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Encyclopedia > Native American music

IDNIANS SUCK BALLS Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


American Indian music is the musics that are shared by or that distinguish American Indian tribes and First Nations. In addition to the traditional music of those groups there now exist pan-tribal or intertribal genres as well as distinct Indian subgenres of popular music including: rock, blues, hip hop, classical, film music and reggae, as well as popular pan-tribal styles like waila (chicken scratch). For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Note that this classification is now considered incorrect and should not be used in everyday writing. ... http://www. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... A music genre is a category (or genre) of pieces of music that share a certain style or basic musical language (van der Merwe 1989, p. ... A genre is any of the traditional divisions of art forms from a single field of activity into various kinds according to criteria particular to that form. ... Popular music is music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and are disseminated by one or more of the mass media. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... “Blues music” redirects here. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the 2000s . ... A film score is the background music in a film, generally specially written for the film and often used to heighten emotions provoked by the imagery on the screen or by the dialogue. ... Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Chicken scratch (waila music) is a kind of dance music developed by the Tohono Oodham people. ...

Indigenous music of North America:
Topics
Native American/First Nations
Chicken scratch Ghost Dance
Hip hop Native American flute
Peyote song Powwow
Tribal music
Arapaho Blackfoot
Dene Innu
Inuit Iroquois
Kiowa Metis
Navajo Ojibwe
Omaha Kwakiutl
Pueblo (Hopi, Zuni) Seminole
Sioux (Lakota, Dakota) Yuman
Related topics
Music of the United States - Music of Canada

Contents

Chicken scratch (also known as waila music) is a kind of dance music developed by the Tohono Oodham people. ... For other uses, see Ghost Dance (disambiguation). ... Native American hip hop is popular among Native Americans in the United States and the First Nations of Canada. ... Native American flute crafted by Chief Arthur Two-Crows, 1987 The Native American flute has achieved some measure of fame for its distinctive sound, used in a variety of New Age and world music recordings. ... Peyote songs are a form of Native American music, performed as part of the Native American Church. ... This article is about a Native American gathering. ... The Arapaho are a tribe of Native Americans from the western Great Plains, in the area of eastern Colorado and Wyoming. ... Blackfoot music (best translated in the Blackfoot language as nitsínixki - I sing, from nínixksini - song) is primarily a vocal kind of music, using few instruments (called ninixkiátsis, derived from the word for song and associated primarily with European-American instruments), only percussion and voice, and few words. ... The Dene live in northern Canada. ... The Innu are among the First Nations of Canada. ... The Inuit live across the northern sections of Canada, especially in Yukon, Nunavat and Northwest Territories, as well as in Alaska and Greenland. ... The Iroquois are a Native American tribe. ... The Kiowa are a Native American tribe. ... Navajo music is the music of the Navajo people and nation, currently in Arizona, Utah and New Mexico. ... The Kwakiutl are an Aboriginal people in Canada. ... Pueblo music includes the music of the Hopi, Zuni, Taos Pueblo, San Ildefonso, Santo Domingo, and many other peoples, and according to Bruno Nettl features one of the most complex Native American musical styles on the continent. ... The Seminole are an indigenous people of the Americas, living in the U.S. state of Florida. ... The Sioux are a diverse group of Native Americans generally divided into three subgroups: Lakota, Dakota and Nakota. ... The Yuman are a tribe of Native Americans from what is now Southern California. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... Canadian music includes pop and folk genres; the latter includes forms derived from England, France (particularly in Quebec), Ireland, Scotland, and various Inuit and Indian ethnic groups. ...

Characteristics

Vocalization and percussion are the most important aspects of traditional Native American music. Vocalization takes many forms, ranging from solo and choral song to responsorial, unison and multipart singing. Percussion, especially drums and rattles, are common accompaniment to keep the rhythm steady for the singers, who generally use their native language or vocables (nonsense syllables). Traditional music usually begins with slow and steady beats that grow gradually faster and more emphatic, while various flourishes like drum and rattle tremolos, shouts and accented patterns add variety and signal changes in performance for singers and dancers.[1] A vocable is a word used without meaning. ... Tremolo is a musical term with two meanings: A rapid repetition of the same note, a rapid variation in the amplitude of a single note, or an alternation between two or more notes. ...


Song texts and sources

Native American song texts include both public pieces and secret songs, said to be "ancient and unchanging", which are used only for sacred and ceremonial purposes. There are also public sacred songs, as well as ritual speeches that are sometimes perceived as musical because of their use of rhythm and melody. These ritual speeches often directly describe the events of a ceremony, and the reasons and ramifications of the night.[2] Vocables, or lexically meaningless syllables, are a common part of many kinds of Native American songs. They frequently mark the beginning and end of phrases, sections or songs themselves. Often songs make frequent use of vocables and other untranslatable elements. Songs that are translatable include historical songs, like the Navajo "Shi' naasha', which celebrates the end of Navajo internment in Fort Sumter, New Mexico in 1868. Tribal flag songs and national anthems are also a major part of the Native American musical corpus, and are a frequent starter to public ceremonies, especially powwows. Native American music also includes a range of courtship songs, dancing songs and popular American or Canadian tunes like "Amazing Grace, "Dixie", "Jambalaya" and "Sugar in the Morning". Many songs celebrate harvest, planting season or other important times of year.[2] A vocable is a word used without meaning. ... This article is about a Native American gathering. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A piper plays Amazing Grace on Memorial Day. ... Sheet music cover, c. ... Jambalaya is a popular song. ...


Societal role

Native American music plays a vital role in history and education, with ceremonies and stories orally passing on ancestral customs to new generations. Native American ceremonial music is traditionally said to originate from deities or spirits, or from particularly respected individuals. Rituals are shaped by every aspect of song, dance and costuming, and each aspect informs about the "makers, wearers and symbols important to the nation, tribe, village, clan, family, or individual".[1] They can vary slightly from year to year, with leaders recombining and introducing slight variations. The Pueblo compose a number of new songs each year in a committee which uses dreams and visions.[3] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pueblo Indians . ...


The styles and purposes of music vary greatly between and among each Native American tribe. However, a common concept amongst many indigenous groups is a conflation of music and power. For example, the Pima people feel many of their songs were given in the beginning and sung by the Creator. It is believed that some people then have more of an inclination to musical talent than others because of an individual's peculiar power.[4] The Akimel Oodham or Pima are a group of Native Americans living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona (USA) and Sonora (Mexico). ...


Gender

Within various Native American communities, gender plays an important role in music. Men and women play sex-specific roles in many musical activities. Instruments, songs and dances are often peculiar to one or the other sex, and many musical settings are strictly controlled by sex. In modern powwows, women play a vital role as backup singers and dancers.[5] The Cherokee people, for example, hold dances before stickball games. At these pre-game events, men and women perform separate dances and follow separate regulations. Men will dance in a circle around a fire, while women dance in place. Men sing their own songs, while women have their songs sung for them by an elder. Whereas the men's songs invoke power, the women's songs draw power away from the opposing stickball team.[6] In some societies, there are customs where certain ceremonial drums are only to be played by men. For the Southern Plains Indians, it is believed that the first drum was given to a woman by the Great Spirit, who instructed her to share it with all women of native nations. However, there also exist prohibitions against women sitting at the Big Drum.[6] For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... Stickball is a street game related to baseball, usually formed as a pick-up game, in large cities in the Northeastern United States (especially New York City). ...


Chief Joseph once said, "We were taught to believe that the Great Spirit sees and hears everything, and that he never forgets, that hereafter he will give every man a spirit home according to his deserts; if he has been a good man, he will have a good home; if he has been a bad man, he will have a bad home. This I believe and all my people believe the same."


John Wooden Legs of the Cheyenne tribe once stated, "Our land is everything to us...I will tell you one of the things we remember on our land. We remember that our grandfathers paid for it - with their lives."


Charles A. Eastman once said, "Every age, every race, has its leaders and heroes. There were over sixty distinct tribes of Indians on this continent, each of which boasted its notable men. The names and deeds of some of these men will live in American history, hi!! yet in the true sense they are unknown, because misunderstood. I should like to present some of the greatest chiefs of modern times in the light of the native character and ideals, believing that the American people will gladly do them tardy justice."


In many tribal music cultures, there is a relative paucity of traditional women's songs and dances, especially in the Northeast and Southeast music areas. The Southeast is, however, home to a prominent women's musical tradition in the use of leg rattles for ceremonial and friendship dances, and the women's singing during Horse and Ball Game contests. The West Coast tribes of North America tend to more prominence in women's music, with special women's love songs, medicine songs and hand game songs; the Southwest is particularly diverse in women's musical offerings, with major ceremonial, instrumental and social roles in dances.. Women also play a vital ceremonial role in the Sun Dance of the Great Plains and Great Basin, and also sing during social dances; Shoshone women still sang the songs of the Ghost Dance into the 1980s.[5] Love songs are songs about love, a subset of songs that deal with intimacy. ... Sketch of a Siouan Sun Dance by George Catlin The Sun Dance is a ceremony practiced by a number of native americans. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... For other uses, see Ghost Dance (disambiguation). ...


History

Music and history are tightly interwoven in Native American life. A tribe's history is constantly told and retold through music, which keeps alive an oral narrative of history. These historical narratives vary widely from tribe to tribe, and are an integral part of tribal identity. However, their historical authenticity can not be verified; aside from supposition and some archaeological evidence, the earliest documentation of Native American music came with the arrival of European explorers.[7] Musical instruments and pictographs depicting music and dance have been dated as far back as the 7th century.[8] Oral history is an account of something passed down by word of mouth from one generation to another. ...


Bruno Nettl refers to the style of the Great Basin area as the oldest style and common throughout the entire continent before Mesoamerica but continued only in the Great Basin and in the lullaby, gambling, and tale genres around the continent. A style featuring relaxed vocal technique and the rise may have originated in Mesoamerican Mexico and spread northward, particularly into the California-Yuman and Eastern music areas. According to Nettl, these styles also feature "relative" rhythmic simplicity in drumming and percussion, with isometric material and pentatonic scales in the singing, and motives created from shorter sections into longer ones.[9] This article is about the culture area. ...


While this process occurred, three Asian styles may have influenced North American music across the Bering Strait, all featuring pulsating vocal technique and possibly evident in recent Paleo-Siberian tribes such as Chuckchee, Yukaghir, Koryak. Also, these may have influenced the Plains-Pueblo, Athabascan, and Inuit-Northwest Coast areas. According to Nettl, the boundary between these southward and the above northward influences are the areas of greatest musical complexity: the Northwest Coast, Pueblo music, and Navajo music. Evidence of influences between the Northwest Coast and Mexico are indicated, for example, by bird-shaped whistles.[9] The Plains-Pueblo area has influenced and continues to influence the surrounding cultures, with contemporary musicians of all tribes learning Plains-Pueblo influenced pantribal genres such as Peyote songs.[9]


Music areas

Nettl uses the following music areas which approximately coincide with Wissler, Kroeber, and Driver's cultural areas: Inuit-Northwest coast, Great Basin, California-Yuman, Plains-Pueblo, Athabascan, and Eastern.[10] A cultural area is a region (area) with one relatively homogenous human activity or complex of activities (culture). ...


Southwest

Arid American Southwest is home to two broad groupings of closely-related cultures, the Pueblo and Athabaskan. The Southern Athabaskan Navajo and Apache tribes sing in Plains-style nasal vocals with unblended monophony, while the Pueblos emphasize a relaxed, low range and highly blended monophonic style. Athabaskan songs are swift and use drums or rattles, as well as an instrument unique to this area, the Apache violin, or "Tsii'edo'a'tl" meaning "wood that sings" in Apache.[11] The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pueblo Indians . ... Areas in which Athabaskan languages and Eyak and Tlingit are traditionally spoken Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, located in two main Southern and Northern groups in western... Map of the Navajo Nation The Navajo Nation (Dineé in Navajo language) is a Native American sovereignty. ... For other uses, see Apache (disambiguation). ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A rattle is a percussion musical instrument. ... For other uses, see Apache (disambiguation). ...


Pueblo songs are complex and meticulously detailed, usually with five sections divided into four or more phrases characterized by detailed introductory and cadential formulas. They are much slower in tempo than Athabaskan songs, and use various percussion instruments as accompaniment. “Percussion” redirects here. ...


Nettl describes Pueblo music, including Hopi, Zuni, Taos Pueblo, San Ildefonso, Santo Domingo, and many others, as one of the most complex on the continent, featuring increased length and number of scale tones (hexatonic and heptatonic common), variety of form, melodic contour, and percussive accompaniment, ranges between an octave and a twelfth, with rhythmic complexity equal to the Plains sub-area. He sites the Kachina dance songs as the most complex songs and Hopi and Zuni material as the most complex of the Pueblo, while the Tanoans and Keresans musics are simpler and intermediary between the Plains and western Pueblos. The music of the Pima and Papago is intermediary between the Plains-Pueblo and the California-Yuman music areas, with melodic movement of the Yuman, though including the rise, and the form and rhythm of the Pueblo.[12] “Moki” redirects here. ... The Zuni (also spelled Zuñi) or Ashiwi are a Native American tribe, one of the Pueblo peoples, most of whom live in the Pueblo of Zuñi on the Zuni River, a tributary of the Little Colorado River, in western New Mexico. ... Taos Pueblo, circa 1920 Taos Pueblo (or Pueblo de Taos), continuously inhabited for over 1000 years, is the ancient town of the Northern Tiwa speaking tribe of Pueblo people, Native Americans. ... Kachina doll In Pueblo religious practices, Kachina (also spelled Katsina) refers to three related things: Supernatural entities or spirits capable of influencing the natural world. ... The Kiowa-Tanoan languages are a Native American language family. ... The Keres language is a group of seven related dialects spoken by Pueblo peoples in New Mexico, U.S.A. Each is mutually intelligible with its neighbors. ... The Akimel Oodham or Pima are a group of Native Americans living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona (USA) and Sonora (Mexico). ... The Tohono Oodham are a Native American tribe formerly known as the Papago who reside primarily in the Sonoran Desert of the southwest United States and northwest Mexico. ... Rise may mean: Rise, a village in the East Riding of Yorkshire Rise, an album by Bad Brains Rise, an album by Gabrielle Rise, an album by SPEED Rise, an EP by NON Rise, an album by Anoushka Shankar RISE is an earthquake information sharing web portal Rise Technology, a...


He describes Southern Athabascan music, that of the Apache and Navaho, as the simplest next to the Great Basin style, featuring strophic form, tense vocals using pulsation and falsetto, tritonic and tetratonic scales in triad formation, simple rhythms and values of limited duration (usually only two per song), arc-type melodic contours, and large melodic intervals with a predominance of major and minor thirds and perfect fourths and fifths with octave leaps not rare. Peyote songs share characteristics of Apache music and Plains-Pueblo music having been promoted among the Plains by the Apache people.[12] Peyote songs are a form of Native American music, performed as part of the Native American Church. ...


He describes the structural characteristics of California-Yuman music, including that of Pomo, Miwak, Luiseno, Catalineno, and Gabrielino, and the Yuman tribes, including, Mohave, Yuman, Havasupai, Maricopa, as using the rise in almost all songs, a relaxed nonpulsating vocal technique (like European classical music), a relatively large amount of isorhythmic material, some isorhythmic tendencies, simple rhythms, pentatonic scales without semitones, an average melodic range of an octave, sequence, and syncopated figures such as a sixteenth-note, eight-note, sixteenth-note figure. The form of rise used varies throughout the area, usually being rhythmically related to the preceding non-rise section but differing in melodic material or pitch. The rise may be no higher than the highest pitch of the original section, but will contain a much larger number of higher pitches. In California the non-rise is usually one reiterate phrase, the rise being the phrase transposed an octave higher, the Yumans use a non-rise of long repeated sections each consisting of several phrases, the rise being three to five phrases performed only once, and in southern California the previous two and progressive forms are found.[13] Sequence can refer to: sequence, a logical and mathematical notion In biochemistry, a biopolymers sequence is synonymous with its primary structure: the list of basic building blocks constituting the polymer (for example a DNA sequence). ...


Eastern Woodlands

Inhabiting a wide swath of the United States and Canada, Eastern Woodlands natives, according to Nettl, can be distinguished by antiphony (call and response style singing), which does not occur in other areas. Their territory includes Maritime Canada, New England, U.S. Mid-Atlantic, Great Lakes and Southeast regions. Songs are rhythmically complex, characterized by frequent metric changes and a close relationship to ritual dance. Flutes and whistles are solo instruments, and a wide variety of drums, rattles and striking sticks are played. Nettl describes the Eastern music area as the region between the Mississippi river and the Atlantic. The most complex styles being that of the Southeastern Creek, Yuchi, Cherokee, Choctaw, Iroquois and their language group, the simpler style being that of the Algonquian language group including Delaware and Penobscot. The Algonquian speaking Shawnee have a relatively complex style influenced by the nearby southeastern tribes.[14] This article is about the musical term. ... In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually played by different musicians, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or response to the first. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... It has been suggested that Middle Atlantic States be merged into this article or section. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes on or near the United States-Canadian border. ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Ceremonial dance is a major category or classification of dance forms or dance styles, where the purpose is ceremonial or ritualistic. ...


The characteristics of this entire area include short iterative phrases, reverting relationships, shouts before, during, and after singing, anhematonic pentatonic scales, simple rhythms and meter and, according to Nettl, antiphonal or responsorial techniques including "rudimentary imitative polyphony". Melodic movement tends to be gradually descending throughout the area and vocals include a moderate amount of tension and pulsation.[14]


Plains

Extending across the American Midwest into Canada, Plains-area music is nasal, with high pitches and frequent falsettos, with a terraced descent (a step-by-step descent down an octave) in an unblended monophony. Strophes use incomplete repetition, meaning that songs are divided into two parts, the second of which is always repeated before returning to the beginning. Midwest States (United States of America, ND to OH) The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Falsetto is a singing technique that produces sounds that are pitched higher than the singers normal range, in the treble range. ... Melodic motion is the quality of movement of a melody, including nearness or farness of successive pitches or notes in a melody. ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ... In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ... Strophe (Greek, to turn) is a term in versification which properly means a turn, as from one foot to another, or from one side of a chorus to the other. ... Incomplete repetition is a musical form featuring two large sections, the second being a partial or incomplete re-presentation or repetition of the first. ...


Large double-sided skin drums are characteristic of the Plains tribes, and solo end-blown flutes (flageolet) are also common. The end-blown flute is a simple woodwind instrument where the player directs air against the end of a pipe or tube. ...


Nettl describes the central Plains tribes, from Canada to Texas: Blackfoot, Crow, Dakota, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, and Comanche, as the most typical and simple sub-area of the Plains-Pueblo music area. This area's music is characterized by extreme vocal tension, pulsation, melodic preference for perfect fourths and a range averring a tenth, rhythmic complexity, and increased frequence of tetratonic scales. The musics of the Arapaho and Cheyenne intensify these characteristics, while the northern tribes, especially Blackfoot music, feature simpler material, smaller melodic ranges, and fewer scale tones.[15] In music, a scale is a collection of musical notes that provides material for part or all of a musical work. ... Blackfoot music (best translated in the Blackfoot language as nitsínixki - I sing, from nínixksini - song) is primarily a vocal kind of music, using few instruments (called ninixkiátsis, derived from the word for song and associated primarily with European-American instruments), only percussion and voice, and few words. ...


Nettl Arapaho music includes ceremonial and secular songs, such as the ritualistic Sun Dance, performed in the summer when the various bands of the Arapaho people would come together. Arapaho traditional songs consist of two sections exhibiting terraced descent, with a range greater than an octave and scales between four and six tones. Other ceremonial songs were received in visions, or taught as part of the men's initiations into a society for his age group. Secular songs include a number of social dances, such as the triple meter round dances and songs to inspire warriors or recent exploits. There are also songs said to be taught by a guardian spirit, which should only be sung when the recipient is near death.[16] The Arapaho are a tribe of Native Americans from the western Great Plains, in the area of eastern Colorado and Wyoming. ... Sketch of a Siouan Sun Dance by George Catlin The Sun Dance is a ceremony practiced by a number of native americans. ... There are two distinct dance categories called Round Dance. ...


Great Basin

Music of the Great Basin is simple, discreet and ornate, characterized by short melodies with a range smaller than an octave, moderately-blended monophony, relaxed and open vocals and, most uniquely, paired-phrase structure, in which a melodic phrases, repeated twice, is alternated with one to two additional phrases. A song of this typemight be diagrammed as follows: AA BB CC AA BB CC, etc. Drainage map showing the Great Basin in orange Various Definitions of the Great Basin (NPS) The Great Basin is a large, arid region of the western United States. ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ... In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ...


Nettl describes the music of the sparesly settled Great Basin, including most of desert Utah and Nevada (Paiute, Ute, Shoshoni) and some of southern Oregon (Modoc and Klamath), as "extremely simple," featuring melodic ranges averaging just over a perfect fifth, many tetratonic scales, and short forms. The majority of songs are iterative with each phrase repeated once, though occasional songs with multiple repetitions are found. Many Modoc and Klamath songs contain only one repeated phrase and many of their scales only two to three notes (ditonic or tritonic). This style was carried to the Great Plains by the Ghost Dance religion which originated among the Paiute, and very frequently features paired-phrase patterns and a relaxed nonpulsating vocal style. Herzog attributes the similarly simple lullabies, song-stories, and gambling songs found all over the continent historically to the music of the Great Basin which was preserved through relative cultural isolation and low-population.[17] This article deals with the Native American spiritual movement known as the Ghost Dance. ...


Northwest Coast

Open vocals with monophony are common in the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia, though polyphony also occurs (this the only area of North America with native polyphony). Chromatic intervals accompanying long melodies are also characteristic, and rhythms are complex and declamatory, deriving from speech. Instrumentation is more diverse than in the rest of North America, and includes a wide variety of whistles, flutes, horns and percussion instruments. In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ...


Nettl describes the music of the Kwakwaka'wakw, Nuu-chah-nulth, Tsimshian, Makah, and Quileute as some of the most complex on the continent, with the music of the Salish nations (Nlaka'pamux, Nuxálk, and Sliammon, and others directly east of the Northwest tribes) as being intermediary between these Northwest Coast tribes and Inuit music. The music of the Salish tribes, and even more so the Northwest coast, intensifies the significant features of Inuit music, see below, however their melodic movement is often pendulum-type ("leaping in broad intervals from one limit of the range to the other"). The Northwest coast music also "is among the most complicated on the continent, especially in regard to rhythmic structure," featuring intricate rhythmic patterns distinct from but related to the vocal melody and rigid percussion. He also reports unrecorded use of incipient polyphony in the form of drones or parallel intervals in addition to antiphonal and responorial forms. Vocals are extremely tense, producing dynamic contrast, ornamentation, and pulsation, and also often using multiple sudden accents in one held tone.[18] The Kwakwakawakw (also Kwakiutl) are an Indigenous nation, numbering about 5,500, who live in British Columbia on northern Vancouver Island and the mainland. ... The Nuu-chah-nulth (pronounced New-cha-nulth) (also formerly referred to as the Nootka, Nutka, Aht, West Coast, T’aat’aaqsapa, Nuuchahnulth) people are indigenous peoples of Canada. ... The Tsimshian, usually pronounced in English as // (SIM-shee-an), translated as People Inside the Skeena River, are Indigenous, or Native American and First Nation people who live around Terrace and Prince Rupert, on the north coast of British Columbia and the southernmost corner of Alaska on Annette Island. ... For the Arabian city sometimes called Makkah, see Mecca. ... The Nlakapamux (commonly called the Thompson, and also Thompson River Salish, Thompson Salish, Thompson River Indians or Thompson River people) are an indigenous First Nations/Native American people of Salish ethnicity in southern British Columbia and northern Washington. ... The Nuxálk (pronounced Nu-halk) (also referred to as the Nuxalk, or Bella Coola) are a First Nation in Canada, living in the area in and around Bella Coola, British Columbia. ...


Arctic

Main article: Inuit music The Inuit live across the northern sections of Canada, especially in Yukon, Nunavat and Northwest Territories, as well as in Alaska and Greenland. ...


The Inuit of Alaska, Northwest Territories, Yukon Territory, Nunavut and Greenland are well-known for their throat-singing, an unusual method of vocalizing found only in a few cultures worldwide. Throat-singing is used as the basis for a game among the Inuit. Narrow-ranged melodies and declamatory effects are common, as in the Northwest. Repeated notes mark the ends of phrases. Box drums, which are found elsewhere, are common, as a tambourine-like hand drum. Nettl describes "Eskimo" music as some of the simplest on the continent, listing characteristics including recitative-like singing, complex rhythmic organization, relatively small melodic range averaging about a sixth, prominence of major thirds and minor seconds melodically, with undulating melodic movement.[18] For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... For other geographical names that include Northwest, see Northwest. ... Motto: none Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Jack Cable Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Area 482,443 km² (9th)  - Land 474,391 km²  - Water 8,052 km² (1. ... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Government - Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson - Premier Paul Okalik (Consensus government) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) - Senate seats 1 (Willie Adams) Confederation... Throat singing, a traditional Central Asian art similar to what is sometimes called in the western world overtone singing, harmonic singing, or harmonic chant (terms created by David Hykes in 1975), and many other regional names, is a type of singing that manipulates the harmonic resonances (or formants) created as... “Buben” redirects here. ... A hand drum is any type of drum that is typically played by striking it with the bare hand rather than a stick, mallet, hammer, or other type of beater. ...


Pan-tribalism

Pan-tribalism is the syncretic adoption of traditions from foreign communities. Since the rise of the United States and Canada, Native Americans have forged a common identity, and invented pan-tribal music, most famously including powwows, peyote songs and the Ghost Dance. This article is about a Native American gathering. ... Peyote songs are a form of Native American music, performed as part of the Native American Church. ... For other uses, see Ghost Dance (disambiguation). ...


The Ghost Dance spread throughout the Plains tribes in the 1890s, and most still survive in use. They are characterized by relaxed vocals and a narrow range. Apache-derived peyote songs, prayers in the Native American Church, use a descending melody and monophony. Rattles and water drums are used, in a swift tempo. The Sun Dance and Grass Dance of the plains are the roots of intertribal powwows, which feature music with terraced descent and nasal vocals, both Plains characteristic features. The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... This article is about the Native American tribe, for other uses of the word see Apache (disambiguation). ... Mary Magdalene in prayer. ... Native American Church Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. ... A rattle is a percussion musical instrument. ... Water drums are a category of membranophone characterized by the filling of the drum chamber with some amount of water to create a unique sound. ... Sketch of a Siouan Sun Dance by George Catlin The Sun Dance is a ceremony practiced by a number of native americans. ... Melodic motion is the quality of movement of a melody, including nearness or farness of successive pitches or notes in a melody. ...


John Trudell launched a new genre of spoken word poetry in the 1980s, beginning with Aka Graffiti Man (1986). The next decade saw further innovations in Native American popular music, including Robbie Robertson (of The Band) releasing a soundtrack for a documentary, Music for the Native Americans, that saw limited mainstream success, as well as Verdell Primeaux and Johnny Mike's modernized peyote songs, which they began experimenting with on Sacred Path: Healing Songs of the Native American Church. Waila (or the chicken scratch music of the Tohono O'odham) has gained performers like the Joaquin Brothers fame across Native American communities, while hip hop crews like WithOut Rezervation and Robby Bee & the Boyz From the Rez (Reservation of Education) have a distinctively Native American flourish to hip hop. In the 21st Century the leading light of contemporary Native American music has been Martha Redbone who's award winning albums Home of the Brave (2002) and Skintalk (2005) have incorporated both traditional song and culture references into a brew of soul, funk, rock and jazz that has reached audiences across Europe and Japan as well as into the urban communities of the US. Meanwhile, young Native musicians such as Red Earth (see "Zia Soul" (2003) ), DJ Abel, Derek Miller, Ethnic DeGeneration, and Casper are producing outstanding underground music (ranging from hip-hop to funk to reggae to metal) defying stereotypes of Native people (without label support). John Trudell (born February 15, 1946 in Omaha, Nebraska) is an American author, a poet, musician and a former political activist. ... Spoken word is a form of music or artistic performance in which lyrics, poetry, or stories are spoken rather than sung. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Robbie Robertson (born Jaime Robert Robertson, 5 July 1943, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) is a songwriter, guitarist and singer, best known for his membership in The Band. ... For other uses, see Band. ... In film formats, the soundtrack is the physical area of the film which records the synchronized sound. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Music for The Native Americans is a 1994 album by Robbie Robertson, compiling music written by Robertson and other colleagues (billed as the Red Road Ensemble) for the television documentary film The Native Americans. ... Peyote songs are a form of Native American music, performed as part of the Native American Church. ... Chicken scratch (waila music) is a kind of dance music developed by the Tohono Oodham people. ... The Tohono Oodham are a Native American tribe formerly known as the Papago who reside primarily in the Sonoran Desert of the southwest United States and northwest Mexico. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Martha Redbone is a part Shawnee, African American, and Choctaw musician. ... Red Earth is an international chain of stores selling cosmetics and body care products. ... Casper may mean: // Casper (name) Drew Casper, an award-winning Professor of Critical Studies in the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California. ...


Native American flute

Main article: Native American flute Native American flute crafted by Chief Arthur Two-Crows, 1987 The Native American flute has achieved some measure of fame for its distinctive sound, used in a variety of New Age and world music recordings. ...


The Native American flute has achieved some measure of fame for its distinctive sound, used in a variety of New Age and world music recordings. Its music was used in courtship, healing, meditation and spiritual rituals. New Age music is a style of music originally associated with some New Age beliefs. ... World music is, most generally, all the music in the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Todd Rundgren album, see Healing (Todd Rundgren). ...


The late 1960s saw a roots revival centered around the flute, with a new wave of flautists and artisans like Doc Nevaquaya and Carl Running Deer. Notable and award winning Native American flautists include: Mary Youngblood, Kevin Locke, Jay Red Eagle, Robert Tree Cody, Robert Mirabal, Joseph Firecrow , Jeff Ball and Terry Lee Whetstone. Of special importance is R. Carlos Nakai (Changes, 1983), who has achieved some mainstream renown for his mixture of the flute with other contemporary genres. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors. ... Mary Youngblood is a Native American flutist in Northern California. ... Kevin Locke (Lakota name: Tokeya Inajin, meaning The First to Arise) is a Lakota/Anishinaabe Native American flutist and hoop dancer. ... Headline text Jay Red Eagle is a Native American flutist and member of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. ... Robert Tree Cody (b. ... Robert Mirabal (b. ... Joseph FireCrow is a Native American flutist. ... Jeff Ball is the manager of the Atlantic City Surf professional baseball team for 2004 and 2005. ... R. Carlos Nakai is a Native American Flutist. ... Changes is the ninth studio album by The Monkees. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Native American flute is the only flute in the world constructed with two air chambers - there is a wall inside the flute between the top (slow) air chamber and the bottom chamber which has the whistle and finger holes. The top chamber also serves as a secondary resonator, which gives the flute its distinctive sound. There is a hole at the bottom of the "slow" air chamber and a (generally) square hole at the top of the playing chamber. A block (or "bird") with a spacer is tied on top of the flute to form a thin, flat airstream for the whistle hole (or "window"). Some more modern flutes use an undercut either in the block or the flute to eliminate the need for a spacer.


The "traditional" Native American flute was constructed using measurements based on the body - the length of the flute would be the distance from armpit to wrist, the length of the top air chamber would be one fist-width, the distance from the whistle to the first hole also a fist-width, the distance between holes would be one thumb-width, and the distance from the last hole to the end would generally be one fist-width. Unlike Western music, traditional American Indian music had no standard pitch reference, such as A440, so flutes were not standardized for pitch.


Modern Native American flutes are generally tuned to a variation of the minor pentatonic scale (such as you would get playing the black keys on a piano), which gives the instrument its distinctive plaintive sound. Recently some makers have begun experimenting with different scales, giving players new melodic options. Also, modern flutes are generally tuned in concert keys (such as A or D) so that they can be easily played with other instruments. The root keys of modern Native American flutes span a range of about three and a half octaves, from C2 to A5.


Native American flutes most commonly have either 5 or 6 holes, but instruments can have anything from no holes to seven (including a thumb hole). Various makers employ different scales and fingerings for their flutes.


Some modern Native American flutes are called "drone" flutes, and are two (or more) flutes built together. Generally, the drone chamber plays a fixed note which the other flute can play against in harmony.


Native American drums

Main article: Native American drums


Of great influential and importance are American Indian drums. Different tribes have different traditions about their drums and how to play them. For larger dance or powwow type drums, the basic construction is very similar in most tribes: a wooden frame or a carved and hollowed-out log, with rawhide buckskin or elk skin stretched out across the opening by sinew thongs. Traditionally American Indian drums are large, two to three feet in diameter, and they are played communally by groups of singers who sit around them in a circle. For smaller single-sided hand drums, a thinner frame or shell is used, and a rawhide surface is string onto only one side, with lacing across the other. Other types include two basic styles of water drums: the Iroquois type and the Yaqui type. The Iroquois water drum is a small cup-shaped wooden vessel, with water inside it, and a moistened tanned hide stretched across the top opening; the wetness and tightness of the tanned hide produce changes in pitch as the water drum is played over time. The Yaqui type of water drum is actually a half gourd, large in size, that floats in a tub of water like a bubble on the surface; the outer round surface of the gourd is struck with a drum stick, and the vibrations are amplified using the tub of water as a resonator.


Samples

  • Media:Bice'waan Song.ogg is a recording from the Library of Congress, collected by Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche and published in 1897. The singer is George Miller, who was probably born in about 1852. It was described as: "The true love-song, called by the Omaha Bethae waan, an old designation and not a descriptive name, is sung generally in the early morning, when the lover is keeping his tryst and watching for the maiden to emerge from the tent and go to the spring. They belong to the secret courtship and are sometimes called Me-the-g'thun wa-an - courting songs. . . . They were sung without drum, bell or rattle, to accent the rhythm, in which these songs is subordinated to tonality and is felt only in the musical phrases. . . . Vibrations for the purpose of giving greater expression were not only affected by the tremolo of the voice, but they were enhanced by waving the hand, or a spray of artemesia before the lips, while the body often swayed gently to the rhythm of the song (Fletcher, 1894, p. 156)."
  • Download recording Ghost Dance and gambling song from the Piute and Arapaho Native Americans from the Library of Congress' Emile Berliner and the Birth of the Recording Industry Collection; performed by James Mooney (possibly along with Charles Mooney; neither are believed to be Native Americans) on July 5, 1894
  • Download recording - Kiowa mescal daylight song from the Library of Congress' Emile Berliner and the Birth of the Recording Industry Collection; performed by James Mooney (possibly along with Charles Mooney; neither are believed to be Native Americans) on July 5, 1894
  • Download recording - "Steal Partner" Seminole song from the Library of Congress' Florida Folklife from the WPA Collections; performed by Richard Osceola, Naha Tiger, John Josh and Morgan Smith in July 1940 in Cow Creek, Florida

Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Ghost Dance (disambiguation). ... Caravaggio, The Cardsharps, c. ... Paiute (sometimes written as Piute) refers to two related groups -- Northern Paiute and Southern Paiute--of Native North Americans speaking languages belonging to the Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan family of Native American languages. ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Kiowa are a nation of Native Americans who lived mostly in the plains of west Texas, Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico at the time of the arrival of Europeans. ... Mezcal is a Mexican distilled spirit made from the agave plant. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...

External Link

  • Historical notes for a selection of 60 American Indian melodies

References

  • Crawford, Richard (2001). America's Musical Life. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-04810-1. 
  • Herndon, Marcia (1980). Native American Music. Norwood, Pennsylvania: Norwood Editions. 
  • Means, Andrew (2000). "Ha-Ya-Ya, Weya Ha-Ya-Ya!", in Broughton, Simon and Mark Ellingham, with James McConnachie and Orla Duane (Eds.): The Rough Guide to World Music: Volume 2, Latin and North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and the Pacific. London: Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-636-0. 
  • Nettl, Bruno (1956). Music in Primitive Culture. Harvard University Press. 
  • Nettl, Bruno (1965). Folk and Traditional Music of the Western Continents. Prentice-Hall. 
  • Wilson, Chesley Goseyun (1994). When the Earth Was Like New: Western Apache Songs and Stories. World Music Press. ISBN 0-937203-57-2. 
  • (2001) in Ellen Koskoff (Ed.): The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: Volume 3, The United States and Canada. New York and London: Garland Publishing. ISBN 0824060407. 

Notes

  1. ^ a b Heth, Charlotte, "Overview" in The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, pgs. 367-368
  2. ^ a b Heth, pg. 368-370
  3. ^ Herndon, pgs. 14-16
  4. ^ Herndon 14-16
  5. ^ a b Heth, "Overview" in the Garland Encyclopaedia of World Music, pgs. 370-372
  6. ^ a b Herndon, pg. 124
  7. ^ Crawford, pg. 3 Crawford refers to the "historical knowledge valuable to a Native musician" as falling "more readily into the category of myth than of fact".
  8. ^ Heth, Charlotte, "Overview" in The Garland Encyclopaedia of World Music, pg. 366
  9. ^ a b c Nettl, 1956, pp 117-118
  10. ^ Nettl, 1956, p.107-116
  11. ^ Wilson, p. 37
  12. ^ a b Nettl, 1956, p. 112-114
  13. ^ Nettl, 1956, p.109-110
  14. ^ a b Nettl, 1956, p.114-115
  15. ^ Nettl, 1956, p. 112
  16. ^ Nettl, 1965, p. 150
  17. ^ Nettl, 1956, p. 108-109
  18. ^ a b Nettl, 1956, p. 107-108

Further reading

  • Keeling, R. (1997). North American Indian Music : A Guide to Published Sources and Selected Recordings. Garland Library of Music Ethnology. ISBN 0-8153-0232-0. 
Religious music
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