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Encyclopedia > Nativity of Jesus
The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. 1445.
The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. 1445.

The Nativity of Jesus, or simply the Nativity, is the story of the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 405 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1256 × 1857 pixel, file size: 284 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nativity of Jesus Chaperon (headgear... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 405 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1256 × 1857 pixel, file size: 284 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nativity of Jesus Chaperon (headgear... Petrus Christus, born 1410/1420 in Antwerpen, dead 1472 in Bruges, flemish painter, active in Bruges from 1444. ... Parturition redirects here. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


For Christians, the authoritative accounts are those given in the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke that form part of the New Testament of the Bible. More elaborate accounts of the events relating to the birth of Jesus have also been preserved, but they have not been included in the Christian canon of the Bible. The Gospel of Mark, arguably the earliest of the canonical gospels, is silent on the nativity.[1] For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... Markan priority is the hypothesis that the Gospel of Mark was the first written of the three Synoptic Gospels, and that the two other synoptic evangelists, Matthew and Luke, used Marks Gospel as one of their sources. ... Canonical is an adjective derived from canon. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ...


The birth narratives of Matthew and Luke relate that Jesus of Nazareth was the child of Mary, who at the time of his conception was betrothed as the wife of Joseph of the House of David. His conception was miraculous because he was conceived to her by the power of the Holy Spirit, (the divine presence of God) rather than by Joseph, who was to act as his "earthly father". The birth of Jesus was announced by angels to a group of shepherds and by the presence of a new star to a group of wise men.[2] The gospels indicate that Jesus' birth was the fulfilment of prophecies made by the Prophets of Israel. Virgin Mary redirects here. ... For other uses, see Saint Joseph (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... Prophets may refer to: The Prophets (Neviim), which is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ...


The remembrance, representation and re-enactment of the Nativity scene are central to the Christian celebration of Christmas, the name "Christmas" for the festival signifying the Christian belief that Jesus of Nazareth is the "Christ" or Messiah promised in the Old Testament of the Bible. In the Roman Catholic Church, and among other Christian groups, the main religious celebration of Christmas is the Church service at midnight ("Heilige Nacht", "Midnight Mass") or in the morning of "Christmas Day", which is always kept on the 25 December. During the forty days leading up to Christmas, the Eastern Orthodox Church practices the Nativity Fast, while four Sundays before Christmas, the Roman Catholic Church and Anglican Communion begin observing the liturgical season of Advent – both are times of spiritual cleansing, recollection and renewal, in order to prepare for the celebration of the birth of Jesus at Christmas. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... The Nativity Fast, practiced by the Eastern Orthodox Church, is believed to enable participants to draw closer to God by denying the body of worldly pleasure in preparation for celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ, which is held on December 25th (Julian Calendar). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... μ This article is about the Christian season. ...


Many modern scholars consider that the two Gospel accounts appear to present two different and conflicting narratives, and view both stories as "pious fictions".[3] E. P. Sanders describes them as "the clearest cases of invention in the Gospels".[4] Ed Parish Sanders (born 1937) is a leading New Testament theologian (Th. ...

Contents

Biblical narratives

Gospel of Luke

The Gospel of Luke states that Mary learned from the angel Gabriel that the Holy Spirit would cause her to be with child. Mary pointed out that she was a virgin and the angel responded that "nothing will be impossible with God". "Here am I, the servant of the Lord; let it be with me according to your word," Mary responded.[5] Virgin Mary redirects here. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream...


At the time that Mary was due to give birth, she and her husband Joseph traveled from their home in Nazareth about 150 kilometres (90 miles) south to Joseph's ancestral home, Bethlehem, in order to register in a census ordered by Emperor Augustus, (referred to elsewhere as the Census of Quirinius). Having found no place for themselves in the inn, they lodged in a room where animals were kept. There Mary gave birth to Jesus.[6] For other uses, see Saint Joseph (disambiguation). ... Hebrew נָצְרַת (Natzrat) (Standard) Náẓərat Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Name Meaning Ancient word in Hebrew Government City District North Population 64,800[1] (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... Arabic بيت لحم Name Meaning House of Lambs Government City (from 1995) Also Spelled Beit Lahm (officially) Bayt Lahm (unofficially) Governorate Bethlehem Population 29,930 (2006) Jurisdiction 29,799 dunams (29. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... The Census of Quirinius refers to the enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus when Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was appointed governor of Syria. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


An angel of the Lord visited the shepherds that were guarding their flocks in fields nearby and brought them the "good news of great joy" that "to you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, who is the Messiah, the Lord". The angel told them they would find, "a child wrapped in bands of cloth and lying in a manger." A "heavenly host" joined the angel and said, "Glory to God in the highest heaven, and on earth peace among those whom he favors!"[7] NRSV. The King James Version (1611) reads, "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men." [8] The shepherds hurried to the manger in Bethlehem where they found Mary, Joseph and Jesus. They repeated what they were told by the angel, and then returned to their flocks.[9] Note that these are the shepherds outside of Bethlehem who came to celebrate Jesus' birth as an infant, and not the Magi of the East mentioned in Matthew. Arabic بيت لحم Name Meaning House of Lambs Government City (from 1995) Also Spelled Beit Lahm (officially) Bayt Lahm (unofficially) Governorate Bethlehem Population 29,930 (2006) Jurisdiction 29,799 dunams (29. ... Savior refers to a person who helps people achieve Salvation. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Lordship redirects here. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...


Gospel of Matthew

In the Gospel of Matthew, the impending birth is announced to Joseph in a dream. A star reveals the birth of Jesus to a group of "wise men" (Koine Greek magi) who travel to Jerusalem from an unspecified country "in the east": Koine redirects here. ... Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ...

In the time of King Herod, after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem, asking, "Where is the child who has been born king of the Jews? For we observed his star at its rising,"[10] "and have come to pay him homage." When King Herod heard this, he was frightened, and all Jerusalem with him; and calling together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he inquired of them where the Messiah was to be born.[11]

Matthew's use of the word "magi" connects this passage and the visitors to the infant Jesus with a passage from the Old Testament Book of Daniel in which are described the magi of Babylon who selected Daniel as their chief. [12] The magi in Daniel interpreted dreams and other portents. The book was well-known in ancient times for a prophecy concerning the Messiah, an "anointed one" to be sent by God to lead the Jewish people. ("Messiah" is a Hebrew word used in the Hebrew scriptures, "Christ" being derived from the Greek equivalent.)[13] Herod the Great. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... King of the Jews may refer to: One of several historical kings of the Jewish people; see Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah A title of the Jewish Messiah King Herod the Great, declared King of the Jews by the Roman Senate A title used to refer to Jesus... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Biblical figure called Daniel. ...

The three Magi before Herod, France, early 15th century.
The three Magi before Herod, France, early 15th century.

Neither the names of the magi nor their number are specified in the Bible, but – because the gifts described are three in number – a tradition arose thst there were three magi: Balthasar, Melchior, and Caspar. Balthasar is a Greek version of the Babylonian name Belshazzar, meaning "May Bel protect his life". This was the name given to Daniel by the chief eunuch of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon,[14] as well as to a king of Babylon.[15] Melchior means "The king is my light" in Aramaic. Caspar is a Latinized version of Gondophares, a Parthian (i.e. Persian) name. In free retellings of the Nativity events, the magi are sometimes called "kings" because of prophecies that kings will pay homage to the Messiah.[16] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1750x1750, 1762 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nativity of Jesus Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1750x1750, 1762 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nativity of Jesus Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Balthazar can refer to One of the Three Wise Men A size of wine bottle, equal to 16 standard bottles, or 12 litres A 1909 book by Anatole France A 1958 novel by Lawrence Durrell Balthazar Getty, great grandson of J. Paul Getty Hans Urs von Balthasar - 20th c. ... Melchior can refer to One of the Three Wise Men Malchior, a villain in the Teen Titans animated series. ... The Three Wise Men are given the names Caspar, Melchior, and Balthasar in this late 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of St Apollinarius in Ravenna, Italy. ... Nebuchadnezzar has several meanings: Nebuchadnezzar (also Nebuchadrezzar), the name of several kings of Babylonia: Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, the best known of these kings, who conquered Aram and Israel. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BCE) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy History  - Established 247 BCE  - Disestablished 220 CE Parthia[1] was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of...


The statement that Herod was "frightened"[17] by the magi's words implies that Herod did not know of the presence of the star, (often referred to as the Star of Bethlehem), before the arrival of the magi arrived or was not aware of its significance in heralding the "Messiah". Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). ...

Joseph is warned by an angel in a dream to flee Bethlehem. Rembrandt, 1645
Joseph is warned by an angel in a dream to flee Bethlehem. Rembrandt, 1645

Herod understood the phrase "King of the Jews" as a reference to the Messiah, since he asked his advisors where the Messiah was to be born. They answered Bethlehem, the birthplace of King David, and quoted the prophet Micah.[18] "Go and search diligently for the child; and when you have found him, bring me word so that I may also go and pay him homage," a deceitful Herod told the magi. As the magi traveled to Bethlehem, the star "went before" them and led them to a house where they found Jesus. Thus Jesus was no longer in the stable as described by Luke. He was a child (paidion), not an infant (brephos). But Luke only speaks of shepherds outside of Bethlehem who visit Jesus in the stables, and does not speak of the magi from the east celebrating with him on the day of his birth. The magi presented Jesus with gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh.[19] Image File history File links Joseph's_Dream_in_the_Stable. ... Image File history File links Joseph's_Dream_in_the_Stable. ... This article is about the Dutch artist. ... King of the Jews may refer to: One of several historical kings of the Jewish people; see Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah A title of the Jewish Messiah King Herod the Great, declared King of the Jews by the Roman Senate A title used to refer to Jesus... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... The Book of Micah (Hebrew: ספר מיכה) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, traditionally attributed to Micah the Prophet. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... 100g of Myrrh. ...


In a dream, the magi received a divine warning of Herod's intent to kill the child, whom he saw as a rival. Consequently, they returned to their own country without telling Herod the result of their mission. An angel told Joseph to flee with his family to Egypt. Meanwhile, Herod ordered that all male children of Bethlehem under the age of 2 be killed, the so-called "Massacre of the Innocents". [20] After Herod's death, the holy family settled in Nazareth, fulfilling the prophecy, "He will be called a Nazorean."[21] Here "Nazorean" means both a resident of Nazareth and a "branch," or descendant (of David).[22] The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... Hebrew נָצְרַת (Natzrat) (Standard) Náẓərat Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Name Meaning Ancient word in Hebrew Government City District North Population 64,800[1] (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ...


Gospel of John

The Gospel of John 1:1-14 also gives an account of the coming of Jesus, as one who was with God and who was "the Word of God", (ie. God's communication). This passage is not narrative and does not contain the details of Matthew's or Luke's gospels. However, it is closely associated with the Biblical narratives, and it is this reading, rather than a narrative reading, which is set down as part of the formal Catholic and Anglican liturgy as the "Proper Reading for Christmas Day" and as such, is read in thousands of churches across the world on Christmas morning. The final verse is: For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ...

And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten Son of the Father, full of Grace and truth.[23]

Relationship among the Gospels

Many modern scholars have argued that the Gospels present two very different accounts[24]: the Gospel of Matthew relates the appearance of an angel, in a dream, to Joseph; the wise men from the east; the massacre of the innocents; and the flight to Egypt. The Gospel of Luke mentions none of these but describes the conception and birth of John the Baptist; the appearance of an angel to Mary; the worldwide census; the birth in a manger, and the choir of angels; none of these is mentioned by Matthew.[25] They also emphasise the apparent contradictions between the accounts, which explain the birth in Bethlehem in different ways (Luke says they lived in Nazareth and only moved to Bethlehem briefly for the census, Matthew implies that they lived in Bethlehem and only moved to Nazareth on their return from Egypt;[26]) give two different genealogies of Jesus,[27] and use a contradictory time frame (both accounts places the birth during the reign of Herod the Great, who died in 4BC, but Luke also dates it to the census of 6 AD).[28] As a result, many scholars see the nativity stories either as completely fictional accounts[29], or at least constructed from traditions which predate the Gospels.[30] Raymond Brown, for instance, who observes that "it is unlikely that either account is completely historical",[31] suggests that the account in Matthew is based on an earlier narrative patterned on traditions about the birth of Moses[32]. The Census of Quirinius refers to the enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus when Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was appointed governor of Syria. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


Date of birth

See also: Census of Quirinius, Chronology of Jesus, and Anno Domini

The nativity accounts in the New Testament gospels of Matthew and Luke do not mention a date or time of year for the birth of Jesus. In Western Christianity, it has been traditionally celebrated on December 25 as Christmas (in the liturgical season of Christmastide), a date that can be traced as early as 330 among Roman Christians. Before then, and still today in Eastern Christianity, Jesus' birth was generally celebrated on January 6 as part of the feast of Theophany,[33] also known as Epiphany, which commemorated not only Jesus' birth but also his baptism by John in the Jordan River and possibly additional events in Jesus' life. Some scholars have speculated that the date of the celebration was moved by in an attempt to replace the Roman festival of Saturnalia.[34] Some scholars note that Luke's descriptions of shepherds' activities at the time of Jesus' birth suggest a spring or summer date.[35] The theory that December 25 was the birthdate of Jesus was popularized by Sextus Julius Africanus in Chronographiai (AD 221). The Census of Quirinius refers to the enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus when Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was appointed governor of Syria. ... The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). ... AD redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... The month of October from a liturgical calendar for Abbotsbury Abbey. ... Christmastide (also Christmas or the Christmas season) is one of the seasons of the liturgical year of some Christian churches. ... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up theophany in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Christian feast. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... St. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... For other uses, see Saturnalia (disambiguation). ... Sextus Julius Africanus, a Christian traveller and historian of the 3rd century, was probably born in Libya, and may have served under Septimius Severus against the Osrhoenians in AD 195. ...


Both Luke and Matthew place Jesus' birth under the reign of Herod the Great. Herod’s death occurred after an eclipse that is usually dated to 13 March 4 B.C. Matthew also recorded that Herod had all the male children in Bethlehem two years old and younger executed (Matthew 2:16, see Slaughter of the Innocents), based on a prophecy relayed to him by the magi that a new King of the Jews had been born in the town. The order's instruction of "two and under", along with the inference that it took Herod time to realize that the magi were not about to deliver the child to him, implies a birth no later than 6-4 B.C. Luke also described the birth as occurring during the census of Quirinius. However, Josephus, a Romano-Jewish historian, dates this event in 4 A. D. Though most scholars consider Luke to be mistaken, some have attempted to reconcile his account with the details given by Josephus [36] — see Census of Quirinius. Herod the Great. ... The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ... King of the Jews may refer to: One of several historical kings of the Jewish people; see Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah A title of the Jewish Messiah King Herod the Great, declared King of the Jews by the Roman Senate A title used to refer to Jesus... Publius Sulpicius Quirinius (rendered in Greek Κυρήνιος Kyrenios, sometimes Grecized as Cyrenius, c. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... The Census of Quirinius refers to the enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus when Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was appointed governor of Syria. ...


Location

Grotto of the Nativity in the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem — where it is believed Jesus was born.

Both Matthew and Luke stated that Jesus was born in Bethlehem (Matthew 2:1, Luke 2:4). According to Luke, Joseph and Mary had traveled to the town of Joseph’s ancestors, the town of David (Bethlehem), due to the aforementioned census. Luke also stated the Mary gave birth to Jesus in a manger “because there was no place for them in the inn (έν τωι καταλύματι).” The Greek word “καταλυμα” may be translated as either “inn” or “guestroom”, and some scholars have speculated that Joseph and Mary may have sought to stay with relatives, rather than in an inn, only to find the house full (whereupon they resorted to the shelter of a room with a manger).[37] Although the manger is usually depicted as taking place in a man-made free standing structure, many biblical scholars conjecture that the manger was probably positioned in a cave carved in the side of a hill - as this was the typical location of stables in classical Palestine.[citation needed] In the second century, both the Protoevangelium of James and Justin Martyr stated specifically that Jesus had been born in a cave.[38] The Church of the Nativity, built by St. Helena, contains the cave-manger site traditionally venerated as the birthplace of Jesus. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixels Full resolution (1760 × 1168 pixel, file size: 327 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) John Bennett, 01/17/2001 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixels Full resolution (1760 × 1168 pixel, file size: 327 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) John Bennett, 01/17/2001 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... Arabic بيت لحم Name Meaning House of Lambs Government City (from 1995) Also Spelled Beit Lahm (officially) Bayt Lahm (unofficially) Governorate Bethlehem Population 29,930 (2006) Jurisdiction 29,799 dunams (29. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... The Gospel of James, also sometimes known as the Infancy Gospel of James or the Protevangelium of James, is an apocryphal Gospel probably written about AD 150. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ...


Paternity

In first century Judea, betrothal was a binding contract that might take place while the couple, and in particular the girl, was pre-pubescent. The contract was for life, but under some circumstances could be broken by a formal divorce. After the ceremony of betrothal, the young bride would remain in their father's house for a year or more until she had reached sufficient maturity. At this time the husband would take the bride into his own home, accompanied by public celebration. Betrothal is a formal state of engagement to be married. ...

A medieval depiction of the betrothal of Mary and Joseph from the Nuremberg Chronicle.
A medieval depiction of the betrothal of Mary and Joseph from the Nuremberg Chronicle.

Mary, although formally betrothed and therefore contracted to Joseph, became pregnant "before they came together", which could be interpreted as either before they had sexual intercourse together or before they lived together as husband and wife. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1470x1800, 1180 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1470x1800, 1180 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Page depicting Constantinople with added hand-colouring The Nuremberg Chronicle, written in Latin and German versions by Hartmann Schedel, is one of the best documented early printed books and, appearing in 1493, is an incunabulum. ...


That Mary was a virgin at the time of the conception of Jesus is indicated by her statement recorded in Luke's Gospel 1:34, when she responds to the news of the impending birth with the words "How shall this be, as I know not a man?" The theology of most Christian Churches accepts the virgin birth on this statement. Matthew's gospel indicates that Mary and Joseph did not have sex until after Jesus was born, the passage stating that he took her into his home "but knew her not until after she had brought forth her first-born son."[39] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


This verse is generally accepted by Protestants as implying only that Mary and Joseph did not have sex until after Jesus was born. Other denominations, in particular the Roman Catholic Church, argue that the passage is less explicit in the Greek and indicates that Joseph never had sex with Mary, supporting the belief in the perpetual virginity of Mary. David Hill, a Presbyterian, acknowledges that the wording does not absolutely deny perpetual virginity, but argues that had been the belief during the 1st century, then Matthew would have stated it. The Genealogy of Jesus as detailed in both Matthew and Luke's Gosples are traced to Joseph, in each case indicating him as a surrogate father. However the genealogy in the oldest surviving copy of the old syriac version of the Gospel of Matthew - the Sinaitic Palimpsest - is often interpreted as indicating that Joseph was the father of Jesus. Catholic Church redirects here. ... The perpetual virginity of Mary is a doctrine of faith of Roman and Eastern Orthodox Catholic Christianity, as well of Islam, stating that Mary, the mother of Jesus, remained an actual virgin, implying both virginal disposition and physical integrity, before, during, and after the birth of Jesus, and thus is... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Lukes genealogy of Jesus, from the Book of Kells transcribed by Celtic monks circa 800 The genealogy of Jesus through either one or both of his earthly parents (Mary and Joseph) is given by two passages from the Gospels, Matthew 1:2–16 and Luke 3:23–38. ... The Sinaitic Palimpsest of Saint Catherines Monastery, Mount Sinai is a late 4th century manuscript of the four canonical gospels of the New Testament. ...


Joseph's attitude

The exact meaning of Matthew's description of Joseph as a "just man" is much discussed; the Greek term is dikaios, and it has variously been translated as just, righteous, upright, and of good character. Most of the ancient commentators of the Bible interpreted it as meaning that Joseph was law abiding, and as such decided to divorce Mary in keeping with Mosaic Law when he found her pregnant by another, but, tempering righteousness by mercy, he kept the affair private.[citation needed] Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... For other uses, see Mercy (disambiguation). ...

Philippe de Champaigne's The Dream of Saint Joseph painted around 1636
Philippe de Champaigne's The Dream of Saint Joseph painted around 1636

A second view, first put forward by Clement of Alexandria, and held by most modern Christians is that Joseph's righteousness is his mercy itself, with the decision to ensure Mary was not shamed being proof of his righteousness rather than an exception to it.[citation needed] A third view is based on the idea that Joseph already knew the origin of Mary's pregnancy, which is more in keeping with the Gospel of Luke, leading to the view that Joseph's righteousness is pious acceptance of Mary's story.[citation needed] Image File history File links The_Dream_of_Saint_Joseph. ... Image File history File links The_Dream_of_Saint_Joseph. ... Ex Voto (1662) by Philippe de Champaigne Philippe de Champaigne (26 May 1602 - 12 August 1674) was a Baroque era painter of the French school. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ...


Joseph's original intent, though, was to divorce Mary once he had discovered her pregnancy, though some scholars and most older translations have expressed this more euphemistically since Joseph, a man having just been described as righteous, undergoing divorce would imply that divorce was righteous. Especially in the nineteenth century a number of scholars[citation needed] tried to read alternate meanings into the term, with one proposal being that it merely meant that the couple would split while legally remaining married. However recent discoveries have found that legal avenues for divorce certainly existed at the time in question. One of the clearest pieces of evidence is a divorce record from 111, entirely coincidentally between a couple named Mary and Joseph, which was found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.[citation needed] The Greek word here translated as divorce is aphiemi, and the only other time it appears is in 1 Corinthians[40] where Paul uses it to describe the legal separation of a man and wife, and thus almost all modern translators today feel that divorce is what is being described, although doctrinal reasons cause some to use other wording. Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... This article is about the year 111. ... The Dead Sea Scrolls comprise roughly 900 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West Bank. ... (Redirected from 1 Corinthians) See also: Second Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ...

Guido Reni's Joseph with the Infant Jesus, about 1635.
Guido Reni's Joseph with the Infant Jesus, about 1635.

Rabbinic law[citation needed]from the period allows two different options for divorce that is due to adultery: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (651x800, 86 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (651x800, 86 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Autoportrait Abduction of Deianira, 1620-21 Guido Reni (November 4, 1575, Calvenzano di Vergato, near Bologna - August 18, 1642, Bologna) was a prominent Italian painter of high-Baroque style. ...

  • Bring the matter to the village council, which would hold a hearing and, if the allegations were proved, grant a divorce.
  • Have the evidence presented and approved by two witnesses who would then certify the divorce (Gundry argues that the witnesses were necessary mainly to prevent a woman denying that the divorce had actually taken place.).

Joseph is explained as choosing to put Mary away privately rather than publicly divorce her, which most scholars believe means that Joseph had taken the second of the two divorce options. Robert Horton Gundry is a noted Biblical scholar. ...


In the first of several dream sequences in Matthew, an angel visits Joseph to dissuade him, and explain what has happened. The angel is described in a manner much more like early Jewish descriptions, as in the pentateuch, merely as a pure functionary with no individuality, unlike the more esoteric descriptions that arose nearer Matthew's own time, under Hellenic influence, such as described in the Book of Enoch. Joseph carries out the angel's instructions exactly, rather than arguing with them, which appears to be a common theme in the Gospel - rapid and unquestioning obedience is treated by Matthew as an important virtue. This article is about the supernatural being. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Matthew does not describe how Mary came to be pregnant, which Schweizer thinks implies that Matthew's audience were already well aware of the story of the Virgin Birth - there were several virgin birth stories in the Jewish tradition and so the idea of virgin births was generally accepted by the population. Matthew mentions the paternity of the Holy Ghost very quickly, even before any of the characters in his narrative are aware of this fact, which Brown argues is because Matthew does not want the reader to ever consider alternate scenarios as to how Mary could have become pregnant. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ...


Visitors

The Nativity by Caravaggio, 1609. The angel’s parchment reads “Gloria in Excelsis Deo (Luke 2:14)”.
The Nativity by Caravaggio, 1609. The angel’s parchment reads “Gloria in Excelsis Deo (Luke 2:14)”.


The Magi bear gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Though wise men or kings is the traditional understanding, the Bible actually refers to magoi. Three is a traditional number, derived from the three gifts. Furthermore, the Bible describes the men as having arrived about two years after the birth of Jesus to inquire of Herod. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 436 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2024 × 2785 pixel, file size: 334 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nativity of Jesus Nativity with... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 436 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2024 × 2785 pixel, file size: 334 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nativity of Jesus Nativity with... For other uses, see Caravaggio (disambiguation). ... Gloria in Excelsis Deo (Latin for Glory to God in the highest) is the title and beginning of the Great Doxology used in the Roman Catholic Mass, Divine Service of the Lutheran Church and in the services of many other [1] Christian churches. ... Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... 100g of Myrrh. ...


The men were said to be following a mysterious star, commonly known as the Star of Bethlehem, that had suddenly appeared in the sky, believing it to be the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy of the coming of the Messiah, or king of the Jews. Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ...


On the other hand, Luke's account does not mention the Magi, instead having Jesus being visited by local shepherds, who had been informed in the night by an angel (herald) who said "Don't be afraid, for behold, I bring you good news of great joy which will be to all the people, for there is born to you, this day, in the city of David, a Savior, who is Christ the Lord. This is the sign to you: you will find a baby wrapped in swaddling clothes (strips of cloth), lying in a manger (feeding trough)." After this an innumerable company of angels appeared with the herald saying "Glory to God in the highest, on earth peace, good will toward men." The shepherds went quickly to Bethlehem, finding the sign to be as the angel foretold, and subsequently publicised what they had witnessed throughout the area. Anbetung der Hirten (Adoration of the Shepherds) by Carlo Crivelli (1490) The Adoration of the shepherds, in Christian iconography, is a scene in which shepherds are near witnesses to the birth of Jesus, at his birthplace, typically depicted as a barn, near Bethlehem. ...


Emmanuel

In Matthew "an angel of the Lord" appears to Mary's betrothed husband Joseph in a dream and tells him: "she will bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins". The text continues with the comment: "All this happened to fulfil what the Lord had spoken by the prophet: 'Behold the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emmanuel, which being interpreted is God with us'".[41]. Some 5-6th century manuscripts of the Gospel according to Matthew read "Isaiah the prophet" instead of merely "the prophet" (e.g. D, but as it does not have the support of other important witnesses (see Nestle26), its motives require very careful consideration outside the competence of non-text critics). The Gospel of Matthew is one of the four Gospels of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Matthew is one of the four Gospels of the New Testament. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ...

An angel announces the birth of Jesus to Mary. Fra Angelico, early 15th century
An angel announces the birth of Jesus to Mary. Fra Angelico, early 15th century

Rather than using the Masoretic text which forms the basis of most modern Christian Old Testament translations, Matthew's quotation is taken from the Septuagint. The verb кαλεω kaleō (to call) is used by both Isaiah and Gabriel; but whilst the former employs the third person plural (they shall call), the latter has the second person singular you shall call. Gabriel himself therefore is not applying Isaiah's prophecy to Joseph, but his purpose is to invite him to assume legal paternity of the son to be born of Mary by naming him. It is the following comment that explains Mary's conception by the Holy Spirit, Joseph's vocation as the child's legal father, and the child's own vocation as the Saviour of his people as indicated by the name Jesus, in the light of Isaiah's prophecy that henceforth "God is with us". Howewer, this understanding of this passage tends to be regarded as Christian apologetics, because almost all Jewish sources are certain that "Immanuel" was intended as a name, not a mere title.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3200x2234, 728 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fra Angelico Mary (mother of Jesus) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3200x2234, 728 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fra Angelico Mary (mother of Jesus) ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... The Gospel of Matthew is one of the four Gospels of the New Testament. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the...


Scholars have other concerns with Matthew's reference to Isaiah. France,[citation needed] for instance, believes that it is far more likely that Isaiah is referring to the far more immediate future, particularly as the text can be considered to be past tense - implying that the saviour in question was already conceived when Isaiah was writing. Matthew also appears to have adjusted the meaning slightly, but in a significant way -although Matthew uses the Greek term parthenos, usually translated virgin, Isaiah uses the Hebrew word almah, which more accurately translates as young woman.[citation needed] The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. ...


The purpose of the quotation is better understood by looking at the context in which it is used in Isaiah. Isaiah is in the process of promising that God can save Israel from the immediate threat of the Assyrians, but that if the Jews continue to sin, the Assyrian empire will be the instrument of God's vengeance. Hence, in the eyes of scholars such as Carter, Matthew is using the situation as an allegory for the time in which he was writing; if followed, Immanuel would lead to salvation from the Roman empire, but if rebuffed, Rome will be the instrument of punishment against the Jewish people.[citation needed] It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Nativity

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Anbetung der Hirten (Adoration of the Shepherds) by Carlo Crivelli (1490) The Adoration of the shepherds, in Christian iconography, is a scene in which shepherds are near witnesses to the birth of Jesus, at his birthplace, typically depicted as a barn, near Bethlehem. ... Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ... A traditional nativity scene from Naples, Italy A nativity scene, also called a crib or crèche (meaning crib or manger in French) generally refers to any depiction of the birth or birthplace of Jesus. ...

References

  1. ^ Brown, R., et al. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, 1990.
  2. ^ Luke 1:34, 2:4-5, Matt 1:18-19
  3. ^ Geza Vermes, The Nativity: History and Legend, London, Penguin, 2006, p22
  4. ^ E. P. Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, 1993, p.85
  5. ^ Luke 1:31-38
  6. ^ Luke 2:1-7
  7. ^ Luke 2:10-14.
  8. ^ The variant readings reflect the use of different Greek manuscripts.
  9. ^ Luke 2:16-20
  10. ^ KJV reads, "star in the East".
  11. ^ Matthew 2:1-4.
  12. ^ Daniel 2:48.
  13. ^ Daniel 9:24-27. Daniel was considered "one of the greatest prophets" because "he did not only prophecy future events, like the other prophets, but specified the time of their accomplishment". (Josephus, Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews 10.11.7).
  14. ^ Daniel 1:7. Josephus, Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, 10.189
  15. ^ Daniel 5:1
  16. ^ Isaiah 60:3 and Psalms 72:11.
  17. ^ Matthew 2:3
  18. ^ Matthew 2:4-6. The Old Testament prophecy can be found at Micah 5:2-4.
  19. ^ Matthew 2:8-11. These gifts are mentioned in the Septuagint, the Koine Greek version of the Old Testament. (Isaiah 60:1-7).
  20. ^ Matthew 2:12-16
  21. ^ Matthew 2:23. NRSV. KJV reads "He shall be called a Nazarene." This prophecy is a free reading of Isaiah 11:1, with the Hebrew word for "branch" read as Nazōraios (Nazorean) in Greek.
  22. ^ Miller, Fred P., "Isaiah's Use of the word 'Branch' or Nazarene".
  23. ^ John 1:14.
  24. ^ Raymond E. Brown, The Birth of the Messiah, Anchor Bible (1999), page 36.
  25. ^ Richard G. Watts, John Dominic Crossan, Who Is Jesus?: Answers to Your Questions about the Historical Jesus, pages 11-12.
  26. ^ Geza Vermes, The Nativity: History and Legend, London, Penguin, 2006, page 64.
  27. ^ Tom Wright, Luke for Everyone, page 39
  28. ^ Geza Vermes, The Nativity: History and Legend, London, Penguin, 2006, page 96.
  29. ^ E. P. Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, 1993, p.85; Geza Vermes, The Nativity: History and Legend, London, Penguin, 2006, p22
  30. ^ Larry W. Hurtado, Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity, page 319.
  31. ^ Raymond E. Brown, The Birth of the Messiah, page 36.
  32. ^ Raymond E. Brown, The Birth of the Messiah, page 104-121.
  33. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch and Geoffrey William Bromiley, The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Grand Rapids, Mich.; Leiden, Netherlands: Wm. B. Eerdmans; Brill, 1999–2003, 1:454–55
  34. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch and Geoffrey William Bromiley, The Encyclopedia of Christianity [Grand Rapids, Mich.; Leiden, Netherlands: Wm. B. Eerdmans; Brill, 1999–2003], 1:454–55
  35. ^ Porterm J. R. Jesus Christ: The Jesus of History, the Christ of Faith. Oxford University Press, 1999. Pg. 70 ISBN 0-19-521429-3
  36. ^ Géza Vermes, The Nativity: History and Legend, London, Penguin 2006, p19
  37. ^ Jesus' Birth The Bible uses the word "καταλυμα" (kataluma) which is generally translated as "inn" but the Bible uses this word twice and with the second usage describes a kataluma as: "a large furnished upper story room within a private house". Later Luke 10:34 mentions an actual inn but uses the word "pandocheion" not "kataluma" indicating he meant different buildings. Many Christian scholars accept Jesus was placed in a manger, as homes in that period commonly had mangers built inside them for animals kept indoors (a carved stone trough rather than the wooden one often depicted), and that Joseph and Mary stayed in a ground floor room in a private house owned by relatives as the upper rooms normally offered to guests were occupied.
  38. ^ Protoevangelium 18; Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho; cf. Origen, Contra Celsum 1.2.
  39. ^ Matthew 1:25
  40. ^ 1 Corinthians 7:11
  41. ^ Matthew 1:23. Compare to Isaiah 7:14.

Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Antiquities of the Jews (Antiquitates Judaicae in Latin) was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus about 93-94 (cf. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Contra Celsus, or (probably better Latin) Contra Celsum, is the title of a major work by the Church Father Origenes, refutating the anti-christian writings of Celsus the Platonist. ...

Further reading

  • Albright, W.F. and C.S. Mann. "Matthew." The Anchor Bible Series. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1971.
  • Brown, Raymond E. The Birth of the Messiah: A Commentary on the Infancy Narratives in Matthew and Luke. London: G. Chapman, 1977.
  • Calkins, Robert G. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1983.
  • Carter, Warren. Matthew and Empire. Harrisburg: Trinity Press International, 2001.
  • France, R.T. The Gospel According to Matthew: an Introduction and Commentary. Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1985.
  • Gundry, Robert H. Matthew a Commentary on his Literary and Theological Art. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982.
  • Gundry, Robert H. "Salvation in Matthew." Society of Biblical Literature - 2000 Seminar Papers. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2000.
  • Hill, David. The Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981
  • Jones, Alexander. The Gospel According to St. Matthew. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1965.
  • Levine, Amy-Jill. "Matthew." Women's Bible Commentary. Carol A. Newsom and Sharon H. Ringe, eds. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1998.
  • Schaberg, Jane. Illegitimacy of Jesus: A Feminist Theological Interpretation of the Infancy Narratives (Biblical Seminar Series, No 28) Sheffield Academic Press (March 1995) ISBN 1-85075-533-7
  • Schweizer, Eduard. The Good News According to Matthew. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975
  • Vermes, Geza "The Nativity: History and Legend". Penguin (2006) ISBN 0-14-102446-1

William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 - September 19/20, 1971) was an evangelical Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ... The Anchor Bible Series is a scholarly and commercial co-venture that has been setting a high standard since the early 1960s, when individual volumes of the series began publication. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... Robert Horton Gundry is a noted Biblical scholar. ... Eduard Schweizer was a Swiss New Testament scholar who taught at the University of Zurich for an extended period. ... Geza Vermes (born 22 June 1924) is a Jewish scholar and writer on religious history, particularly Jewish and Christian. ...

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Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... A traditional nativity scene from Naples, Italy A nativity scene, also called a crib or crèche (meaning crib or manger in French) generally refers to any depiction of the birth or birthplace of Jesus. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Virgin Mary redirects here. ... For other uses, see Saint Joseph (disambiguation). ... This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ... Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ... Anbetung der Hirten (Adoration of the Shepherds) by Carlo Crivelli (1490) The Adoration of the shepherds, in Christian iconography, is a scene in which shepherds are near witnesses to the birth of Jesus, at his birthplace, typically depicted as a barn, near Bethlehem. ... Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). ... Herod the Great. ... The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... For other uses, see Nicholas. ... Twelfth Night is a holiday in some branches of Christianity marking the coming of the Epiphany, concluding the Twelve Days of Christmas, and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as the evening of the fifth of January, preceding Twelfth Day, the eve of the Epiphany, formerly the last day... The Wise Men (Magi) adoring the infant Jesus. ... μ This article is about the Christian season. ... Christmastide (also Christmas or the Christmas season) is one of the seasons of the liturgical year of some Christian churches. ... 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