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Encyclopedia > Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans
and Alaska Natives





Total population

American Indian and Alaska Native
One race: 2.5 million[1]
In combination with one or more other races: 1.6 million[2] For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of the Americas native to the state of Alaska within the United States. ... Picture of Ira Hayes from http://hqinet001. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,000 × 1,509 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 552 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1270 × 1378 pixel, file size: 563 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From Mathew Brady collection at http://narademo. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (612x812, 69 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Colbert. ... Image File history File links Making_Frybread. ... NASA pic, from http://www. ... Image File history File links Joseph Brant painted by Gilbert Stuart in 1786 Oil on canvas 23. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 439 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (607 × 828 pixel, file size: 72 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Comanche child. ... Download high resolution version (500x720, 58 KB)Picture of Sequoyah from the danish Wikipedia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Chief Joseph (19th century photograph) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Jim_Thorpe_olympic. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (720x1024, 109 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Native Americans in the United States ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 420 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (449 × 640 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) TITLE: Kings Island [i. ... Image File history File links Massika_and_Wakusasse. ... Image File history File links Little_Coyote_and_Morning_Star. ... Image File history File links Pehriska-Ruhpa of the Dog Band of the Hidatsa tribe of Native Americans Illustration by Karl Bodmer for Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwieds Reise in das innere Nord-America in den Jahren 1832 bis 1834. (Travels in the interior of North America in the Years... Image File history File links Narragansett. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 462 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (940 × 1220 pixel, file size: 172 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of the United States United States
(predominantly the West and South)
Languages
American English
Native American languages
Religion
Native American Church
Protestant
Sacred Pipe
Kiva Religion
Long House
Roman Catholic
Russian Orthodox
Related ethnic groups
Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. They comprise a large number of distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as intact political communities. There has been a wide range of terms used to describe them and no consensus has been reached among indigenous members as to what they prefer. They have been known as American Indians, Indians, Amerindians, Amerinds, or Indigenous, Aboriginal, First Americans, Original Americans, or Red men. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Historic Southern United States. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... Native American Church Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... The term indigenous peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... North American redirects here. ... The continental United States is a term referring to the United States situated on the North American continent. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... // Classification of Native Americans: United States and Canada Ethnographers commonly classify the native peoples of the United States and Canada into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits (called cultural areas). ... The tribal belt of north-west India includes the states of Rajasthan, Ghujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


Not all Native Americans reside in the contiguous 48 states. Some live in Alaska or insular regions. These other indigenous peoples, including Alaskan Native groups such as the Inupiaq, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not always counted as Native Americans. The Census 2000 demographics listed "American Indian and Alaskan Native" collectively. Native Hawaiians and various other Pacific Islander American peoples, such as the Chamorros (Chamoru) of Guam, can also be considered Native American in a broad sense but such a designation is not commonly made.[3] An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... Alaskan Natives are Aboriginal Americans who live in Alaska. ... The Inupiat or Iñupiaq are the Inuit people of Alaskas Northwest Arctic and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Straits region. ... The Yupik or, in the Central Alaskan language, Yupik, are indigenous or aboriginal peoples who live along the coast of western Alaska, especially on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta and along the Kuskokwim River (Central Alaskan Yupik), in southern Alaska (the Alutiiq) and in the Russian Far East and St. ... Languages English, Russian, Aleut Religions Christianity, Shamanism Related ethnic groups Inuit, Yupik The Aleuts (self-denomination: , Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Native Hawaiians (in Hawaiian, kānaka ōiwi or kānaka maoli) are member[s] or descendant[s] of the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands.[2] Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the first Marquesan and Tahitian settlers of Hawaii (possibly as early as AD 400), before the... // Demographics in 2000 US Census Pacific Islander Americans represent the smallest group counted on the 2000 US Census. ... Depiction of latte stone colonnades on the island of Tinian. ...


Most of the historical record is about Native Americans and their contact with Europeans in the continental 48 United States. The first known major contact with Native Americans in what is now known as the United States occurred in the early 1500s when Conquistadors Ponce de León and Hernando de Soto ventured into the area now referred to as the American Deep South. Juan Ponce de León (1460 – July 1521[1][2]) was a Spanish conquistador. ... For the Peruvian economist, see Hernando de Soto (economist). ... The states in dark red comprise the Deep South. ...


The earliest recorded date of Native Americans becoming U.S. citizens was in 1831. When the Mississippi Choctaw became citizens after the ratification of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. They were the first non-European racial minority group to become citizens of the United States. However, it wasn't until The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, that full U.S. citizenship was granted to America's indigenous peoples, called "Indians" in this Act. (The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees citizenship to persons born in the U.S.) For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was a treaty signed on September 27, 1830 (and proclaimed on 24 February 1831) between the Choctaws (an American Indian tribe) and the United States. ... This article is about the concept of a minority. ...

Contents

History

The European colonization of the Americas nearly obliterated the populations and cultures of the Native Americans. From the 16th through the 19th centuries, the population of Native Americans in what became the United States suffered in the following ways: epidemic diseases brought from Europe, violence[4] and possible genocide[5] at the hands of European explorers and colonists, displacement from their lands, internal warfare[6], enslavement, and a high rate of intermarriage.[7][8] Most mainstream scholars believe that, among the various contributing factors, epidemic disease was the overwhelming cause of the population decline of the American natives because of their lack of immunity to new diseases brought from Europe.[9][10][11] For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people, as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or... Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... -1... This is a list of major epidemics. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ...


Initial impacts of Europeans

Alfred L. Kroeber with Ishi in 1911. Ishi is believed to be the last Native American in Northern California to have lived the bulk of his life completely outside the European American culture.
Alfred L. Kroeber with Ishi in 1911. Ishi is believed to be the last Native American in Northern California to have lived the bulk of his life completely outside the European American culture.[12]

European explorers and settlers brought infectious diseases to North America against which the Native Americans had no natural immunity. Chicken pox and measles, though common and rarely fatal among Europeans, often proved deadly to Native Americans. Smallpox proved particularly deadly to Native American populations.[13] Epidemics often immediately followed European exploration and sometimes destroyed entire village populations. While precise figures are difficult to determine, some historians estimate that up to 80% of some Native populations died due to European diseases after first contact.[14] Image File history File links Ishi. ... Image File history File links Ishi. ... Ishi in 1914 Ishi (c. ... Northern California, sometimes referred to as NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Immunity is a medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... Chicken pox, also spelled chickenpox, is a common childhood disease caused by the varicella_zoster virus (VZV), also known as human herpes virus 3 (HHV_3), one of the eight herpesviruses known to affect humans. ... This article is about the disease. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Natives of North America. ...


In 1618–1619, smallpox wiped out 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans.[15] Historians believe Mohawk Indians were infected after contact with children of Dutch traders in Albany in 1634. The disease swept through Mohawk villages, reaching Native Americans at Lake Ontario in 1636, and the lands of the Iroquois by 1679, as it was carried by Mohawks and other Indians who traveled the trading routes.[16] The high rate of fatalities caused breakdowns in Native American societies and disrupted generational exchanges of culture. Map of Massachusetts Bay. ... Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, USA, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ...


Similarly, after European direct contact by explorers on the Northwest Coast in the 1770s, smallpox rapidly killed at least 30% of the Northwest Coast Native Americans in the Puget Sound area. For the next 80 to 100 years, the disease swept through their populations, reducing the number of Native Americans to only 9,000 survivors before the first European settlers arrived in the mid-19th century in the Puget Sound area.[17] Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Puget Sound For the university in this region, see University of Puget Sound. ...


Smallpox epidemics in 1780–1782 and 1837–1838 brought devastation and drastic depopulation among the Plains Indians.[18][19] By 1832, the federal government established a smallpox vaccination program for Native Americans (The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832). It was the first program created to address a health problem of American Indians.[20][21] The three chiefs--Piegan, by Edward S. Curtis The Plains Indians are the Indians who lived on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. ... Smallpox vaccine being administered. ...


In the sixteenth century Spaniards and other Europeans brought horses to the Americas. The reintroduction of horses resulted in benefits to Native Americans. As they adopted the animals, they began to change their cultures in substantial ways, especially by extending their ranges. Some of the horses escaped and began to breed and increase their numbers in the wild. Horses had originated naturally in North America and migrated westward via the Bering Land Bridge to Asia. The early American horse was game for the earliest humans and was hunted to extinction about 7,000 BC, just after the end of the last Ice Age. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Nautical chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at... Binomial name Gidley, 1900 Equus scotti is an extinct horse species that was native to North America. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


The re-introduction of the horse to North America had a profound impact on Native American culture of the Great Plains. The tribes trained and used the horses to ride and to carry packs or pull travois, to expand their territories markedly, more easily exchange goods with neighboring tribes, and more easily hunt game. They fully incorporated the use of horses into their societies, including using the horses to conduct warring raids. For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). ...


American Revolution

A section of Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe; West's depiction of this Native American has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the "Noble savage" (Fryd, 75)
A section of Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe; West's depiction of this Native American has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the "Noble savage" (Fryd, 75)

During the American Revolution, the newly proclaimed United States competed with the British for the allegiance of Native American nations east of the Mississippi River. Most Native Americans who joined the struggle sided with the British, hoping to use the American Revolutionary War to halt further colonial expansion onto Native American land. Many native communities were divided over which side to support in the war. The first native community to sign a treaty with the new United States Government was the Lenape. For the Iroquois Confederacy, the American Revolution resulted in civil war. Cherokees split into a neutral (or pro-American) faction and the anti-American Chickamaugas, led by Dragging Canoe. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (603x699, 105 KB) Summary Cropped version of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (603x699, 105 KB) Summary Cropped version of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe. ... Self Portrait of Benjamin West, ca. ... The Death of General Wolfe is a well-known 1770 painting by artist Benjamin West depicting the final moments of General James Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham during the 1759 Battle of Quebec. ... A detail from Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests idealised depiction of this American Indian is in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the eighteenth-century cult of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization, was considered more worthy, more... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... This article is about military actions only. ... The Treaty of Fort Pitt, or the Treaty With the Delawares, was the first treaty signed by the new United States of America on September 17, 1778, with the Delaware Indians. ... For the language, see Lenape language. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... Alternate meanings: Cherokee (disambiguation) The Cherokee are a people native to North America who first inhabited what is now the eastern and southeastern United States before most were forcefully moved to the Ozark Plateau. ... Chickamauga, or Chickamauga-Cherokee, was a term used by colonial and early Americans to differentiate between the pro-British Cherokee led by Dragging Canoe, and those abiding by the peace treaties signed in 1777 at DeWitts Corner with Georgia and South Carolina and at Fort Henry with Virginia and... Dragging Canoe (1730? – 1792) was an American Indian war leader who led a dissident band of young Cherokees against the United States in the American Revolutionary War. ...


Frontier warfare during the American Revolution was particularly brutal, and numerous atrocities were committed by settlers and native tribes alike. Noncombatants suffered greatly during the war. Military expeditions on each side destroyed villages and food supplies to reduce the ability of people to fight, as in frequent raids in the Mohawk Valley and western New York. [22] The largest of these expeditions was the Sullivan Expedition of 1779, in which American troops destroyed more than 40 Iroquois villages to neutralize Iroquois raids in upstate New York. The expedition failed to have the desired effect: Native American activity became even more determined. // Background Among the Acts of Parliament denounced by the Patriots as Intolerable Acts were the Proclamation of 1763, which forbade Anglo-American settlement west of the Appalachians; and the Quebec Act of 1774, which made provision for the extension of Québecs borders to the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. ... The Sullivan Expedition, also known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, was a campaign led by Major General John Sullivan and General James Clinton against Loyalists (Tories) and the four nations of the Iroquois who had sided with the British in the American Revolutionary War. ... The areas highlighted in YELLOW and GREEN are those which are considered to be a bona fide part of Upstate New York from the perspective of New York City. ...


The British made peace with the Americans in the Treaty of Paris (1783), through which they ceded vast Native American territories to the United States without informing the Native Americans. The United States initially treated the Native Americans who had fought with the British as a conquered people who had lost their lands. Although many of the Iroquois tribes went to Canada with the Loyalists, others tried to stay in New York and western territories and tried to maintain their lands. Nonetheless, the state of New York made a separate treaty with Iroquois and put up for sale 5,000,000 acres (20,000 km²) of land that had previously been their territory. The state established a reservation near Syracuse for the Onondagas who had been allies of the colonists. Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ...


The United States was eager to expand, to develop farming and settlements in new areas, and to satisfy land hunger of settlers from New England and new immigrants. The national government initially sought to purchase Native American land by treaties. The states and settlers were frequently at odds with this policy.[23] This is a list of treaties to which the United States has been a party or which have had direct relevance to U.S. history. ...


Removal, reservations, and forced assimilation

Shoshoni tipis, c.1900.
Shoshoni tipis, c.1900.
See also: List of Indian reservations in the United States

In the nineteenth century, the incessant westward expansion of the United States incrementally compelled large numbers of Native Americans to resettle further west, often by force, almost always reluctantly. Under President Andrew Jackson, United States Congress passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which authorized the President to conduct treaties to exchange Native American land east of the Mississippi River for lands west of the river. As many as 100,000 Native Americans eventually relocated in the West as a result of this Indian Removal policy. In theory, relocation was supposed to be voluntary and many Native Americans did remain in the East such as the Choctaw who were first to be removed. In practice great pressure was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties. Download high resolution version (887x589, 79 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (887x589, 79 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Shoshone is a Native American language. ... BIA map of Indian reservations in the continental United States. ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Indian Removal Act, part of a U.S. government policy known as Indian Removal, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ...


The most egregious violation of the stated intention of the removal policy took place under the Treaty of New Echota, which was signed by a dissident faction of Cherokees but not the elected leadership. President Jackson rigidly enforced the treaty, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees on the Trail of Tears. About 17,000 Cherokees — along with approximately 2,000 black slaves held by Cherokees — were removed from their homes.[24] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This page contains special characters. ... For other uses, see Trail of Tears (disambiguation). ...

A Choctaw Belle (1850)
A Choctaw Belle (1850)

Indian Removal forced or coerced the relocation of major Native American groups in the Eastern United States, resulting directly and indirectly in the deaths of tens of thousands. The subsequent process of assimilations was no less devastating to Native American peoples. Tribes were generally located to reservations on which they could more easily be separated from traditional life and pushed into European-American society. Some southern states additionally enacted laws in the 19th century forbidding non-Indian settlement on Indian lands, with the intention to prevent sympathetic white missionaries from aiding the scattered Indian resistance.[25] For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... Red shows states east of the Mississippi River, pink shows states not fully eastern or western The U.S. Eastern states are the states east of the Mississippi River. ...

Little Turtle, defeated American forces at the Battle of the Wabash in 1791.
Little Turtle, defeated American forces at the Battle of the Wabash in 1791.

From overhunting due to trophy hunters and people's hunting from trains, by 1885 there were fewer than 500 bison left in the Great Plains. The loss of the traditional source for food and clothing adversely affected Plains Indians.[26] Michikinikwa (Little Turtle) (1752-July 14, 1812) was a chief of the Miami tribe in what is presently Indiana. ...


Conflicts generally known as "Indian Wars" broke out between U.S. forces and many different tribes. U.S. government authorities entered into numerous treaties during this period but later abrogated many for various reasons. Military engagements included Native American victories at the Battle of the Wabash in 1791 and the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876. Massacres included the Minnesota Massacre in 1862,[27] the Sand Creek Massacre in 1864 and the Wounded Knee in 1890.[28] These events, together with the near-extinction of the bison which many tribes had lived on, were catalysts to the decline of Prairie Culture that had developed around the use of the horse for hunting, travel and trading. For wars involving India, see Military history of India. ... The 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe was also once known as the Battle of the Wabash. ... The Battle of the Little Bighorn, also called Custers Last Stand, was an engagement between a Lakota-Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army that took place on June 25, 1876 near the Little Bighorn River in the eastern Montana Territory. ... Chief Taoyateduta, known as Chief Little Crow Settlers escaping the violence. ... Combatants United States of America Cheyenne, Arapaho Commanders John M. Chivington Black Kettle Strength 800 soldiers 500, mostly elderly, women and children Casualties 15 killed, 50 wounded 150-184 killed The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek) was an incident in... Belligerents Sioux United States Commanders Big Foot† James W. Forsyth Strength 120 men 230 women and children 500 men Casualties and losses 178 killed 89 wounded 150 missing 25 killed 39 wounded For other uses, see Wounded Knee (disambiguation). ...

The Indian (was thought) as less than human and worthy only of extermination. We did shoot down defenseless men, and women and children at places like Camp Grant, Sand Creek, and Wounded Knee. We did feed strychnine to red warriors. We did set whole villages of people out naked to freeze in the iron cold of Montana winters. And we did confine thousands in what amounted to concentration camps.

— Wellman- The Indian Wars of the West, 1934[29]

Students at the Bismarck Indian School in the early twentieth century.
Students at the Bismarck Indian School in the early twentieth century.

American policy toward Native Americans has continued to evolve. In the late eighteenth century, reformers starting with George Washington and Henry Knox[30], in efforts to "civilize" or otherwise assimilate Indians (as opposed to relegating them to reservations), adopted the practice of educating native children in Indian Boarding Schools. These schools, which were run primarily by Christian missionaries,[31] often proved traumatic to Native American children, who were forbidden to speak their native languages, taught Christianity instead of their native religions, and in numerous other ways forced to abandon their Native American identities[32] and adopt European-American culture. There were many documented cases of sexual, physical and mental abuse occurring at these schools.[33][34] Bismarck Indian School, North Dakota. ... Bismarck Indian School, North Dakota. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was an American bookseller from Boston who became the chief artillery officer of the Continental Army and later the nations first Secretary of War. ... Central New York City. ... This article is about Native Americans. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...

 Speech sample

Woodrow Wilson's "Address to the American Indians" Image:""Wilson"" - Address to the American Indians.ogg

("The great white father now calls you his brothers"), an address given by the President in 1913
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted United States citizenship to Native Americans. There was an interest in their assimilation to the American mainstream, and also a desire to recognize the service of many Native American veterans in World War I. The earliest documented U.S. Native American citizens were the Choctaw, who were granted citizenship in 1831 under the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted full U.S. citizenship to Americas indigenous peoples. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was a treaty signed on September 27, 1830 (and proclaimed on 24 February 1831) between the Choctaws (an American Indian tribe) and the United States. ...


Current status

There are 561 federally recognized tribal governments in the United States. These tribes possess the right to form their own government, to enforce laws (both civil and criminal), to tax, to establish requirements for membership, to license and regulate activities, to zone and to exclude persons from tribal territories. Limitations on tribal powers of self-government include the same limitations applicable to states; for example, neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or coin money (this includes paper currency).[35] This is a list of the 563 Native American Tribal Entities which are recognized by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...


Many Native Americans and advocates of Native American rights point out that the US Federal government's claim to recognize the "sovereignty" of Native American peoples falls short, given that the US still wishes to govern Native American peoples and treat them as subject to US law. True respect for Native American sovereignty, according to such advocates, would require the United States federal government to deal with Native American peoples in the same manner as any other sovereign nation, handling matters related to relations with Native Americans through the Secretary of State, rather than the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The Bureau of Indian Affairs reports on its website that its "responsibility is the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres (2.25×105 km²) of land held in trust by the United States for American Indians, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives."[36] Many Native Americans and advocates of Native American rights believe that it is condescending for such lands to be considered "held in trust" and regulated in any fashion by a foreign power, whether the US Federal Government, Canada, or any other non-Native American authority. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ...

Six Nations veterans of the War of 1812.
Six Nations veterans of the War of 1812.

According to 2003 United States Census Bureau estimates, a little over one third of the 2,786,652 Native Americans in the United States live in three states: California at 413,382, Arizona at 294,137 and Oklahoma at 279,559.[37] Image File history File links Six_Nations_survivors_of_War_of_1812. ... Image File history File links Six_Nations_survivors_of_War_of_1812. ... The term Six Nations can refer to: The six nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, a union of Native American/First Nations tribes. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... This article is about the U.S state. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ...


As of 2000, the largest tribes in the U.S. by population were Navajo, Cherokee, Choctaw, Sioux, Chippewa, Apache, Blackfeet, Iroquois, and Pueblo. In 2000, eight of ten Americans with Native American ancestry were of mixed blood. It is estimated that by 2100 that figure will rise to nine out of ten.[38] In addition, there are a number of tribes that are recognized by individual states, but not by the federal government. The rights and benefits associated with state recognition vary from state to state. Map of the Navajo Nation The Navajo Nation (Diné in Navajo language) encompasses all things important to the Navajo. ... This page contains special characters. ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apache (disambiguation). ... Sahpo Muxika, also known as Crowfoot, former Head Chief of the Blackfeet Nation. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pueblo Indians . ... This is a list of Native American Tribal Entities which are recognized by individual States but not by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...


Some tribal nations have been unable to establish their heritage and obtain federal recognition. The Muwekma Ohlone of the San Francisco bay area are pursuing litigation in the federal court system to establish recognition.[39] Many of the smaller eastern tribes have been trying to gain official recognition of their tribal status. The recognition confers some benefits, including the right to label arts and crafts as Native American and permission to apply for grants that are specifically reserved for Native Americans. But gaining recognition as a tribe is extremely difficult; to be established as a tribal group, members have to submit extensive genealogical proof of tribal descent. For the college of the same name, see Ohlone College. ... Genealogy (from Greek: γενεα, genea, family; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ...


Military defeat, cultural pressure, confinement on reservations, forced cultural assimilation, outlawing of native languages and culture, termination policies of the 1950s and 1960s and earlier, slavery and poverty, have had deleterious effects on Native Americans' mental and physical health. Contemporary health problems suffered disproportionately include alcoholism,[40] heart disease, diabetes, and suicide. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act or informally, the Indian New Deal, was a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. ... Indian slavery was the practice of using indigenous peoples of the Americas as slaves, which existed with the Spanish from the earliest days on the Caribbean islands they first settled. ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


As recently as the 1970s, the Bureau of Indian Affairs was still actively pursuing a policy of "assimilation",[41] dating at least to the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924. The goal of assimilation—plainly stated early on—was to eliminate the reservations and steer Native Americans into mainstream U.S. culture. In July 2000 the Washington state Republican Party[42] adopted a resolution of termination for tribal governments. As of 2004, there are still claims of theft of Native American land for the coal and uranium it contains.[43][44][45] The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ... The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted full U.S. citizenship to Americas indigenous peoples. ... This article deals with the U.S. state. ... GOP redirects here. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


In the state of Virginia, Native Americans face a unique problem. Virginia has no federally recognized tribes, largely due to Walter Ashby Plecker. In 1912, Plecker became the first registrar of the state's Bureau of Vital Statistics, serving until 1946. Plecker believed that the state's Native Americans had been "mongrelized" with its African American population. A law passed by the state's General Assembly recognized only two races, "white" and "colored". Plecker pressured local governments into reclassifying all Native Americans in the state as "colored", leading to the destruction of records on the state's Native American community. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Walter Ashby Plecker (2 April 1861–1947) was a medical doctor and public health advocate who was the first registrar of Virginias Bureau of Vital Statistics. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


Maryland also has a non-recognized tribal nation—the Piscataway Indian Nation. Insert non-formatted text hereThe Piscataway Indian Nation is a non-state, non-federally recognized Native American tribal nation, which, at one time, was one of the most populous and powerful Native polities of the Chesapeake region. ...

This Census Bureau map depicts the locations of Native Americans in the United States as of 2000.

In order to receive federal recognition and the benefits it confers, tribes must prove their continuous existence since 1900. The federal government has so far refused to bend on this bureaucratic requirement.[46] A bill currently before U.S. Congress to ease this requirement has been favorably reported out of a key Senate committee, being supported by both of Virginia's senators, George Allen and John Warner, but faces opposition in the House from Representative Virgil Goode, who has expressed concerns that federal recognition could open the door to gambling in the state.[47] Download high resolution version (3456x2568, 646 KB)I know, i know: GIFs is bad. ... Download high resolution version (3456x2568, 646 KB)I know, i know: GIFs is bad. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... George Felix Allen (born March 8, 1952, in Whittier, California) is a Republican United States Senator from Virginia. ... For other persons named John Warner, see John Warner (disambiguation). ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Virgil Hamlin Goode, Jr. ... Gamble redirects here. ...


In the early 21st century, Native American communities remain an enduring fixture on the United States landscape, in the American economy, and in the lives of Native Americans. Communities have consistently formed governments that administer services like firefighting, natural resource management, and law enforcement. Most Native American communities have established court systems to adjudicate matters related to local ordinances, and most also look to various forms of moral and social authority vested in traditional affiliations within the community. To address the housing needs of Native Americans, Congress passed the Native American Housing and Self Determination Act (NAHASDA) in 1996. This legislation replaced public housing, and other 1937 Housing Act programs directed towards Indian Housing Authorities, with a block grant program directed towards Tribes. Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... Law Enforcement Agency (LEA) is a generic term used for local and state police, as well as federal agencies (such as the FBI, the BATF, DHS, Europol, Interpol, etc. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ...


Gambling has become a leading industry. Casinos operated by many Native American governments in the United States are creating a stream of gambling revenue that some communities are beginning to use as leverage to build diversified economies. Native American communities have waged and prevailed in legal battles to assure recognition of rights to self-determination and to use of natural resources. Some of those rights, known as treaty rights, are enumerated in early treaties signed with the young United States government. Tribal sovereignty has become a cornerstone of American jurisprudence, and at least on the surface, in national legislative policies. Although many Native American tribes have casinos, they are a source of conflict. Most tribes, especially small ones such as the Winnemem Wintu of Redding, California, feel that casinos and their proceeds destroy culture from the inside out. These tribes refuse to participate in the gaming industry. Gamble redirects here. ... This article is about casinos for gaming. ... Tribal sovereignty map of the United States, with non-reservation land highlighted. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... The Winnemem Wintu (middle river people or middle water people) are a band of the Native American Wintu tribe originally located along the lower McCloud River, above Shasta Dam near Redding, California. ... Redding from space, April 1994 Redding (pop. ...


On May 19, 2005, the Massachusetts legislature finally repealed a disused 330 year-old law that barred Native Americans from entering Boston. is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A repeal is the removal or reversal of a law. ...


In August 2005, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) banned the use of "hostile and abusive" Native American mascots from postseason tournaments.[48] The use of Native American themed team names in U.S. professional sports is widespread and often controversial, with examples such as Chief Wahoo of the Cleveland Indians and the Washington Redskins. NCAA redirects here. ... Chief Wahoo was a mascot for the Cleveland Indians until the 1998 season. ... For other uses, see Cleveland Indians (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Redskins (disambiguation). ...


Conflicts between the federal government and native Americans occasionally erupt into violence. Perhaps one of the more noteworthy incidents in recent history is the Wounded Knee incident in small town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. On February 27, 1973, the town was surrounded by federal law enforcement officials and the United States military. The town itself was under the control of members of the American Indian Movement which was protesting a variety of issues important to the organization. Two members of AIM were killed and one United States Marshal was paralyzed as a result of gunshot wounds. In the aftermath of the conflict, one man, Leonard Peltier was arrested and sentenced to life in prison while another, John Graham, as late as 2007, was extradited to the U.S. to stand trial for killing a Native American woman, months after the standoff, that he believed to be an FBI informant.[49][50] The Wounded Knee Incident began in February 1973, and represented the longest civil disorder in the history of the Marshals Service. ... Wounded Knee (Lakhota Cankpe Opi) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Shannon County, South Dakota, United States. ... AIM logo AIM flag The American Indian Movement (AIM), is a Native American activist organization in the United States. ... The United States Marshals Service, part of the United States Department of Justice, is the United States oldest federal law enforcement agency. ...


Despite the ongoing political and social issues surrounding Native Americans' position in the United States, there has been relatively little public opinion research on attitudes toward them among the general public. In a 2007 focus group study by the nonpartisan Public Agenda organization, most non-Indians admitted they rarely encounter Native Americans in their daily lives. While sympathetic toward Native Americans and expressing regret over the past, most people had only a vague understanding of the problems facing Native Americans today. For their part, Native Americans told researchers that they believed they continued to face prejudice and mistreatment in the broader society.[51]


Blood Quantum

See also: Blood quantum laws
Selocta (or Shelocta) was a Muscogee (Creek) chief.
Selocta (or Shelocta) was a Muscogee (Creek) chief.

Intertribal and interracial mixing was common among Native American tribes making it difficult to clearly identify which tribe an individual belonged to. Bands or entire tribes occasionally split or merged to form more viable groups in reaction to the pressures of climate, disease and warfare. A number of tribes practiced the adoption of captives into their group to replace their members who had been captured or killed in battle. These captives came from rival tribes and later from European settlers. Some tribes also sheltered or adopted white traders and runaway slaves and Native American-owned slaves. So a number of paths to genetic mixing existed. Blood Quantum Laws is an umbrella term that describes legislation enacted to define membership in Native American groups. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


In later years, such mixing, however, proved an obstacle to qualifying for recognition and assistance from the U.S. federal government or for tribal money and services. To receive such support, Native Americans must belong to and be certified by a recognized tribal entity. This has taken a number of different forms as each tribal government makes its own rules while the federal government has its own set of standards. In many cases, qualification is based upon the percentage of Native American blood, or the "blood quantum" of an individual seeking recognition. To attain such certainty, some tribes have begun requiring genetic genealogy (DNA testing).[52] Requirements for tribal certification vary widely by tribe. The Cherokee require only a descent from a Native American listed on the early 20th century Dawes Rolls while federal scholarships require enrollment in a federally recognized tribe as well as a Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood card showing at least a one-quarter Native American descent. Tribal rules regarding recognition of members with Native American blood from multiple tribes are equally diverse and complex. Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. ... The Dawes Rolls were created by the Dawes Commission. ... A Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood or Certificate of Degree of Alaska Native Blood (both abbreviated CDIB) is an official U.S. document that certifies an individual possesses a specific degree of Indian blood of a federally recognized Indian tribe, band, nation, pueblo, village, or community. ...


Tribal membership conflicts have led to a number of activist groups, legal disputes and court cases. One example are the Cherokee freedmen, who were descendants of slaves once owned by the Cherokees. The Cherokees had allied with the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War and, after the war, were forced by the federal government, in an 1866 treaty, to free their slaves and make them citizens. They were later disallowed as tribe members due to their not having "Indian blood". However, in March 2006, the Judicial Appeals Tribunal—the Cherokee Nation's highest court—ruled that Cherokee freedmen are full citizens of the Cherokee Nation. The court declared that the Cherokee freedmen retain citizenship, voting rights and other privileges despite attempts to keep them off the tribal rolls for not having identifiable "Indian" blood. In March 2007 the Freedmen were voted out of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. Cherokee Freedmen are descendants of the former slaves owned by citizens of the Cherokee Nation prior to 1866. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ...


In the 20th century, among white ethnic groups, it became popular to claim descent from an "American Indian princess", often a Cherokee. The prototypical "American Indian princess" was Pocahontas, and, in fact, descent from her is a frequent claim.[citation needed] However, the American Indian "princess" is a false concept, derived from the application of European concepts to Native Americans, as also seen in the naming of war chiefs as "kings".[53] Descent from "Indian braves" is also sometimes claimed. A 1616 engraving of Pocahontas by Simone van de Passe. ...


This descent from Native Americans was seen as fashionable not only among whites claiming prestigious colonial descent but also among whites seeking to claim connection to groups with distinct folkways that would differentiate them from the mass culture. Large influxes of recent immigrants with unique social customs may have been partially an object of envy. Among African-Americans, the desire to be un-black was sometimes expressed in claims of Native American descent.[54] Those passing as white might use the slightly more acceptable Native American ancestry to explain inconvenient details of their heritage. Portrait of Grey Owl in 1936. ...


Society and culture

Cultural aspects

Choctaw Stickball 1830s painted by George Catlin.
Choctaw Stickball 1830s painted by George Catlin.

Though cultural features, language, clothing, and customs vary enormously from one tribe to another, there are certain elements which are encountered frequently and shared by many tribes. George Catlins 1800s painting of Choctaws playing the little brother of war. ... George Catlins 1800s painting of Choctaws playing the little brother of war. ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... George Catlin (1796 in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania – December 23, 1872 in Jersey City, New Jersey) was an American painter who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. ...


Early hunter-gatherer tribes made stone weapons from around 10,000 years ago; as the age of metallurgy dawned, newer technologies were used and more efficient weapons produced. Prior to contact with Europeans, most tribes used similar weaponry. The most common implements were the bow and arrow, the war club, and the spear. Quality, material, and design varied widely. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ...


Large mammals like mammoths and mastodonts were largely extinct by around 8,000 B.C., and the Native Americans switched to hunting other large game, such as bison. The Great Plains tribes were still hunting the bison when they first encountered the Europeans. The acquisition of the horse and horsemanship from the Spanish in the 17th century greatly altered the natives' culture, changing the way in which these large creatures were hunted and making them a central feature of their lives. This article is about the genus Mammuthus. ... Mastodon is also a Heavy Metal Band. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... For the Roman class, see Equestrian (Roman) A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ...


Organization

Gens structure

Before the formation of tribal structure, a structure dominated by gentes existed. GENS is an open source emulator for the Sega Genesis (Sega Megadrive). ...

  • The right of electing its sachem and chiefs.
  • The right of deposing its sachem and chiefs.
  • The obligation not to marry in the gens.
  • Mutual rights of inheritance of the property of deceased members.
  • Reciprocal obligations of help, defense, and redress of injuries.
  • The right of bestowing names upon its members.
  • The right of adopting strangers into the gens.
  • Common religious rights, query.
  • A common burial place.
  • A council of the gens.[55]

A sagamore is the head of a Native American tribe. ...

Tribal structure

Subdivision and differentiation took place between various groups. Upwards of forty stock languages developed in North America, with each independent tribe speaking a dialect of one of those languages. Some functions and attributes of tribes are:

  • The possession of the gentes.
  • The right to depose these sachems and chiefs.
  • The possession of a religious faith and worship.
  • A supreme government consisting of a council of chiefs.
  • A head-chief of the tribe in some instances.[55]

Society and art

See also: petroglyph, pictogram, and petroform
Panoramic view of California Indians in 1916.
Panoramic view of California Indians in 1916.

The Iroquois, living around the Great Lakes and extending east and north, used strings or belts called wampum that served a dual function: the knots and beaded designs mnemonically chronicled tribal stories and legends, and further served as a medium of exchange and a unit of measure. The keepers of the articles were seen as tribal dignitaries.[56] For other uses, see Petroglyph (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Petroforms are large shapes that were made out of large rocks. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1890x400, 175 KB) American indians 1916, California source:http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1890x400, 175 KB) American indians 1916, California source:http://www. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Wampum is a string of white shell beads fashioned from the North Atlantic channeled whelk (Busycotypus canaliculatus) shell, and is traditionally used by Indigenous Americans, First Nations peoples, Native Americans, hobbyists, business people, and traders, who regarded it as a sacred or trade representative of the value of the artist...


Pueblo peoples crafted impressive items associated with their religious ceremonies. Kachina dancers wore elaborately painted and decorated masks as they ritually impersonated various ancestral spirits. Sculpture was not highly developed, but carved stone and wood fetishes were made for religious use. Superior weaving, embroidered decorations, and rich dyes characterized the textile arts. Both turquoise and shell jewelry were created, as were high-quality pottery and formalized pictorial arts. The Zia symbol is on the New Mexico state flag. ... Kachina dolls in the Heard Museum in Phoenix, Arizona Kachinas (also spelled Katsina, the plural katsinam) exist in Hopi and in Pueblo cosmology and religious practices. ...


Navajo spirituality focused on the maintenance of a harmonious relationship with the spirit world, often achieved by ceremonial acts, usually incorporating sandpainting. The colors—made from sand, charcoal, cornmeal, and pollen—depicted specific spirits. These vivid, intricate, and colorful sand creations were erased at the end of the ceremony. The Navajo people (or Diné) of the Southwestern United States are currently the largest Native American tribe in North America, with an estimated tribal population of 300,000. ... Sandpainting is the art of painting ritual paintings for religious or healing ceremonies. ...


Agriculture

Early Maize raised by Native Americans.
Early Maize raised by Native Americans.

Native American Agriculture started about 7,000 years ago in the area of present day Illinois. The first crop the Native Americans grew was squash. This was the first of several crops the Native Americans learned to domesticate. Others included cotton, sunflower, pumpkins, watermelon, tobacco, goosefoot, and sump weed. The most important crop the Native Americans raised was maize. It was first started in Mesoamerica and spread north. About 2,000 years ago it reached eastern America. This crop was important to the Native Americans because it was part of their everyday diet, it could be stored in underground pits during the winter, and no part of it was wasted. The husk was made into art crafts and the cob was used as fuel for fires. By 800 A.D. the Native Americans had established 3 main crops which were beans, squash, and corn called the three sisters. Agriculture in the southwest started around 4,000 years ago when traders brought cultigens from Mexico. Due to the varying climate, some ingenuity had to be done for agriculture to be successful. The climate in the southwest ranged from cool, moist mountains regions, to dry, sandy soil in the desert. Some innovations of the time included irrigation to bring water into the dry regions, and the selection of seed based on their seed trait. In the southwest, they grew beans that were self-supported, much of the way they are grown today. In the east, however, they were planted right by corn in order for the vein to be able to climb the stalk. Download high resolution version (640x953, 99 KB) These ears of corn demonstrate some of the differences mutations maintained at the Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center. ... Download high resolution version (640x953, 99 KB) These ears of corn demonstrate some of the differences mutations maintained at the Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Look up squash in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... Pumpkins A pumpkin is a gourd (Cucurbitaceae), most commonly orange in colour when ripe, that grows from a trailing vine. ... For the political designation, see Eco-socialism. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Species See text Chenopodium is a genus of plant in the family Amaranthaceae, known generically as the Goosefoots. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... This article is about the culture area. ... The Three Sisters are the three main agricultural crops of some Native American groups in North America: squash, maize, and climbing beans (typically tepary beans or common beans). ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ...


The gender role of the Native Americans, when it came to agriculture, varied from region to region. In the southwest area, men would prepare the soil with hoes. The women were in charge of planting, weeding, and harvesting the crops. In most other regions, the women were in charge of doing everything including clearing the land. Clearing the land was an immense chore since the Native Americans rotated fields frequently. There have been stories about how Squanto showed pilgrims to put fish in fields and this would acts like a fertilizer, but this story is not true. They did plant beans next to corn; the beans would replace the nitrogen the corn took from the ground. They also had controlled fires to burn weeds and this would put nutrients back into the ground. If this did not work they would simply abandon the field and go find a new spot for their field. Agricultural square bladed hoe. ... This article is about the actual historical figure. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


Some of the tools the Native Americans used were the hoe, the maul, and the dibber. The hoe was the main tool used to till the land and prepare it for planting and then used for weeding. The first versions were made out of wood and stone. When the settlers brought iron, Native Americans switched to iron hoes and hatches. The dibber was essentially a digging stick, and was used to plant the seed. Once the plants were harvested they were prepared by the women for eating. The maul was used to grind the corn into mash ate that way or made into corn bread.[57] Agricultural square bladed hoe. ... Look up maul in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a noun which describes a Television Remote Control, as in Pass me the dibber, I want to change channel. ...


Religion

No particular religion or religious tradition is hegemonic among Native Americans in the United States. Most self-identifying and federally recognized Native Americans claim adherence to some form of Christianity, some of these being cultural and religious syntheses unique to the particular tribe. Traditional Native American spiritual rites and ceremonies are maintained by many Americans of both Native and non-Native identity. These spiritualities may accompany adherence to another faith, or can represent a person's primary religious identity. While much Native American spiritualism exists in a tribal-cultural continuum, and as such cannot be easily separated from tribal identity itself, certain other more clearly-defined movements have arisen within "Trad" Native American practitioners, these being identifiable as "religions" in the clinical sense. The Midewiwin Lodge is a traditional medicine society inspired by the oral traditions and prophesies of the Ojibwa (Chippewa) and related tribes. Traditional practices include the burning of sacred herbs (tobacco, sweetgrass, sage, etc.), the sweatlodge, fasting (paramount in "vision quests"), singing and drumming, and the smoking of natural tobacco in a pipe. A practitioner of Native American spiritualities and religions may incorporate all, some or none of these into their personal or tribal rituals. Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the native North American people. ... Binomial name Hierochloe odorata (L.) P. Beauv. ... Look up sage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The sweat lodge is a ceremonial sauna used by North American First Nations or Native American peoples. ... IDNIANS SUCK BALLS American Indian music is the musics that are shared by or that distinguish American Indian tribes and First Nations. ... A Lakota (Sioux) peace pipe pipestem, without the pipe bowl, displayed at the United States Library of Congress A peace pipe, also called a calumet or medicine pipe, is a ceremonial smoking pipe used by many Native American tribes, traditionally as a token of peace. ...


Another significant religious body among Native peoples is known as the Native American Church. It is a syncretistic church incorporating elements of native spiritual practice from a number of different tribes as well as symbolic elements from Christianity. Its main rite is the peyote ceremony. Prior to 1890, traditional religious beliefs included Wakan Tanka. In the American Southwest, especially New Mexico, a syncretism between the Catholicism brought by Spanish missionaries and the native religion is common; the religious drums, chants, and dances of the Pueblo people are regularly part of Masses at Santa Fe's Saint Francis Cathedral.[58] Native American-Catholic syncretism is also found elsewhere in the United States. (e.g., the National Kateri Tekakwitha Shrine in Fonda, New York and the National Shrine of the North American Martyrs in Auriesville, New York). Native American Church Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Binomial name (Lem. ... In Lakota traditions, Wakan Tanka is a term for The Great Spirit which resides in every thing, similar to many notions of God. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Pueblo be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location in Santa Fe County, New Mexico Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Fe Founded ca. ... Saint Francis Cathedral Statue of Lamy in front of the cathedral The Cathedral Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, commonly known as Saint Francis Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in downtown Santa Fe, New Mexico. ... Kateri Tekakwitha (pronounced GAH-day-lee Day-GAH-kwee-dah in Mohawk) (1656 – April 17, 1680), the daughter of a Mohawk warrior and a Catholic Algonquin woman, was born in the Mohawk fortress of Ossernenon near present-day Auriesville, New York. ... Fonda is a village located in Montgomery County, New York. ... Glen is a town located in Montgomery County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 2,222. ...


Native Americans are the only known ethnic group in the United States requiring a federal permit to practice their religion. The eagle feather law, (Title 50 Part 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations), stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe are legally authorized to obtain eagle feathers for religious or spiritual use. Native Americans and non-Native Americans frequently contest the value and validity of the eagle feather law, charging that the law is laden with discriminatory racial preferences and infringes on tribal sovereignty. The law does not allow Native Americans to give eagle feathers to non-Native Americans, a common modern and traditional practice. Many non-Native Americans have been adopted into Native American families, made tribal members and given eagle feathers. An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... There are a number of federal wildlife laws pertaining to eagles and their feathers (e. ... Genera Several, see text. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... There are a number of federal wildlife laws pertaining to eagles and their feathers (e. ... Genera Several, see text. ...


Gender roles

Most Native American tribes had traditional gender roles. In some tribes, such as the Iroquois nation, social and clan relationships were matrilineal and/or matriarchal, although several different systems were in use. One example is the Cherokee custom of wives owning the family property. Men hunted, traded and made war, while women cared for the young and the elderly, fashioned clothing and instruments and cured meat. The cradleboard was used by mothers to carry their baby while working or traveling.[59] However, in some (but not all) tribes a kind of transgender was permitted; see Two-Spirit. A bagpiper in military uniform. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Matriarchy is a term, which is applied to gynocentric form of society, in which the leading role is by the female and especially by the mothers of a community. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... Navajo child in cradleboard, Window Rock, Arizona, 1936 A cradle board is a typical North American baby carrier used to keep babies secure and comfortable and at the same time allowing the mothers freedom to work and travel. ... A transwoman with XY written on her hand, at a protest in Paris, October 1, 2005. ... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ...


At least several dozen tribes allowed polygyny to sisters, with procedural and economic limits.[55] Polygyny, a form of polygamy, is the practice of having more than one female sexual partner or wife simultaneously. ...


Apart from making home, women had many tasks that were essential for the survival of the tribes. They made weapons and tools, took care of the roofs of their homes and often helped their men hunt buffalos.[60] In some of the Plains Indian tribes there reportedly were medicine women who gathered herbs and cured the ill.[61] Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ...


In some of these tribes girls were also encouraged to learn to ride and fight. Though fighting was mostly left to the boys and men, there had been cases of women fighting alongside them, especially when the existence of the tribe was threatened.[62]


Music and art

Main article: Native American music
Mystic River Singers performing at a pow wow in 1998.
Mystic River Singers performing at a pow wow in 1998.
Ancient art, such as this engraved stone plate from Mississippi, often exhibited a sophisticated and well-developed style.
Ancient art, such as this engraved stone plate from Mississippi, often exhibited a sophisticated and well-developed style.

Native American music is almost entirely monophonic, but there are notable exceptions. Traditional Native American music often includes drumming and/or the playing of rattles or other percussion instruments but little other instrumentation. Flutes and whistles made of wood, cane, or bone are also played, generally by individuals, but in former times also by large ensembles (as noted by Spanish conquistador de Soto). The tuning of these flutes is not precise and depends on the length of the wood used and the hand span of the intended player, but the finger holes are most often around a whole step apart and, at least in Northern California, a flute was not used if it turned out to have an interval close to a half step. IDNIANS SUCK BALLS American Indian music is the musics that are shared by or that distinguish American Indian tribes and First Nations. ... Download high resolution version (908x1124, 214 KB)Drummer Wayahsti Richardson of the Saponi tribe and the Native American drum Mystic River perform at the 1998 National Veterans Pow-wow. ... Download high resolution version (908x1124, 214 KB)Drummer Wayahsti Richardson of the Saponi tribe and the Native American drum Mystic River perform at the 1998 National Veterans Pow-wow. ... Pow wow redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... IDNIANS SUCK BALLS American Indian music is the musics that are shared by or that distinguish American Indian tribes and First Nations. ... In music texture is the overall quality of sound of a piece, most often indicated by the number of voices in the music and to the relationship between these voices (see below). ... For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). ... Native American flute crafted by Chief Arthur Two-Crows, 1987 The Native American flute has achieved some measure of fame for its distinctive sound, used in a variety of New Age and world music recordings. ... A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... For the Peruvian economist, see Hernando de Soto (economist). ...


Performers with Native American parentage have occasionally appeared in American popular music, such as Tina Turner,[63] Rita Coolidge, Wayne Newton, Gene Clark, Blackfoot, Tori Amos and Redbone. Some, such as John Trudell have used music to comment on life in Native America, and others, such as R. Carlos Nakai integrate traditional sounds with modern sounds in instrumental recordings. A variety of small and medium-sized recording companies offer an abundance of recent music by Native American performers young and old, ranging from pow-wow drum music to hard-driving rock-and-roll and rap. Tina Turner (born Anna Mae Bullock) November 26, 1939) is an 11 time Grammy Award-winning (sharing three), American Singer, Dancer, Record Producer, Executive Producer, Film Producer, Actress, Writer, Performer, Songwriter, Author and occasional Painter whose career has spanned from 1956 to present. ... Rita Coolidge (born May 1, 1945, in Lafayette, Tennessee) is a Grammy Award winning American Singer. ... Carson Wayne Newton (born April 3, 1942, in Norfolk, Virginia) is an American singer and entertainer based in Las Vegas, Nevada. ... For other uses, see Gene Clark (disambiguation). ... Blackfoot are a Southern rock band from Jacksonville, Florida. ... Tori Amos (born Myra Ellen Amos on August 22, 1963) is an American pianist and singer-songwriter. ... Redbone was an American rock group in the 1970s. ... John Trudell (born February 15, 1946 in Omaha, Nebraska) is an American author, a poet, musician and a former political activist. ... R. Carlos Nakai is a Native American Flutist. ...

Award-winning Spokane / Coeur d'Alene author, film director, and social critic, Sherman Alexie.
Award-winning Spokane / Coeur d'Alene author, film director, and social critic, Sherman Alexie.
Hopi man weaving on traditional loom.
Hopi man weaving on traditional loom.

The most widely practiced public musical form among Native Americans in the United States is that of the pow-wow. At pow-wows, such as the annual Gathering of Nations in Albuquerque, New Mexico, members of drum groups sit in a circle around a large drum. Drum groups play in unison while they sing in a native language and dancers in colorful regalia dance clockwise around the drum groups in the center. Familiar pow-wow songs include honor songs, intertribal songs, crow-hops, sneak-up songs, grass-dances, two-steps, welcome songs, going-home songs, and war songs. Most indigenous communities in the United States also maintain traditional songs and ceremonies, some of which are shared and practiced exclusively within the community.[64] Spokane flag The Spokomptin (or Spokan) are a Native American people in the northeastern portion of the U.S. state of Washington. ... Tribal flag The Coeur dAlene are a First Nations/Native American people who lived in villages along the Coeur dAlene, St. ... Sherman Alexie Sherman Joseph Alexie, Jr. ... Image File history File links Hopi man weaving a blanket; with back to cam- era and holding a wooden sley in both hands. ... Image File history File links Hopi man weaving a blanket; with back to cam- era and holding a wooden sley in both hands. ... Moki redirects here. ... This article is about a Native American gathering. ... The Gathering of Nations is one of the largest Pow-wows in the United States. ... Albuquerque redirects here. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ...


Native American art comprises a major category in the world art collection. Native American contributions include pottery(Native American pottery), paintings, jewellery, weavings, sculptures, basketry, and carvings. Pottery on display in Dilli Haat, Delhi, India. ... Prior to the coming of Europeans, the peoples of both the North and South American continents had a wide variety of pottery traditions. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... For the Korean music group, see Jewelry (group). ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Four styles of household basket. ... Carved wooden cranes Wood carving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool held in the hand (this may be a power tool), resulting in a wooden figure or figurine (this may be abstract in nature) or in the ornamentation of a wooden object. ...


The integrity of certain Native American artworks is now protected by an act of Congress that prohibits representation of art as Native American when it is not the product of an enrolled Native American artist.


Economy

The Inuit, or Eskimo, prepared and buried large amounts of dried meat and fish. Pacific Northwest tribes crafted seafaring dugouts 40–50 feet long for fishing. Farmers in the Eastern Woodlands tended fields of maize with hoes and digging sticks, while their neighbors in the Southeast grew tobacco as well as food crops. On the Plains, some tribes engaged in agriculture but also planned buffalo hunts in which herds were driven over bluffs. Dwellers of the Southwest deserts hunted small animals and gathered acorns to grind into flour with which they baked wafer-thin bread on top of heated stones. Some groups on the region's mesas developed irrigation techniques, and filled storehouses with grain as protection against the area's frequent droughts. For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eskimo (disambiguation). ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... A drought is an extended period where water availability falls below the statistical requirements for a region. ...


In the early years, as these native peoples encountered European explorers and settlers and engaged in trade, they exchanged food, crafts, and furs for blankets, iron and steel implements, horses, trinkets, firearms, and alcoholic beverages.


Barriers to Economic Development:


Today, other than tribes successfully running casinos, many tribes struggle. There are an estimated 2.1 million Native Americans, and they are the most impoverished of all ethnic groups. According to the 2000 Census, an estimated 400,000 Native Americans reside on reservation land. While some tribes have had success with gaming, only 40% of the 562 federally recognized tribes operate casinos. [65] According to a 2007 survey by the U.S. Small Business Administration, only 1 percent of Native Americans own and operate a business. [66] Native Americans rank at the bottom of every nearly every social statistic: highest teen suicide rate of all minorities at 18.5%, highest rate of teen pregnancy, highest high school drop out rate at 54%, lowest per capita income, and unemployment rates between 50% to 90%. In 2000, censuses were conducted in United States: The 22nd federal United States 2000 Census Costa Rica: The 9th Costa Rican Census of population. ... Native Americans is a term which has several different common meanings and scope, according to regional use and context: Indigenous peoples of the Americas, natives of the American continents Native Americans in the United States, natives of the United States only; equivalent to American Indians in some contexts Native American... Casinos can refer to: the plural of Casino Casinos, Valencia, a municipality in Spain Category: ... Native Americans is a term which has several different common meanings and scope, according to regional use and context: Indigenous peoples of the Americas, natives of the American continents Native Americans in the United States, natives of the United States only; equivalent to American Indians in some contexts Native American... Per capita income means how much each individual receives, in monetary terms, of the yearly income generated in their country. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ...

First issue of Rez Biz magazine in August 2005. Cover story is "Why do business barriers still exist on the reservation?"
First issue of Rez Biz magazine in August 2005. Cover story is "Why do business barriers still exist on the reservation?"

The barriers to economic development on Indian reservations often cited by others and two experts Joseph Kalt [67] and Stephen Cornell [68] of Harvard University, in their classic report: What Can Tribes Do? Strategies and Institutions in American Indian Economic Development,[69] are as follows (incomplete list, see full Kalt & Cornell report): Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ... Harvard redirects here. ...

  • Lack of access to capital.
  • Lack of human capital (education, skills, technical expertise) and the means to develop it.
  • Reservations lack effective planning.
  • Reservations are poor in natural resources.
  • Reservations have natural resources, but lack sufficient control over them.
  • Reservations are disadvantaged by their distance from markets and the high costs of transportation.
  • Tribes cannot persuade investors to locate on reservations because of intense competition from non-Indian communities.
  • The Bureau of Indian Affairs is inept, corrupt, and/or uninterested in reservation development.
  • Tribal politicians and bureaucrats are inept or corrupt.
  • On-reservation factionalism destroys stability in tribal decisions.
  • The instability of tribal government keeps outsiders from investing.
  • Entrepreneurial skills and experience are scarce.
  • Non-Indian management techniques will work, but are absent.
  • Tribal cultures get in the way.

One of the major barriers for overcoming the economic strife is the lack of entrepreneurial knowledge and experience across Indian reservations. “A general lack of education and experience about business is a significant challenge to prospective entrepreneurs,” also says another report on Native American entrepreneurship by the Northwest Area Foundation in 2004. “Native American communities that lack entrepreneurial traditions and recent experiences typically do not provide the support that entrepreneurs need to thrive. Consequently, experiential entrepreneurship education needs to be embedded into school curricula and after-school and other community activities. This would allow students to learn the essential elements of entrepreneurship from a young age and encourage them to apply these elements throughout life.” [70]. One publication devoted to addressing these issues is Rez Biz magazine. RESERVATIONS is a provision in India through which certain sections of the population are granted special benefits such as fee concessions, priority of jobs etc. ... This article is on the social structure. ... The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ... BIA map of Indian reservations in the continental United States. ... Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations or revitalizing mature organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. ...


Native Americans and African Americans

See also: Black Indians

European Colonists created treaties with Native American tribes requesting the return of any runaway slaves. For example, in 1726, the British Governor of New York exacted a promise from the Iroquois to return all runaway slaves who had joined up with them. This same promise was extracted from the Huron Natives in 1764 and from the Delaware Natives in 1765.[71] Numerous advertisements requested the return of African Americans who had married Native Americans or who spoke a Native-American language. Black Indians is a term generally used to describe Americans who have significant traces of both sub-Saharan African and Native American or Indigenous American ancestry. ... In the history of slavery in the United States, a fugitive slave was a slave who had escaped his or her masters often with the intention of traveling to a place where the state of his or her enslavement was either illegal or not enforced. ...


Individuals in some tribes, especially the Cherokee, owned African slaves; however, other tribes incorporated African Americans, slave or freemen, into the tribe. This custom among the Seminoles was part of the reason for the Seminole Wars where the European Americans feared their slaves' fleeing to the Natives. The Cherokee Freedmen were African American, and tribes such as the Lumbee in North Carolina include African-American ancestors. Slave redirects here. ... Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ... This page contains special characters. ... The Lumbee are a Native American tribe recognized by the state of North Carolina. ...


After 1800, the Cherokees and some other tribes started buying and using black slaves, a practice they continued after being relocated to Indian Territory in the 1830s. The nature of slavery in Cherokee society often mirrored that of white slave-owning society. The law barred intermarriage of Cherokees and blacks, whether slave or free. Blacks who aided slaves were punished with one hundred lashes on the back.[72] In Cherokee society, blacks were barred from holding office, bearing arms, and owning property, and it was illegal to teach blacks to read and write.[72][73] Alternate meanings: Cherokee (disambiguation) The Cherokee are a people native to North America who first inhabited what is now the eastern and southeastern United States before most were forcefully moved to the Ozark Plateau. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... Cherokee Citizens of the Cherokee Nation of Diverse Ancestry (2007) The Cherokee Freedmen controversy is an on-going political and tribal dispute among the Cherokee Nation and the Cherokee Freedmen (descendants of the former slaves of Cherokee citizens). ...


Due to continued intermarriage between African Americans and Native people, many people have both African American and Native heritage. It has been easier for younger generations of mixed African/Native people to become more easily recognized in their respective ethnic groups. Some people of African American descent do not realize they have native heritage even though they have Native American physical features; physical features can be difficult to assess conclusively.[74] The phenotype of an individual organism is either its total physical appearance and constitution, or a specific manifestation of a trait, such as size or eye color, that varies between individuals. ...


Depictions by Europeans and Americans

Tah-Chee (Dutch), A Cherokee Chief, 1837, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Tah-Chee (Dutch), A Cherokee Chief, 1837, Smithsonian American Art Museum

Native Americans have been depicted by American artists in various ways at different historical periods. During the period when America was first being colonized, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the artist John White made watercolors and engravings of the people native to the southeastern states. John White’s images were, for the most part, faithful likenesses of the people he observed. Later the artist Theodore de Bry used White’s original watercolors to make a book of engravings entitled, A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia. In his book, de Bry often altered the poses and features of White’s figures to make them appear more European, probably in order to make his book more marketable to a European audience. During the period that White and de Bry were working, when Europeans were first coming into contact with native Americans, there was a large interest and curiosity in native American cultures by Europeans, which would have created the demand for a book like de Bry’s. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... A sketch by John White of Indians at Roanoke. ... Johann Theodor de Bry (1528 – 1598) was a Flemish-born engraver, draftsman and book editor and publisher who became famous for his depictions of early European expeditions to the Americas. ...


Several centuries later, during the construction of the Capitol building in the early nineteenth century, the U.S. government commissioned a series of four relief panels to crown the doorway of the Rotunda. The reliefs encapsulate a vision of European—Native American relations that had assumed mythicohistorical proportions by the nineteenth century. The four panels depict: The Preservation of Captain Smith by Pocahontas (1825) by Antonio Capellano, The Landing of the Pilgrims (1825) and The Conflict of Daniel Boone and the Indians (1826–27) by Enrico Causici, and William Penn’s Treaty with the Indians (1827) by Nicholas Gevelot. The reliefs present idealized versions of the Europeans and the native Americans, in which the Europeans appear refined and gentile, and the natives appear ferocious and savage. The Whig representative of Virginia, Henry A. Wise, voiced a particularly astute summary of how Native Americans would read the messages contained in all four reliefs: “We give you corn, you cheat us of our lands: we save your life, you take ours.” The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the seat of government for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Henry Alexander Wise (December 3, 1806–September 12, 1876) was an American statesman from Virginia. ...


While many nineteenth century images of native Americans conveyed similarly negative messages, there were artists, such as Charles Bird King, who sought to express a more realistic image of the native Americans. Charles Bird King (September 26, 1785, Newport, Rhode Island - March 18, 1862, Washington, DC) was a United States painter, remembered for his portraits of prominent native Americans as well as society figures in Washington, DC during the 1820s. ...


Terminology differences

Further information: Native American name controversy

The Native American name controversy is an ongoing dispute over the acceptable ways to refer to the indigenous peoples of the Americas and to broad subsets thereof, such as those living in a specific country or sharing certain cultural attributes. ...

Common usage in the United States

The term Native American was originally introduced in the United States by anthropologists as a more accurate term for the indigenous people of the Americas, as distinguished from the people of India. Because of the widespread acceptance of this newer term in and outside of academic circles, some people believe that Indians is outdated or offensive. People from India (and their descendants) who are citizens of the United States are known as Indian Americans or Asian Indians. For an article on American Indians see Native Americans. ...


Criticism of the neologism Native American, however, comes from diverse sources. Some American Indians have misgivings about the term Native American. Russell Means, a famous American Indian activist, opposes the term Native American because he believes it was imposed by the government without the consent of American Indians.[75] Furthermore, some American Indians question the term Native American because, they argue, it serves to ease the conscience of "white America" with regard to past injustices done to American Indians by effectively eliminating "Indians" from the present.[76] Still others (both Indians and non-Indians) argue that Native American is problematic because "native of" literally means "born in," so any person born in the Americas could be considered "native". However, very often the compound "Native American" will be capitalized in order to differentiate this intended meaning from others. Likewise, "native" (small 'n') can be further qualified by formulations such as "native-born" when the intended meaning is only to indicate place of birth or origin. Russell Means (born November 10, 1939) is one of contemporary Americas best-known and prolific activists for the rights of American Indians. ... Capitalization (or capitalisation) is writing a word with its first letter as a majuscule (upper case letter) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lower case letters), in those writing systems which have a case distinction. ...


A 1995 US Census Bureau survey found that more American Indians in the United States preferred American Indian to Native American.[77] Nonetheless, most American Indians are comfortable with Indian, American Indian, and Native American, and the terms are often used interchangeably.[78] The traditional term is reflected in the name chosen for the National Museum of the American Indian, which opened in 2004 on the Mall in Washington, D.C.. National Museum of the American Indian in Washington D.C., viewed from the northeast Interior view looking down toward the entrance. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Recently, the U.S. Census Bureau has introduced the "Asian Indian" category to avoid ambiguity when sampling the Indian-American population.


Notable Native Americans of the United States

To view this list go here. List of notable Native Americans of the United States


Population

In 2006, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that about 1.0 percent of the U.S. population was of American Indian or Alaska Native descent. This population is unevenly distributed across the country.[79] Below, are all 50 states, (the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) are listed by the proportion of residents citing American Indian or Alaska Native ancestry, based on 2006 estimates: For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Alaskan Natives are Aboriginal Americans who live in Alaska. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Alaskan Natives are Aboriginal Americans who live in Alaska. ...

Alaska - 13.1%
New Mexico - 9.7%
South Dakota - 8.6%
Oklahoma - 6.8%
Montana - 6.3%
North Dakota - 5.2%
Arizona - 4.5%
Wyoming - 2.2%
Oregon - 1.8%
Washington - 1.5%
Nevada - 1.2%
Idaho - 1.1%
North Carolina - 1.1%
Utah - 1.1%
Minnesota - 1.0%
Colorado - 0.9%
Kansas - 0.9%
Nebraska - 0.9%
Wisconsin - 0.9%
Arkansas - 0.8%
California - 0.7%
Louisiana - 0.6%
Maine - 0.5%
Michigan - 0.5%
Texas - 0.5%
Alabama - 0.4%
Mississippi - 0.4%
Missouri - 0.4%
Rhode Island - 0.4%
Vermont - 0.4%
Florida - 0.3%
Delaware - 0.3%
Hawaii - 0.3%
Iowa - 0.3%
New York - 0.3%
South Carolina - 0.3%
Tennessee - 0.3%
Georgia - 0.2%
Virginia - 0.2%
Connecticut - 0.2%
Illinois - 0.2%
Indiana - 0.2%
Kentucky - 0.2%
Maryland - 0.2%
Massachusetts - 0.2%
New Hampshire - 0.2%
New Jersey - 0.2%
Ohio - 0.2%
West Virginia - 0.2%
Pennsylvania - 0.1%

District of Columbia - 0.3%

Puerto Rico - 0.2%

In 2006, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that about less than 1.0 percent of the U.S. population was of Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander descent. This population is unevenly distributed across 26 states.[80] Below, are the 26 states that had at least 0.1%. They are listed by the proportion of residents citing Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander ancestry, based on 2006 estimates: For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Dakotan Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... -1... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym Connecticuter or Connecticutian[2] Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[4] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[5] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... ... Native Hawaiians (in Hawaiian, kānaka ōiwi or kānaka maoli) are member[s] or descendant[s] of the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands.[2] Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the first Marquesan and Tahitian settlers of Hawaii (possibly as early as AD 400), before the... // Demographics in 2000 US Census Pacific Islander Americans represent the smallest group counted on the 2000 US Census. ... Native Hawaiians (in Hawaiian, kānaka ōiwi or kānaka maoli) are member[s] or descendant[s] of the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands.[2] Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the first Marquesan and Tahitian settlers of Hawaii (possibly as early as AD 400), before the... // Demographics in 2000 US Census Pacific Islander Americans represent the smallest group counted on the 2000 US Census. ...

Hawaii - 8.7
Utah - 0.7
Alaska - 0.6
California - 0.4
Nevada - 0.4
Washington - 0.4
Arizona - 0.2
Oregon - 0.2
Alabama - 0.1
Arkansas - 0.1
Colorado - 0.1
Florida - 0.1
Idaho - 0.1
Kentucky - 0.1
Maryland - 0.1
Massachusetts - 0.1
Missouri - 0.1
Montana - 0.1
New Mexico - 0.1
North Carolina - 0.1
Oklahoma - 0.1
South Carolina - 0.1
Texas - 0.1
Virginia - 0.1
West Virginia - 0.1
Wyoming - 0.1

This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... -1... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ...

See also

Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of the Americas native to the state of Alaska within the United States. ... Based in Denver, Colorado, The American Indian College Fund provides scholarships and other support for the nations 32 tribal colleges and universities. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ... Black Indians is a term generally used to describe Americans who have significant traces of both sub-Saharan African and Native American or Indigenous American ancestry. ... // Classification of Native Americans: United States and Canada Ethnographers commonly classify the native peoples of the United States and Canada into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits (called cultural areas). ... http://www. ... The following is a list of company or product names derived from Indigenous peoples, excluding geographic names. ... There are a number of federal wildlife laws pertaining to eagles and their feathers (e. ... The discovery of America is variously attributed to the following people, depending on context and definition: Native Americans, the first people to live in America (see Paleo Indians and Clovis Culture) Viking explorer Leif Ericson, the first European proven to have landed in America Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact, such... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... Wise American Indian chief from the movie Drums Across the River This article discusses the various stereotypes of Native Americans present in Western societies. ... Lyman Frank Baum (May 15, 1856 – May 6, 1919) was an American author, actor, and independent filmmaker best known as the creator, along with illustrator W. W. Denslow, of one of the most popular books in American childrens literature, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, better known today as simply... The Indian Campaign Medal is a decoration of the United States Army which was first created in 1905. ... In the history of the European colonization of North America, the term Indian massacre was often used to describe either mass killings of Europeans by indigenous people of the North American continent (Indians) or mass killings of indigenous peoples by Europeans. ... Indian Old Field, or simply Old Field, was a term used in Colonial American times and up to the early 19th Century United States, by white explorers, surveyors, cartographers and settlers, in reference to land formerly cleared and utilized by Indians for farming or occupation. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act or informally, the Indian New Deal, was a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... The mission of the Inter-Tribal Environmental Council (ITEC) is to protect; the health of Native Americans, their natural resources, and their environment as it relates to air, land and water. ... This is a list of English language words borrowed from indigenous languages of the Americas, either directly or throught intermediate European languages such as Spanish or French. ... BIA map of Indian reservations in the continental United States. ... This list of pre-Colombian civilizations includes those civilizations and cultures of the Americas which flourished prior to the European colonization of the Americas. ... This is a list of Native American and First Nations writers from North and South America. ... Medicine man is an English term used to describe Native American religious figures; such individuals are analogous to shamans. ... A medicine wheel in Big Horn County, Wyoming, USA Medicine wheels are stone structures built by the natives of North America for various spiritual and ritual purposes. ... The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1500 A.D., varying regionally. ... For other uses, see Mound builder (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... National Museum of the American Indian in Washington D.C., viewed from the northeast Interior view looking down toward the entrance. ... Native American Church Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. ... // Native American gambling enterprises comprise gambling businesses operated on Indian reservations or tribal land, which have limited sovereignty and therefore the ability to exist outside of direct state regulation. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... The Kansas City Chiefs Logo The use of Native American mascots in sports has become a contentious issue in the United States and Canada. ... Native American spirituality includes a number of stories and legends that are mythological. ... The Native American name controversy is an ongoing dispute over the acceptable ways to refer to the indigenous peoples of the Americas and to broad subsets thereof, such as those living in a specific country or sharing certain cultural attributes. ... Prior to the coming of Europeans, the peoples of both the North and South American continents had a wide variety of pottery traditions. ... Some 25,000 Native Americans served in the military during World War II. Described as the first large-scale exodus of indigenous peoples from the reservations since the defeat of their ancestors by whites in the 1800s, the international conflict was a turning point in American Indian history. ... Osceola Osceola (1804 – January 20, 1838) was a war chief of the Seminole Indians in Flo. ... This footprint carved into the rock on Dunadd, in Argyll, is linked to the crowning of the Scots kings of Dál Riata. ... Natives of North America. ... Pre-Columbian Africa-Americas contact theories propose direct contact or actual migrations by peoples from the continent of Africa with the indigenous peoples of the Americas at some stage during the pre-Columbian history of the Americas– that is, earlier than the late 15th century. ... The term residential school generally refers to any school at which students live in addition to attending classes. ... Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ... The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (sometimes called the Southern Cult) is the name given to a broad, regional similarity of artifacts, iconography, ceremonies and mythology of the Mississippian culture that accompanied their adoption of maize agriculture. ... State recognized tribes are Native American Indian Tribes that are recognized by individual states for their various internal government purposes. ... The following is a list of sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous peoples, including generically used terms, those named after specific peoples, and words or iconography derived from indigenous languages or traditions. ... For other uses, see Trail of Tears (disambiguation). ... This is a list of treaties to which the United States has been a party or which have had direct relevance to U.S. history. ... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ... Few peoples have remained totally uncontacted by modern civilisation. ... Unrecognized tribes are those domestic Indian tribes that are not recognized by a federal or state government in the United States. ...

Notes

  1. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. (2001–2005). Profiles of General Demographic Characteristics 2000: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  2. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. (2001–2005). Profiles of General Demographic Characteristics 2000: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-05-23. "In combination with one or more of the other races listed." Figure here derived by subtracting figure for "One race (American Indian and Alaska Native)": 2,475,956, from figure for "Race alone or in combination with one or more other races (American Indian and Alaska Native)": 4,119,301, giving the result 1,643,345. Other races counted in the census include: "White"; "Black or African American"; "Asian"; "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander"; and "Some other race."
  3. ^ For example, the definition of Native American in "Native American Languages Act of 1990", section 103 (6) includes Native American Pacific Islander, Native Hawaiian and Alaskan Native.
  4. ^ The Wild Frontier: Atrocities During the American-Indian War
  5. ^ Columbus 'sparked a genocide'. BBC News (October 12, 2003). Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  6. ^ Native Americans - Huron Tribe
  7. ^ Indian Mixed-Blood
  8. ^ Minority Politics in Albuquerque - History
  9. ^ Smallpox: Eradicating the Scourge
  10. ^ Epidemics
  11. ^ The Story Of… Smallpox—and other Deadly Eurasian Germs
  12. ^ Ishi: The Last Yahi see also Uncontacted peoples
  13. ^ Native American History and Cultures, http://www.meredith.edu/nativeam/setribes.htm Susan Squires and John Kincheloe, syllabus for HIS 943A, Meredith College, 2005, accessed September 19, 2006
  14. ^ Greg Lange,"Smallpox epidemic ravages Native Americans on the northwest coast of North America in the 1770s", 23 Jan 2003, HistoryLink.org, Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History, accessed 2 Jun 2008
  15. ^ David A. Koplow Smallpox The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge
  16. ^ M. Paul Keesler, "Dutch Children's Disease Kills Thousands of Mohawks", Mohawk: Discovering the Valley of the Crystals, 2004, accessed 2 Jun 2008
  17. ^ Greg Lange,["Smallpox epidemic ravages Native Americans on the northwest coast of North America in the 1770s", 23 Jan 2003, HistoryLink.org], The Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History, accessed 2 Jun 2008
  18. ^ "The first smallpox epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In the fur-traders' words", National Institutes of Health
  19. ^ Mountain Man Plain Indian Fur Trade
  20. ^ Review of J. Diane Pearson, "Lewis Cass and the Politics of Disease: The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832", Project Muse, Johns Hopkins University
  21. ^ "The Politics of Sovereignty",Wicazo Sa Review: Vol. 18, No. 2, (Autumn, 2003), pp. 9–35,
  22. ^ Wyoming Massacre, Encyclopædia Britannica
  23. ^ Wilcomb E. Washburn, "Indians and the American Revolution", AmericanRevolution.org, History Channel Network, accessed February 23, 2006.
  24. ^ Carter (III), Samuel (1976). Cherokee sunset: A nation betrayed : a narrative of travail and triumph, persecution and exile. New York: Doubleday, p. 232.
  25. ^ see Genocides in history#The Americas
  26. ^ Steven Kelman, U.S. History, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1999
  27. ^ Kunnen-Jones, Marianne (2002-08-21). Anniversary Volume Gives New Voice To Pioneer Accounts of Sioux Uprising. University of Cincinnati. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  28. ^ Ralph K. Andrist. MASSACRE!, American Heritage, April 1962
  29. ^ Wellman, Paul [1934]. "Preface", The Indian Wars of the West. Doubleday & Company, INC., 8. ISBN NONE. 
  30. ^ The Great Confusion in Indian Affairs: Native Americans and Whites in the Progressive Era, Tom Holm, http://www.utexas.edu/utpress/excerpts/exholgre.html
  31. ^ What Were Boarding Schools Like for Indian Youth?. authorsden.com. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  32. ^ Long-suffering urban Indians find roots in ancient rituals. California's Lost Tribes. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  33. ^ Developmental and learning disabilities. PRSP Disabilities. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  34. ^ Soul Wound: The Legacy of Native American Schools. Amnesty International USA. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  35. ^ The U.S. Relationship To American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes. usinfo.state.gov. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  36. ^ Bureau of Indian affairs. Retrieved on December 25, 2007.
  37. ^ Annual Estimates by Race Alone. US Census.gov. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  38. ^ Mixing Bodies and Beliefs: The Predicament of Tribes. Columbia Law Review. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  39. ^ The Muwekman Ohlone (English). muwekma.org. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  40. ^ Challenges to Health and Well-Being of Native American Communities. The Provider's Guide to Quality and Culture. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  41. ^ BIA page. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  42. ^ A Resolution by the Native American Caucus. Canku Ota. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  43. ^ The Genocide and Relocation of the Dine'h (Navajo). Senaa. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  44. ^ The Black Mesa Syndrome: Indian Lands, Black Gold. Shundahai.org. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  45. ^ Big Mountain Update 1 February 1997. LISTSERV at Wayne State University. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  46. ^ The black-and-white world of Walter Ashby Plecker. Pilotonline.com. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  47. ^ Va. Indians still hunt federal recognition. roanoke.com. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  48. ^ NCAA Bans Indian Mascots. Online NewsHour. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  49. ^ Hume, Mark. "Activist pleaded to live, U.S. says; Extradition hearing in Vancouver told about final days of N.S. Mikmaq killed in 1975", The Globe and Mail (Canada), Bell Globemedia Publishing Inc., 2004-12-07, p. A12. Retrieved on 2007-06-30. (English) 
  50. ^ Mickleburgh, Rod. "Former AIM member looses extradition appeal", The Globe and Mail (Canada), 2007-06-27, p. A10. Retrieved on 2007-06-30. (English) 
  51. ^ Walking a Mile: A Qualitative Study Exploring How Indians and Non-Indians Think About Each Other. Public Agenda. Retrieved on December 2, 2007.
  52. ^ Ancestry in a Drop of Blood (August 30, 2005), by Karen Kaplan. URL accessed on February 20, 2006
  53. ^ [1][2] [3]
  54. ^ Nelson, William Javier.Latinos. URL accessed on June 5, 2006.
  55. ^ a b c Morgan, Lewis H. (1907). Ancient Society. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Company, 70–71, 113. 
  56. ^ Iroquois History. URL accessed on February 23, 2006.
  57. ^ American Indian Agriculture. US History Encyclopedia. Retrieved on February 8, 2008.
  58. ^ A Brief History of the Native American Church by Jay Fikes. URL accessed on February 22, 2006.
  59. ^ Gender, Encyclopedia of North American Indians, by Beatrice Medicine. URL accessed on February 99, 2006.
  60. ^ [4], Native American Women, Indians.org. URL accessed on January 11, 2007.
  61. ^ [5], Medicine Women, Bluecloud.org. URL accessed on January 11, 2007.
  62. ^ [6], Women in Battle, Bluecloud.org. URL accessed on January 11, 2007.
  63. ^ Turner, T. "I, Tina". Harper Collins. 1987. ISBN 0-380-70097-2
  64. ^ Bierhosrt, John (1992). A Cry from the Earth: Music of North American Indians. Ancient City Press. 
  65. ^ NIGA: Indian Gaming Facts.
  66. ^ Number of U.S. Minority Owned Businesses Increasing.
  67. ^ Kalt, Joseph. Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development. Retrieved on 2008-06-17.
  68. ^ Cornell, Stephen. Co-director, Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development. Retrieved on 2008-06-17.
  69. ^ Cornell, S., Kalt, J.. What Can Tribes Do? Strategies and Institutions in American Indian Economic Development. Retrieved on 2008-06-17.
  70. ^ Native Entrepreneurship: Challenges and opportunities for rural communities - CFED, Northwest Area Foundation Dec. 2004.
  71. ^ Katz WL 1997 p103
  72. ^ a b Duncan, James W. "Chronicles of Oklahoma" Volume 6, No. 2 June, 1928 INTERESTING ANTE-BELLUM LAWS OF THE CHEROKEES, NOW OKLAHOMA HISTORY (Accessible as of July 13, 2007 here)
  73. ^ Davis, J. B. "Chronicles of Oklahoma", Volume 11, No. 4 December, 1933 SLAVERY IN THE CHEROKEE NATION (Accessible as of July 13, 2007 here)
  74. ^ Wired 13.09: Blood Feud
  75. ^ I AM AN AMERICAN INDIAN, NOT A NATIVE AMERICAN!. Russell Means. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  76. ^ What's in a Name? Indians and Political Correctness. All Things Cherokee. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  77. ^ Preference for Racial or Ethnic Terminology. Infoplease. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  78. ^ American Indian versus Native American. Infoplease. Retrieved on February 8, 2006.
  79. ^ US census
  80. ^ US census

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Few peoples have remained totally uncontacted by modern civilisation. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people, as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lewis Henry Morgan (November 21, 1818 – December 17, 1881) was an American ethnologist, anthropologist and writer. ... The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sociological sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience 1875–1928, University Press of Kansas, 1975. ISBN 0-7006-0735-8 (hbk); ISBN 0-7006-0838-9 (pbk).
  • Bierhorst, John. A Cry from the Earth: Music of North American Indians. ISBN 0-941270-53-X.
  • Deloria, Vine. 1969. Custer Died for Your Sins: an Indian Manifesto. New York: Macmillan.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR), Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries PART 22—EAGLE PERMITS [7]
  • Hirschfelder, Arlene B.; Byler, Mary G.; & Dorris, Michael. Guide to research on North American Indians. American Library Association (1983). ISBN 0-8389-0353-3.
  • Johnston, Eric F. The Life of the Native American, Atlanta, GA: Tradewinds Press (2003).
  • Johnston, Eric. The Life Of the Native. Philadelphia, PA: E.C. Biddle, etc. 1836–44. University of Georgia Library.
  • Jones, Peter N. Respect for the Ancestors: American Indian Cultural Affiliation in the American West. Boulder, CO: Bauu Press (2005). ISBN 0-9721349-2-1.
  • Nichols, Roger L. Indians in the United States & Canada, A Comparative History. University of Nebraska Press (1998). ISBN 0-8032-8377-6.
  • Pohl, Frances K. Framing America. A Social History of American Art. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2002 (pages 54–56 & 105–106 & 110–111)
  • Shanley, Kathryn Winona. "The Paradox of Native American Indian Intellectualism and Literature", MELUS, Vol. 29, 2004
  • Shanley, Kathryn Winona. "The Indians America Loves to Love and Read: American Indian Identity and Cultural Appropriation", American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 4 (Autumn, 1997), pp. 675–702 doi:10.2307/1185719
  • Krech, Shepard. The Ecological Indian: Myth and History, New York: W.W. Norton, 1999. 352 p. ISBN 0393047555
  • Sletcher, Michael, "North American Indians", in Will Kaufman and Heidi Macpherson, eds., Britain and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History, New York: Oxford University Press, 2005, 2 vols.
  • Snipp, C.M. American Indians: The first of this land. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1989.
  • Sturtevant, William C. (Ed.). Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 1–20). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. (Vols. 1–3, 16, 18–20 not yet published), (1978–present).
  • Tiller, Veronica E. (Ed.). Discover Indian Reservations USA: A Visitors' Welcome Guide. Foreword by Ben Nighthorse Campbell. Denver, CO: Council Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-9632580-0-1.

Vine Deloria, Jr. ... Ben Nighthorse Campbell (born April 13, 1933) is an American politician. ...

Further reading

  • Calloway, Colin G., The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity in Native American Communities (Cambridge University Press, 1995)
  • Graymont, Barbara, The Iroquois in the American Revolution (Syracuse University Press)
  • Downes, Randolph C., Council Fires on the Upper Ohio: A Narrative of Indian Affairs in the Upper Ohio Valley until 1795 (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)
  • O’Donnell, James, Southern Indians in the American Revolution (University of Tennessee Press, 1973)

External links

  • Houghton Mifflin Encyclopedia of North American Indians
  • American Indian History and Related Issues
  • Indian Days of the Long Ago By Thomas L. M’Kenney and James Hall. Publisher: Philadelphia: E.C. Biddle, etc., 1836–44. (searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF)
  • Bonneville Collection of 19th century photographs of Native Americans at University of South Carolina Library's Digital Collections Page
  • American Indians of the Pacific Northwest at the University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections
  • McKenney and Hall Tribes of North America
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Native Americans

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... // Demographics in 2000 US Census Pacific Islander Americans represent the smallest group counted on the 2000 US Census. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... Image File history File links Original_locations_of_races_US_census_definition. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... The Archeology of the Americas is the study of the archeology of North America, Central America (or Mesoamerica), South America and the Caribbean, which is to say, the pre-history and Pre-Columbian history of Native American peoples. ... There are several popular models of migration to the New World proposed by the anthropological community. ... Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contacts were interactions between the indigenous peoples of the Americas and peoples of other continents – Europe, Africa, Asia, or Oceania – before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... Cultural regions of North American people at the time of European contact. ... Paleo-Indians is an English term used to refer to the ancient peoples of America who were present at the end of the last Ice Age. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... Natives of North America. ... Inca-era terraces on Taquile are used to grow traditional Andean staples, such as quinua and potatoes, alongside wheat, a European import. ... The Native American name controversy is an ongoing dispute over the acceptable ways to refer to the indigenous peoples of the Americas and to broad subsets thereof, such as those living in a specific country or sharing certain cultural attributes. ... Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... Holding The Supreme Court did not have original jurisdiction under Article III of the Constitution to hear a suit brought by the Cherokee Nation, which as an Indian tribe, was not a sovereign nation. ... Holding States were not permitted to redraw the boundaries of Indian lands or forbid residence in those territories, because the Constitution granted sole authority to Congress to regulate relations with sovereign Indian tribes. ... Standing Bear Standing Bear (1834(?) - 1908) was a Ponca Native American chief who successfully argued in U.S. District Court in 1879 that Native Americans are persons within the meaning of the law and have the rights of citizenship. ... Cobell v. ... The 1896 United States Supreme Court case Talton v. ... The American Indian Religious Freedom Act (commonly abbreviated to AIRFA) is a 1978 United States federal law and a joint resolution of Congress which pledged to protect and preserve the traditional religious rights of American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts, and Native Hawaiians. ... Burke Act (1906), was designed to correct certain defects in the Dawes Act of 1887, under which the land in the Indian reservations was to be broken up and distributed in severalty to the individual Indians. ... Also known as the Dawes Severalty Act, the Dawes Act authorized the President of the United States to have Native American tribal lands surveyed and divided into plots for individual Native American families. ... The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (or NAGPRA) is a United States federal law passed in 1990 requiring that Native Americans cultural items be returned to their respective peoples if and when they have been excavated, and allows archeological teams a short time for analysis before the remains... The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (often abbrivated as ICWA) (25 U.S.C. § 1901 et. ... The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted full U.S. citizenship to Americas indigenous peoples. ... The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (Pub. ... The Indian Intercourse Acts were several acts passed by the United States Congress regulating commerce between American Indians and non-Indians and restricting travel by non-Indians onto Indian land. ... The Indian Removal Act, part of a U.S. government policy known as Indian Removal, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. ... The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act or informally, the Indian New Deal, was a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. ... The Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936, also known as the Thomas-Rogers Act, was an extension of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 which sought to return some form of tribal government to the many tribes in Indian Territory. ... Public Law 280 is a method whereby States may assume jurisdiction over reservation Indians, as stated by Arizona Supreme Court Justice Stanley G. Feldman. ... The National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) is a United States federal regulatory agency charged with oversight of Native American gambling enterprises. ... // Native American gambling enterprises comprise gambling businesses operated on Indian reservations or tribal land, which have limited sovereignty and therefore the ability to exist outside of direct state regulation. ... The Dawes Rolls were created by the Dawes Commission. ... The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ... There are a number of federal wildlife laws pertaining to eagles and their feathers (e. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Native Americans - American Indians - The First People of America; History of Native American Tribes (1615 words)
It is believed that the first Native Americans arrived during the last ice-age, approximately 20,000 - 30,000 years ago through a land-bridge across the Bering Sound, from northeastern Siberia into Alaska.
The Natives regarded their white-complexioned visitors as something of a marvel, not only for their outlandish dress and beards and winged ships but even more for their wonderful technology - steel knives and swords, fire-belching arquebus and cannon, mirrors, hawkbells and earrings, copper and brass kettles, and so on.
Native people and their cultural heritage, with emphasis on the traditional cultures of the Indigenous People of the Southwest by exhibiting the work of Carl Moon for the world on the internet.
Native Americans in the United States - NativeWiki (7347 words)
In the American Southwest, especially New Mexico, a syncretism between the Catholicism brought by Spanish missionaries and the native religion is common; the religious drums, chants, and dances of the Pueblo people are regularly part of Masses at Santa Fe's Saint Francis Cathedral.A Brief History of the Native American Church by Jay Fikes.
Native Americans are the only known ethnic group in the United States requiring a federal permit to practice their religion.
Native Americans and non-Native Americans frequently contest the value and validity of the eagle feather law, charging that the law is laden with discriminatory racial preferences and infringes on tribal sovereignty.
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