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Encyclopedia > Natural gas

Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, propane, butane, and pentane—heavier hydrocarbons removed prior to use as a consumer fuel —as well as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide.[1] It is found in oil fields (associated) either dissolved or isolated in natural gas fields (non associated), and in coal beds (as coalbed methane). When methane-rich gases are produced by the anaerobic decay of non-fossil organic material, these are referred to as biogas. Sources of biogas include swamps, marshes, and landfills (see landfill gas), as well as sewage sludge and manure by way of anaerobic digesters, in addition to enteric fermentation particularly in cattle. Natural gas can be the following: Natural gas, a form of gas, found in nature, often as a part of a reservoir of fossil fuel. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... This article is about a chemical compound. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... Pentane (also known as amyl hydride or skellysolve) is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3CH3. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... Natural gas rig Oil and natural gas are produced by the same geological process: anaerobic decay of organic matter deep under the Earths surface. ... Coal Bed [Coal] consists of more than 50 percent by weight and more than 70 percent by volume of carbonaceous material (including inherent moisture). ... Coalbed methane is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds. ... Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the harnessed and contained, naturally occurring process of anaerobic decomposition. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Biogas-bus in Bern, Switzerland Biogas typically refers to a (biofuel) gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... Look up Dump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Natural gas rig Natural gas (commonly refered to as gas in many countries) is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... SLUDGE (Scripting Language for Unhindered Development of a Gaming Environment) is a shareware adventure game engine developed by Hungry Software. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... Anaerobic digesters are used to create anaerobic, meaning without oxygen, conditions so that anaerobic bacteria can efficiently digest biomass, sewage or other organic matter. ... Enteric fermentation is fermentation that takes place in the digestive systems of animals. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ...


Since natural gas is not a pure product, when non associated gas is extracted from a field under supercritical (pressure/temperature) conditions, it may partially condense upon isothermic depressurizing--an effect called retrograde condensation. The liquids thus formed may get trapped by depositing in the pores of the gas reservoir. One method to deal with this problem is to reinject dried gas free of condensate to maintain the underground pressure and to allow reevaporation and extraction of condensates.


Natural gas is often informally referred to as simply gas, especially when compared to other energy sources such as electricity. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo extensive processing to remove almost all materials other than methane. The by-products of that processing include ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, elemental sulfur, and sometimes helium and nitrogen. A natural gas processing plant Natural gas processing plants are used to purify the raw natural gas extracted from underground gas fields and brought up to the surface by gas wells. ... Pentane (also known as amyl hydride or skellysolve) is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3CH3. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ...

Contents

Chemical composition

The primary component of natural gas is methane (CH4), the shortest and lightest hydrocarbon molecule. It often also contains heavier gaseous hydrocarbons such as ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10), as well as other sulfur containing gases, in varying amounts, see also natural gas condensate. Natural gas that contains hydrocarbons other than methane is called wet natural gas. Natural gas consisting only of methane is called dry natural gas. Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... This article is about a chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Natural Gas Condensate is a natural gas by-product. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ...

Component Typical wt. %
Methane (CH4) 70-90
Ethane (C2H6) 5-15
Propane (C3H8) and Butane (C4H10) < 5
CO2, N2, H2S, etc. balance

Nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide and trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide, water and odorants can also be present [2]. Natural gas also contains and is the primary market source of helium. Mercury is also present in small amounts in natural gas extracted from some fields[3]. The exact composition of natural gas varies between gas fields. An Odorant is an substance that can be smelled. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the element. ...


Organosulfur compounds and hydrogen sulfide are common contaminants which must be removed prior to most uses. Gas with a significant amount of sulfur impurities, such as hydrogen sulfide, is termed sour gas; gas with sulfur or carbon dioxide impurities is acid gas. Processed natural gas that is available to end-users is tasteless and odorless, however, before gas is distributed to end-users, it is odorized by adding small amounts of odorants (mixtures of t-butyl mercaptan, isopropyl mercaptanthiol, tetrahydrothiophene, dimethyl sulfide and other sulfur compounds), to assist in leak detection. Processed natural gas is, in itself, harmless to the human body, however, natural gas is a simple asphyxiant and can kill if it displaces air to the point where the oxygen content will not support life. Organosulfur compounds are organic compounds that contain sulfur. ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Sour gas is natural gas or any other gas containing significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). ... Acid gas is natural gas or any other gas mixture which contains significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), or similar contaminants. ... Sulphydryl // In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ... Sulphydryl // In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ... Tetrahydrothiophene is a heterocyclic organic compound consisting of a five-membered ring containing four carbon atoms and a sulfur atom. ... Dimethyl sulfide causes that distinctive smell from your St. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ...


Natural gas can also be hazardous to life and property through an explosion. Natural gas is lighter than air, and so tends to escape into the atmosphere. But when natural gas is confined, such as within a house, gas concentrations can reach explosive mixtures and, if ignited, result in blasts that could destroy buildings. Methane has a lower explosive limit of 5% in air, and an upper explosive limit of 15%. Explosive concerns with compressed natural gas used in vehicles are almost non-existent, due to the escaping nature of the gas, and the need to maintain concentrations between 5% and 15% to trigger explosions. The explosive limit of a gas or a vapour, is the limiting concentration (in air) that is needed for the gas to ignite and explode. ...


Energy content, statistics and pricing

Main article: Natural gas prices

Quantities of natural gas are measured in normal cubic meters (corresponding to 0°C at 101.325 kPaA) or in standard cubic feet (corresponding to 60 °F (16 °C) and 14.73 PSIA). The gross heat of combustion of one normal cubic meter of commercial quality natural gas is around 39 megajoules (≈10.8 kWh), but this can vary by several percent. In US units, one standard cubic foot of natural gas produces around 1,030 British Thermal Units (BTUs). The actual heating value when the water formed does not condense is the net heat of combustion and can be as much as 10% less.[4] Natural gas prices are now strongly influenced by worldwide markets, since the development of large pipeline networks in North America, Europe and Asia and of long distance ocean shipment of liquified natural gas beginning in the 1960s. ... In chemistry and other sciences, STP or standard temperature and pressure is a standard set of conditions for experimental measurements, to enable comparisons to be made between sets of data. ... Standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure. ... A standard cubic foot is a measure of quantity of gas, equal to a cubic foot of volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and either 14. ... PSIA or psia may refer to: Pounds per square inch absolute (including atmospheric pressure). ... The Higher Heating Value (HHV) of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat released by a specified quantity (initially at 25°C) once it is combusted and the reactants have returned to a temperature of 25°C. The Higher Heating Value takes into account the latent heat of... In chemistry and other sciences, STP or standard temperature and pressure is a standard set of conditions for experimental measurements, to enable comparisons to be made between sets of data. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... The kilowatt-hour (symbol: kW·h) is a unit for measuring energy. ... U.S. customary units, also known in the United States as English units[1] (but see English unit) or standard units, are units of measurement that are currently used in the USA, in some cases alongside units from SI (the International System of Units — the modern metric system). ... A standard cubic foot is a measure of quantity of gas, equal to a cubic foot of volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and either 14. ... The British thermal unit (BTU or Btu) is a unit of energy used in the Power, Steam Generation and Heating and Air Conditioning industry globally. ... The lower heating value (also known as net calorific value) of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat released by combusting a specified quantity (initially at 25°C) and returning the temperature of the combustion products to 150°C. The lower heating value assumes the latent heat of...


The price of natural gas varies greatly depending on location and type of consumer. In 2007, a price of $7 per 1,000 cubic feet (28 m³) was typical in the United States. The typical caloric value of natural gas is roughly 1,000 BTU per cubic foot, depending on gas composition. This corresponds to around $7 per million BTU's, or around $7 per gigajoule. In April 2008, the wholesale price was $10 per 1,000 cubic feet (28 m³) ($10/MBTU) [5]. The residential price varies from 50% to 300% more than the wholesale price. At the end of 2007, this was $12-$16 per 1000 ft3 (or MBTU) [6]. Natural gas in the United States is traded as a futures contract on the New York Mercantile Exchange. Each contract is for 10,000 MMBTU (gigajoules), or 10 billion BTU's. Thus, if the price of gas is $10 per million BTU's on the NYMEX, the contract is worth $100,000. Look up gigajoule in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In finance, a futures contract is a standardized contract, traded on a futures exchange, to buy or sell a certain underlying instrument at a certain date in the future, at a specified price. ... The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is the worlds largest physical commodity futures exchange, located in New York City. ... Look up gigajoule in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the United States, retail sales are often in units of therms (th); 1 therm = 100,000 BTU. Gas meters measure the volume of gas used, and this is converted to therms by multiplying the volume by the energy content of the gas used during that period, which varies slightly over time. Wholesale transactions are generally done in decatherms (Dth), or in thousand decatherms (MDth), or in million decatherms (MMDth). A million decatherms is roughly a billion cubic feet of natural gas. The therm (symbol thm) is a non-SI unit of heat energy. ... A residential gas meter of the usual diaphragm style A gas meter is used to measure the flow of fuel gases such as natural gas and propane. ... A decatherm is a unit of heat equal to one million BTU (British thermal units) (about 1. ...


Natural gas is also traded as a commodity in Europe, principally at the United Kingdom NBP and related European hubs, such as the TTF in the Netherlands. The National Balancing Point, commonly referred to as the NBP, is a virtual trading location for the sale and purchase of UK natural gas. ... The Title Transfer Facility, more commonly known as TTF, is a virtual trading point for natural gas in the Netherlands. ...


In the rest of the world, LNG (liquified natural gas) and LPG (liquified petroleum gas) is traded in metric tons or mmBTU as spot deliveries. Long term contracts are signed in metric tons. The LNG and LPG is transported by specialized transport ships, as the gas is liquified at cryogenic temperatures. The specification of each LNG/LPG cargo will usually contain the energy content, but this information is in general not available to the public. Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) is natural gas which has been artificially condensed into a liquid form by a combination of pressurisation and cryogenic cooling. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Spherical Gas Container typically found in Refineries. ... An LNG carrier is a ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas. ... Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same, and is often confused with cryobiology, the study of the effect of low temperatures on organisms, or the study of cryopreservation. ...


Natural gas processing

A natural gas processing plant
A natural gas processing plant

The image below is a schematic block flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant. It shows the various unit processes used to convert raw natural gas into sales gas pipelined to the end user markets. Image File history File links NaturalGasProcessingPlant. ... Image File history File links NaturalGasProcessingPlant. ... A natural gas processing plant Natural gas processing plants are used to purify the raw natural gas extracted from underground gas fields and brought up to the surface by gas wells. ... We dont have an article called Process flow diagram Start this article Search for Process flow diagram in. ...


The block flow diagram also shows how processing of the raw natural gas yields byproduct sulfur, byproduct ethane, and natural gas liquids (NGL) propane, butanes and natural gasoline (denoted as pentanes +).[7][8][9][10][11] Pentane, also known as amyl hydride or skellysolve A is an alkane hydrocarbon. ...

Schematic flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant
Schematic flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant

Image File history File links NatGasProcessing. ...

Storage and transport

Polyethylene gas main being laid in a trench.
Polyethylene gas main being laid in a trench.

The major difficulty in the use of natural gas is transportation and storage because of its low density. Natural gas pipelines are economical, but are impractical across oceans. Many existing pipelines in North America are close to reaching their capacity, prompting some politicians representing colder areas to speak publicly of potential shortages. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (844x1166, 372 KB) A polyethylene gas main being laid in a trench under Chesterton Road, Cambridge. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (844x1166, 372 KB) A polyethylene gas main being laid in a trench under Chesterton Road, Cambridge. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Main (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the word, see Trench (disambiguation). ... Natural gas, like many of the other commodities, can be stored for an indefinite period of time in natural gas storage facilities for later consumption. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... This is a list of pipelines used to transport natural gas in the United States and Canada. ...


LNG carriers can be used to transport liquefied natural gas (LNG) across oceans, while tank trucks can carry liquefied or compressed natural gas (CNG) over shorter distances. They may transport natural gas directly to end-users, or to distribution points such as pipelines for further transport. These may have a higher cost, requiring additional facilities for liquefaction or compression at the production point, and then gasification or decompression at end-use facilities or into a pipeline. An LNG carrier is a ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas. ... Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been processed to remove either valuable components e. ... A Shell Jet A refueller truck on the ramp at Vancouver International Airport. ... Typical North America vehicles carry this diamond shape symbol, meaning it is running on compressed natural gas fuel. ... Liquefaction of gases includes a number of faces used to convert a gas into a liquid state. ... Physical compression is the result of the subjection of a material to compressive stress, resulting in reduction of volume. ... For the water carbonator, see Gasogene. ...

Peoples Gas Manlove Field Natural gas storage area in Newcomb Township, Champaign County, Illinois. In the foreground is one of numerous wells for the underground storage area, with an LNG plant and above ground storage tanks in the background.
Peoples Gas Manlove Field Natural gas storage area in Newcomb Township, Champaign County, Illinois. In the foreground is one of numerous wells for the underground storage area, with an LNG plant and above ground storage tanks in the background.

In the past, the natural gas which was recovered in the course of recovering petroleum could not be profitably sold, and was simply burned at the oil field (known as flaring). This wasteful practice is now illegal in many countries. Additionally, companies now recognize that value for the gas may be achieved with LNG, CNG, or other transportation methods to end-users in the future. The gas is now re-injected back into the formation for later recovery. This also assists oil pumping by keeping underground pressures higher. In Saudi Arabia, in the late 1970s, a "Master Gas System" was created, ending the need for flaring. Satellite observation unfortunately shows that some large gas-producing countries still use flaring[12] and venting[13] routinely. The natural gas is used to generate electricity and heat for desalination. Similarly, some landfills that also discharge methane gases have been set up to capture the methane and generate electricity. Newcomb Township is located in Champaign County, Illinois. ... Petro redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... A gas flare at an oil refinery. ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ... This article is about a mechanical device. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ...


Natural gas is often stored in underground caverns formed inside depleted gas reservoirs from previous gas wells, salt domes, or in tanks as liquefied natural gas. The gas is injected during periods of low demand and extracted during periods of higher demand. Storage near the ultimate end-users helps to best meet volatile demands, but this may not always be practicable. A salt dome is formed when a thick bed of evaporite minerals (mainly salt, or halite) found at depth intrudes vertically into surrounding rock strata, forming a diapir. ... Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been processed to remove either valuable components e. ...


With 15 nations accounting for 84% of the world-wide production, access to natural gas has become a significant factor in international economics and politics. In this respect, control over the pipelines is a major strategic factor.[14]


Use

Power generation

Natural gas is a major source of electricity generation through the use of gas turbines and steam turbines. Particularly high efficiencies can be achieved through combining gas turbines with a steam turbine in combined cycle mode. Natural gas burns cleaner than other fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, and produces less carbon dioxide per unit energy released. For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30% less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum and about 45% less than burning coal.[15] Combined cycle power generation using natural gas is thus the cleanest source of power available using fossil fuels, and this technology is widely used wherever gas can be obtained at a reasonable cost. Fuel cell technology may eventually provide cleaner options for converting natural gas into electricity, but as yet it is not price-competitive. World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... WWII era ship propulsion turbine A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow. ... A combined cycle is characteristic of a power producing engine or plant that employs more than one thermodynamic cycle. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Petro redirects here. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...


Hydrogen

Natural gas can be used to produce hydrogen, with one common method being the hydrogen reformer. Hydrogen has various applications: it is a primary feedstock for the chemical industry, a hydrogenating agent, an important commodity for oil refineries, and a fuel source in hydrogen vehicles. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... A hydrogen reformer is a device that extracts the hydrogen contained in other fuels. ... Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from General Motors Filler neck for hydrogen of a BMW, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany Tank for liquid hydrogen of Linde, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power. ...


Natural Gas Vehicles

A Metrobus using natural gas
A Metrobus using natural gas

Compressed natural gas (methane) is a cleaner alternative to other automobile fuels such as gasoline (petrol) and diesel. As of 2005, the countries with the largest number of natural gas vehicles were Argentina, Brazil, Pakistan, Italy, Iran, and the USA. [16] The energy efficiency is generally equal to that of gasoline engines, but lower compared with modern diesel engines. Benzene (aka gasoline, petrol) vehicles converted to run on Natural Gas suffer because of the low compression ratio of their engines, resulting in a cropping of delivered power while running on natural gas (10%-15%). CNG-specific engines, however, use a higher compression ratio due to this fuel's higher octane number of 120-130. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 152 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Orion 07. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 152 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Orion 07. ... Metrobus is a bus service operated by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA). ... Typical North America vehicles carry this diamond shape symbol, meaning it is running on compressed natural gas fuel. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Car redirects here. ... Petrol redirects here. ... This article is about the fuel. ... A Natural gas vehicle or NGV is a vehicle that uses compressed natural gas (CNG) or, less commonly, liquified natural gas (LNG)) as a clean alternative to other automobile fuels. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Bold text The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine (such as an internal-combustion engine or a Stirling Engine). ... The octane rating is the most important characteristic of gasoline (petrol) and other fuels used in spark-ignition internal combustion engines. ...


Residential domestic use

Natural gas is supplied to homes, where it is used for such purposes as cooking in natural gas-powered ranges and/or ovens, natural gas-heated clothes dryers, heating/cooling and central heating. Home or other building heating may include boilers, furnaces, and water heaters. CNG is used in rural homes without connections to piped-in public utility services, or with portable grills. However, due to CNG being less economical than LPG, LPG (Propane) is the dominant source of rural gas. Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... An electric clothes dryer A clothes dryer or tumble dryer is a household appliance that is used to remove the residual moisture from a load of clothing and other textiles, generally shortly after they are cleaned in a washing machine. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... For the Grand Central Records albums, see Central Heating (Grand Central album) and Central Heating 2. ... A furnace is a device for heating air or any other fluid. ... A trio of propane hot water heaters. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ... A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ... It has been suggested that Gas grill parts be merged into this article or section. ...


Fertilizer

Natural gas is a major feedstock for the production of ammonia, via the Haber process, for use in fertilizer production. For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... The Haber process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen, over an iron-substrate, to produce ammonia [1] [2] [3]. The Haber process is important because ammonia is difficult to produce, on an industrial scale. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


Aviation

Russian aircraft manufacturer Tupolev is currently running a development program to produce LNG- and hydrogen-powered aircraft.[17] The program has been running since the mid-1970s, and seeks to develop LNG and hydrogen variants of the Tu-204 and Tu-334 passenger aircraft, and also the Tu-330 cargo aircraft. It claims that at current market prices, an LNG-powered aircraft would cost 5,000 roubles less to operate per ton, roughly equivalent to 60%, with considerable reductions to carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. Tupolev (Russian: Туполев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... The Tupolev Tu-204 is a twin-engined medium range Russian airliner capable of carrying 212 passengers. ... Tupolev Tu-334 The Tupolev Tu-334 is a Russian airliner currently under development to replace the aging Tu-134s in service around the world. ... The Tupolev Tu-330 is a modern medium transport aircraft of the Russian airplane manufacturer Tupolev PSC. Information on the Tu-330, from Tupolev This aircraft-related article is a stub. ... 1998 Russian Federation one rouble coin. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... // The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen(IV) oxide Nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen (I) oxide Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3), nitrogen(II, IV) oxide Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), nitrogen...


The advantages of liquid methane as a jet engine fuel are that it has more specific energy than the standard kerosene mixes and that its low temperature can help cool the air which the engine compresses for greater volumetric efficiency, in effect replacing an intercooler. Alternatively, it can be used to lower the temperature of the exhaust. For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ... For the Australian rock group, see Intercooler (band). ...


Other

Natural gas is also used in the manufacture of fabrics, glass, steel, plastics, paint, and other products. For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... This article is about the material. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ...


Sources

Natural gas production by country (countries in brown and then red have the largest production)
Natural gas production by country (countries in brown and then red have the largest production)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1360x712, 52 KB) Summary Map of natural gas production in cubic metres per year from CIA factbook figures [1] accessed 30 March 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1360x712, 52 KB) Summary Map of natural gas production in cubic metres per year from CIA factbook figures [1] accessed 30 March 2006. ...

Natural gas

Natural gas is commercially produced from oil fields and natural gas fields. Gas produced from oil wells is called casinghead gas or associated gas. The natural gas industry is producing gas from increasingly more challenging resource types: sour gas, tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane. Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... Natural gas rig Oil and natural gas are produced by the same geological process: anaerobic decay of organic matter deep under the Earths surface. ... Although natural gas has been used almost as long as oil in Canada, its commercial development was not as rapid. ... Shale gas is natural gas produced from shale. ... Coalbed methane is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds. ...


The world's largest gas field by far is Qatar's offshore North Field, estimated to have 25 trillion cubic metres[18] (9.0×1010 cu ft) of gas in place—enough to last more than 200 years at optimum production levels. The second largest natural gas field is the South Pars Gas Field in Iranian waters in the Persian Gulf. Connected to Qatar's North Field, it has estimated reserves of 8 to 14 trillion cubic metres[19] (2.8×1010 to 5.0×1010 cu ft) of gas. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Asalouyeh (Persian: عسلویه) also transcribed Assalouyeh and Assaluyeh, and sometimes prefixed by bandar, meaning port) is a town in southern Iran, in Bushehr Province. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...

See also: List of natural gas fields

Countries where natural gas fields are located This list of natural gas fields includes major fields of the past and present. ...

Town gas

Town gas is a mixture of methane and other gases, mainly the highly toxic carbon monoxide, that can be used in a similar way to natural gas and can be produced by treating coal chemically. This is a historic technology, still used as 'best solution' in some local circumstances, although coal gasification is not usually economic at current gas prices. However, depending upon infrastructure considerations, it remains a future possibility. Town gas is a generic term referring to manufactured gas produced for sale to consumers and municipalities. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


Biogas

Methanogenic archaea are responsible for all biological sources of methane, some in symbiotic relationships with other life forms, including termites, ruminants, and cultivated crops. Methane released directly into the atmosphere would be considered a pollutant, however, methane in the atmosphere is oxidised, producing carbon dioxide and water. Methane in the atmosphere has a half life of seven years, meaning that every seven years, half of the methane present is converted to carbon dioxide and water. Methanogens are archaea that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Termites, sometimes known as white ants, are a group of social insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ruminantia. ... Many of the compounds which are dangerous to the environment can also be harmful to humans in the long-term range and come from mineral and fossil sources or are produced by humans themselves. ...

U.S. Natural Gas Production 1900 - 2005 Source: EIA
U.S. Natural Gas Production 1900 - 2005 Source: EIA

Future sources of methane, the principal component of natural gas, include landfill gas, biogas and methane hydrate. Biogas, and especially landfill gas, are already used in some areas, but their use could be greatly expanded. Landfill gas is a type of biogas, but biogas usually refers to gas produced from organic material that has not been mixed with other waste. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ...


Landfill gas is created from the decomposition of waste in landfills. If the gas is not removed, the pressure may get so high that it works its way to the surface, causing damage to the landfill structure, unpleasant odor, vegetation die-off and an explosion hazard. The gas can be vented to the atmosphere, flared or burned to produce electricity or heat. Experimental systems were being proposed for use in parts Hertfordshire, UK and Lyon in France. Natural gas rig Natural gas (commonly refered to as gas in many countries) is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ... Look up Dump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A gas flare at an oil refinery. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... This article is about the French city. ...


Once water vapor is removed, about half of landfill gas is methane. Almost all of the rest is carbon dioxide, but there are also small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. There are usually trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide and siloxanes, but their concentration varies widely. Landfill gas cannot be distributed through natural gas pipelines unless it is cleaned up to the same quality. It is usually more economical to combust the gas on site or within a short distance of the landfill using a dedicated pipeline. Water vapor is often removed, even if combusting the gas on site. If low temperatures condense out the water from the gas, siloxanes can be lowered as well because they tend to condense out with the water vapour. Other non-methane components may also be removed in order to meet emission standards, to prevent fouling of the equipment or for environmental considerations. Co-firing landfill gas with natural gas improves combustion, which lowers emissions. Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Siloxanes are a class of both organic and inorganic chemical compounds which consist entirely of silicon, oxygen, and an alkyl group. ... Siloxanes are a class of organosilicon compounds with the empirical formula R2SiO, where R is an organic group. ... Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. ...


Biogas is usually produced using agricultural waste materials, such as otherwise unusable parts of plants and manure. Biogas can also be produced by separating organic materials from waste that otherwise goes to landfills. This is more efficient than just capturing the landfill gas it produces. Using materials that would otherwise generate no income, or even cost money to get rid of, improves the profitability and energy balance of biogas production. Biogas-bus in Bern, Switzerland Biogas typically refers to a (biofuel) gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... Organic material or organic matter is informally used to denote a material that originated as a living organism; most such materials contain carbon and are capable of decay. ...


Anaerobic lagoons produce biogas from manure, while biogas reactors can be used for manure or plant parts. Like landfill gas, biogas is mostly methane and carbon dioxide, with small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. However, with the exception of pesticides, there are usually lower levels of contaminants. A photo of the anaerobic lagoon at the Cal Poly Dairy taken in 2003. ...


Hydrates

A speculative source of enormous quantities of methane is from methane hydrate, found under sediments in the oceans. However, as of 2006 no technology has been developed to recover it economically. Burning ice. Methane, released by heating, burns; water drips (USGS). ...


Safety

In any form, a minute amount of odorant such as t-butyl mercaptan, with a rotting-cabbage-like smell, is added to the otherwise colorless and almost odorless gas, so that leaks can be detected before a fire or explosion occurs. Sometimes a related compound, thiophane is used, with a rotten-egg smell. Adding odorant to natural gas began in the United States after the 1937 New London School explosion. The buildup of gas in the school went unnoticed, killing three hundred students and faculty when it ignited. Odorants are considered non-toxic in the extremely low concentrations occurring in natural gas delivered to the end user. An aroma compound, also known as odorant, aroma, fragrance, flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Butanethiol, also known as butyl mercaptan, is a highly volatile, clear to yellowish liquid with a foetid (extremely foul-smelling) odor, commonly described as skunk odor. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Aroma redirects here. ... An Internet leak occurs when a partys confidential intellectual property is released to the public on the Internet. ... Tetrahydrothiophene is a heterocyclic organic compound consisting of a five-membered ring containing four carbon atoms and a sulfur atom. ... The New London School explosion occurred on March 18, 1937, when a natural gas leak caused an explosion, destroying the New London School of the city of New London, Texas. ...


In mines, where methane seeping from rock formations has no odor, sensors are used, and mining apparatuses have been specifically developed to avoid ignition sources, e.g., the Davy lamp. This article is about mineral extractions. ... Not to be confused with censure, censer, or censor. ... Davy lamp The Davy lamp is a candle containing safety lamp devised in 1815 by Humphry Davy. ...


Explosions caused by natural gas leaks occur a few times each year. Individual homes, small businesses and boats are most frequently affected when an internal leak builds up gas inside the structure. Frequently, the blast will be enough to significantly damage a building but leave it standing. In these cases, the people inside tend to have minor to moderate injuries. Occasionally, the gas can collect in high enough quantities to cause a deadly explosion, disintegrating one or more buildings in the process. The gas usually dissipates readily outdoors, but can sometimes collect in dangerous quantities if weather conditions are right. However, considering the tens of millions of structures that use the fuel, the individual risk of using natural gas is very low. This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Home (disambiguation). ... Mom and pop store redirects here. ... A boat, like a ship, is a buoyant vessel designed for the purpose of transporting people and possibly goods across water. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... For the Parker Brothers board game, see Risk (game) For other uses, see Risk (disambiguation). ...


Some gas fields yield sour gas containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S). This untreated gas is toxic. Amine gas treating, an industrial scale process which removes acidic gaseous components, is often used to remove hydrogen sulfide from natural gas. [20] Sour gas is natural gas or any other gas containing significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Amine gas treating is a means to remove organosulfur and other undesirable compounds from acid gas by contacting the gas with amine. ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ...


Extraction of natural gas (or oil) leads to decrease in pressure in the reservoir. This in turn may lead to subsidence at ground level. Subsidence may affect ecosystems, waterways, sewer and water supply systems, foundations, etc. This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... An oil reservoir, petroleum system or petroleum reservoir is often thought of as being an underground lake of oil, but it is actually composed of hydrocarbons contained in porous rock formations. ... A road destroyed by subsidence and shear. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For the art of stitching, see Sewing. ... Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users. ... A foundation is a structure that transmits loads from a building or road to the underlying ground. ...


Natural Gas heating systems are the leading cause of carbon monoxide deaths in the United States, according to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. When a natural gas heating system malfunctions, it produces odorless carbon monoxide. With no fumes or smoke to give warning, poisoning victims are easily asphyxiated by the carbon monoxide. Detectors are available that warn of carbon monoxide and/or explosive gas (methane, propane, etc.) Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ...


Cost comparison with heating oil in the USA

It is difficult to evaluate the cost of heating a home with natural gas compared to that of heating oil, because of differences of energy conversion efficiency, and the widely fluctuating price of crude oil. However, for illustration, one can calculate a representative cost per BTU. Assuming the following current values: Heating oil, or burning oil, also known in the United States as No. ...

  • For natural gas
    • One cubic foot of natural gas produces about 1,030 BTU (38.4 MJ/m³)
    • The price of natural gas is $9.00 per thousand cubic feet ($0.32/m³)
  • For heating oil
    • One US gallon of heating oil produces about 138,500 BTU (38.6 MJ/l)
    • The price of heating oil is $2.50 per US gallon ($0.66/l)


This gives a cost of $8.70 per million BTU ($8.30/GJ) for natural gas, as compared to $18 per million BTU ($17/GJ) for fuel oil. Of course, such comparisons fluctuate with time and vary from place to place dependant on the cost of the raw materials and local taxation.


See also

Sustainable development Portal
Energy Portal

Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Image File history File links Crystal_128_energy. ... The theory of abiogenic petroleum origin holds that natural petroleum was formed from deep carbon deposits, perhaps dating to the formation of the Earth. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Coalbed methane is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds. ... Typical North America vehicles carry this diamond shape symbol, meaning it is running on compressed natural gas fuel. ... Fuel Stations are points at which vehicles operating on gasoline, diesel, natural gas, or hydrogen can stop at in order to refuel. ... Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ... Gazprom (LSE: OGZD; Russian: , sometimes transcribed as Gasprom) is the largest Russian company and the biggest extractor of natural gas in the world. ... Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from General Motors Filler neck for hydrogen of a BMW, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany Tank for liquid hydrogen of Linde, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power. ... Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been processed to remove either valuable components e. ... Natural gas, like many of the other commodities, can be stored for an indefinite period of time in natural gas storage facilities for later consumption. ... This is a list of pipelines used to transport natural gas in the United States and Canada. ... Natural gas prices are now strongly influenced by worldwide markets, since the development of large pipeline networks in North America, Europe and Asia and of long distance ocean shipment of liquified natural gas beginning in the 1960s. ... A natural gas processing plant Natural gas processing plants are used to purify the raw natural gas extracted from underground gas fields and brought up to the surface by gas wells. ... Many figures in North America have spoken publicly about a possible North American natural gas crisis including former Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham, former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Alan Greenspan, and Ontario Minister of Energy Dwight Duncan. ... Shale gas is natural gas produced from shale. ... Steam reforming, hydrogen reforming or catalytic oxidation, is a method of producing hydrogen from hydrocarbons. ... World power usage in terawatts (TW), 1965-2005. ...

External links

Natural gas vehicles

References

Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Natural gas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2676 words)
Natural gas, commonly referred to as gas, is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane.
Natural gas is, in itself, harmless to the human body -- unlike carbon monoxide, for instance, it is not a poison.
Natural gas is often stored in underground caverns formed inside depleted gas reservoirs from previous gas wells, salt domes, or in tanks as liquefied natural gas.
Natural gas - definition of Natural gas in Encyclopedia (954 words)
Natural gas is a gas produced by the anaerobic decay of organic material.
In many cases, as with oil fields in Saudi Arabia, the natural gas which is recovered in the course of recovering petroleum cannot be profitably sold, and is simply burned at the oil field (known as flaring).
Natural gas is supplied to homes where it is used for such purposes as cooking and heating.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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