

The world's languages have been grouped into families of languages that are believed to have common ancestors. Some of the major families are the Indo-European languages, the Afro-Asiatic languages, the Austronesian languages, and the Sino-Tibetan languages. A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The Sino-Tibetan languages form a putative language family composed of Chinese and the Tibeto-Burman languages, including some 250 languages of East Asia. ...


The shared features of languages from one family can be due to shared ancestry. (Compare with homology in biology.) In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ...


Typological classification

Main article: Linguistic typology

An example of a typological classification is the classification of languages on the basis of the basic order of the verb, the subject and the object in a sentence into several types: SVO, SOV, VSO, and so on, languages. (English, for instance, belongs to the SVO language type.) Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... According to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle, every sentence can be divided in two main constituents, one being the subject of the sentence and the other being its predicate. ... An object in grammar is a sentence element and part of the sentence predicate. ... In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ... Verb Subject Object—commonly used in its abbreviated form VSO—is a term in linguistic typology. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third. ...


The shared features of languages of one type (= from one typological class) may have arisen completely independently. (Compare with analogy in biology.) Their cooccurence might be due to the universal laws governing the structure of natural languages—language universals. The wings of pterosaurs (1), bats (2) and birds (3) are analogous: they serve the same function and are similar in structure, but each evolved independently. ... A linguistic universal is a statement that is true for all languages. ...


Areal classification

Main article: Areal feature

The following language groupings can serve as some linguistically significant examples of areal linguistic units, or sprachbunds: Balkan linguistic union, or the bigger group of European languages; Caucasian languages; East Asian languages. Although the members of each group are not closely genetically related, there is a reason for them to share similar features, namely: their speakers have been in contact for a long time within a common community and the languages converged in the course of the history. These are called "areal features". An areal feature, in linguistics, is the appearance of a given feature of typology in several unrelated languages due to the influence of geographical closeness. ... A Sprachbund (German for language bond, also known as a linguistic area, convergence area, diffusion area) is a group of languages that have become similar in some way because of geographical proximity. ... The Balkan linguistic union or Balkansprachbund is the similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various Indo-European branches, such as Albanian, Greek, Romance and Slavic. ... European languages are the object of Eurolinguistics. ... The term Caucasian languages is loosely used to refer to a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than 7 million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. ... East Asian languages or the East Asian sprachbund describe two notional groupings of languages in East and Southeast Asia, either (1) languages which have been greatly influenced by Classical Chinese, or the CJKV Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese) area or (2) a larger grouping including the CJKV area as well... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... In linguistics, an areal feature is any typological feature shared by languages within the same geographical area. ...


N.B.: one should be careful about the underlying classification principle for groups of languages which have apparently a geographical name: besides areal linguistic units, the taxa of the genetic classification (language families) are often given names which themselves or parts of which refer to geographical areas. A taxon (plural taxa) is an element of a taxonomy, e. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ...


Controlled languages

Controlled natural languages are subsets of natural languages whose grammars and dictionaries have been restricted in order to reduce or eliminate both ambiguity and complexity. The purpose behind the development and implementation of a controlled natural language typically is to aid non-native speakers of a natural language in understanding it, or to ease computer processing of a natural language. An example of a widely used controlled natural language is Simplified English, which was originally developed for aerospace industry maintenance manuals. Controlled Natural Languages are subsets of natural languages whose grammars and dictionaries have been restricted in order to reduce or eliminate both ambiguity and complexity. ... Disambiguation: see also simple English Simplified English is a controlled language originally developed for aerospace industry maintenance manuals. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


International auxiliary languages

It has been suggested that international auxiliary languages such as Interlingua, which have native speakers,[6] can be considered natural languages for that reason. A more substantive basis for this designation is that the vocabulary, grammar, and orthography of Interlingua are natural; they have been standardized and presented by a linguistic research body, but they predated it and are not themselves considered a product of human invention.[7] Most experts, however, consider Interlingua to be naturalistic rather than natural.[8] Latino Sine Flexione, a second naturalistic auxiliary language, is also natural in content but is no longer widely spoken.[9] An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... This article is about the auxiliary language created by the International Auxiliary Language Association. ... The International Auxiliary Language Association that existed from 1924 to 1954 was a notable proponent of international auxiliary languages. ... Latino sine flexione (Latin without inflections) is an auxiliary language invented by the mathematician Giuseppe Peano in 1903. ...


Constructed languages

Main article: Constructed language

Constructed languages such as Esperanto that have native speakers are by some also considered natural languages. However, constructed languages, while they are clearly languages, are not generally considered natural languages.[10] The problem is that other languages have been used to communicate and evolve in a natural way, while Esperanto has been selectively designed by Zamenhof from natural languages- not grown from the natural fluctuations in vocabulary and syntax. Nor has Esperanto been naturally "standardized" by children's natural tendency to correct for illogical grammar structures in their parent's language, which can be seen in the development of pidgin languages into creole languages (as explained by Steven Pinker in The Language Instinct). The possible exception to this are true native speakers of such languages.[11] Unfortunately, native speakers of Esperanto usually show little interest in becoming part of the international community of Esperanto speakers when they grow up.[citation needed] A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... This article is about the language. ... First language (native language, mother tongue) is the language a person learns first. ... This article is about simplified languages. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a new language, sometimes with features that are not inherited from any apparent source, without however qualifying in any appreciable way as a mixed language. ... The Language Instinct is a book by Steven Pinker, published in 1995, in which he argues the case for the belief that humans are born with an innate capacity for language. ...


Natural Language Processing

Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. It studies the problems of automated generation and understanding of natural human languages. Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. ...


Natural-language-generation systems convert information from computer databases into normal-sounding human language. Natural-language-understanding systems convert samples of human language into more formal representations that are easier for computer programs to manipulate.


Modalities

Natural language manifests itself in modalities other than speech.


Sign languages

Main article: Sign language

In linguistic terms, sign languages are as rich and complex as any oral language, despite the common[citation needed] misconception that they are not "real languages". Professional linguists have studied many sign languages and found them to have every linguistic component required to be classed as true natural languages[citation needed]. Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ...


Sign languages are not pantomime — in other words, signs are largely arbitrary and have no necessary visual relationship to their referent, much as most spoken language is not onomatopoeic. Nor are they a visual rendition of an oral language. They have complex grammars of their own, and can be used to discuss any topic, from the simple and concrete to the lofty and abstract.


Written languages

Main article: Written language

In a sense, written language should be distinguished from natural language. Until recently in the developed world, it was common for many people to be fluent in spoken or signed languages and yet remain illiterate; this is still the case in poor countries today. Furthermore, natural language acquisition during childhood is largely spontaneous, while literacy must usually be intentionally acquired.[citation needed] A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Spoken language is a language that people utter words of the language. ... Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ... Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ...


See also

Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. ... Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans. ... Linguistics Markup Language (LGML) is an XML-based framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages. ...

Notes

  1. ^ A. Moro, M. Tettamanti, D. Perani, C. Donati, S. F. Cappa, F. Fazio “Syntax and the brain: disentangling grammar by selective anomalies”, NeuroImage, 13, January 2001, Academic Press, Chicago, pp. 110-118
  2. ^ Musso, M., Moro, A. , Glauche. V., Rijntjes, M., Reichenbach, J., Büchel, C., Weiller, C. “Broca’s area and the language instinct,” Nature neuroscience, 2003, vol. 6, pp. 774-781.
  3. ^ Early Voices: The Leap to Language nytimes article by Nicholas Wade
  4. ^ Origins of language constraints on hypotheses
  5. ^ "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition", accessed 28 June 2007, ISBN 1 55671 159 X
  6. ^ Panorama in Interlingua, an Interlingua news magazine, sometimes mentions native speakers of the language.
  7. ^ Gode, Alexander, Interlingua-English: A dictionary of the international language. New York: Storm Publishers, 1951. (Original edition)
  8. ^ Gopsill, F. P., "A historical overview of international languages". In International languages: A matter for Interlingua. Sheffield, England: British Interlingua Society, 1990.
  9. ^ Gopsill, F. P., "Naturalistic international languages". In International languages: A matter for Interlingua. Sheffield, England: British Interlingua Society, 1990.
  10. ^ Gopsill, F. P., "A historical overview of international languages". In International languages: A matter for Interlingua. Sheffield, England: British Interlingua Society, 1990.
  11. ^ Proponents contend that there are 200-2000 native speakers of Esperanto.

Nicholas Wade is a U.S. journalist and author of at least 2 books. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Alexander Gottfried Friedrich Gode-von-Aesch or simply Alexander Gode (October 30, 1906 in Bremen - August 10, 1970 in Mount Kisco, New York) was a German-American linguist, translator and the driving force behind the creation of the constructed language Interlingua. ... The Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED), developed by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) and published by Storm Publishers in 1951, is the first Interlingua dictionary. ... Native Esperanto speakers (in Esperanto denaskuloj) come to be in families in which Esperanto (and usually other languages) is spoken. ...

References

  • ter Meulen, Alice, 2001, "Logic and Natural Language," in Goble, Lou, ed., The Blackwell Guide to Philosophical Logic. Blackwell.

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