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Encyclopedia > Native American massacres

In the long history of the English colonization of North America, the term "Indian massacre" was often used to describe mass killings of European-Americans ("whites") by Native Americans ("Indians"), and, less frequently, mass killings of American Indians by whites. In theory, massacre applied to the killing of civilian noncombatants or to the summary execution of prisoners-of-war. In practice, the label was often haphazardly applied, rarely without bias, and was sometimes used to describe an overwhelming (though lawful) military defeat. Similarly, massacres were sometimes mislabeled "battles" in an attempt to give legitimacy to what would today be considered a war crime. British colonization of the Americas began in the late 16th century. ... 2000 density of European Americans European American is a term for Americans of European descent, who are usually referred to as White or Caucasian. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ... Non-combatant is a military and legal term describing civilians not engaged in combat. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with bias (disambiguation). ... The laws of war (Jus in bello) define the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning civilians. ... The Battle of Waterloo by William Sadler. ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international (criminal) law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


Determining how many people died in these massacres overall is difficult. In the book The Wild Frontier: Atrocities during the American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee, amateur historian William M. Osborn sought to tally every recorded atrocity in the area that would eventually become the continental United States, from first contact (1511) to the closing of the frontier (1890), and determined that 9,156 people died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans, and 7,193 people died from atrocities perpetrated by whites. Osborn defines an atrocity as the murder, torture, or mutilation of civilians, the wounded and prisoners. Different definitions would obviously produce different totals. For example, Osborn does not count Indian deaths on the Trail of Tears (because these were allegedly unintentional), but he does count several episodes of post-mortem mutilation, even of combatants killed in open battle. Osborn's exact total of 16,349 killed on both sides can therefore be disputed. An atrocity (from the Latin atrox, atrocious, from Latin ater = matte black (as distinct from niger = shiny black)) is a term used to describe crimes ranging from an act committed against a single person to one committed against a population or ethnic group. ... Events Diego Velázquez and Hernán Cortés conquer Cuba; Velázquez appointed Governor. ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Trail of Tears refers to the forced removal of the Cherokee American Indian tribe by the U.S. federal government, which resulted in the deaths of about 4,000 Cherokee Indians. ...


Neither side stands out as being more merciful or humane than the other. Both sides collected scalps and scrota as trophies. Both sides raped. Both sides would promise safe conduct to defeated enemies or non-combatants, and then massacre them as soon as they let their guard down. Both sides attacked easy targets (such as peaceful -- even friendly -- villages and settlements) as retaliation for hostile acts by totally unrelated war bands and militia units. Native American Big Mouth Spring with decorated scalp lock on right shoulder. ...


List of massacres

Here is a list of the larger or more widely known massacres in North America:

March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in Leap years). ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... The Pequot War in 1637 saw the virtual elimination of the Pequot Indians as a tribe. ... The Mohegans were a functional confederation of several branches of Native Americans during the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century. ... The Narragansett tribe, or more accurately Nahahiganseck Sovereign Nation, controlled the area surrounding Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island, and also portions of Connecticut, and eastern Massachusetts. ... The Pequot were a tribe or nation of Native Americans who, in the 17th century, inhabited much of what is now Connecticut, and spoke a variety of the Algonquian language. ... State nickname: The Constitution State Other U.S. States Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Governor M. Jodi Rell (R) Official languages English Area 14,371 km² (48th)  - Land 12,559 km²  - Water 1,809 km² (12. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... Schenectady is a city located in Schenectady County, New York, of which it is the county seat. ... February 29 is the 60th day of a leap year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 306 days remaining. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Raid On Deerfield In the pre-dawn hours of February 29, 1704, a force of about 300 French and Native allies (Kanienkehaka, or Mohawk; Wobanakiak, or Abenaki; Wendat, or Huron) launched a daring raid on the English settlement of Deerfield, Massachusetts, situated in the Pocumtuck homeland. ... Queen Annes War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and Great Britain in North America for control of the continent and was the counterpart of War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Abenakis. ... The Kanienkehaka, or Mohawk tribe of Native American people live around Lake Ontario and the St. ... The Wyandot or Wendat (also called the Huron) are a First Nations people originally from Southern Ontario, Canada. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The British Fort William Henry on the shores of Lake George, New York, was built during the French and Indian War (1754-1763) by Sir William Johnson as a staging ground for attacks against the French Fort Carillon (later renamed Fort Ticonderoga). ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A nineteenth century American depiction of the Wyoming Valley massacre. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen North American colonies. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Incident in Cherry Valley - fate of Jane Wells from the original picture by Alonzo Chappel by Thomas Phillibrown, engraver. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Gnadenhütten massacre (8 March 1782) was a mass murder of nearly 100 Native Americans (mostly women and children) by American militiamen during the American Revolutionary War. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen North American colonies. ... The Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans) were, in the 1600s, loosely organized bands of Native American people practicing small-scale agriculture to augment a largely mobile hunter-gatherer society in the region around the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Battle of Frenchtown also known as the River Raisin Massacre was a severe defeat for the Americans during the War of 1812, in an attempt to retake Detroit early in 1813. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 1818 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Osceola, Seminole leader, detail from an 1838 lithograph The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between the Seminole Native American tribe and the United States. ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Black Hawk War was fought in 1832 in the Midwestern section of the United States. ... 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Fort Parker Massacre was an event in 1836 in which members of the pioneer Parker family were killed in a raid by Native Americans1. ... Limestone County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Killough Massacre is believed to have been both the largest and last Native American depredation of white immigrants in East Texas. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... On November 29, 1847 Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife Narcissa, and 15 other were killed by by Cayuse and Umatilla Indians that had previously lived at Waiilatpu, the mission founded by the Whitmans. ... Walla Walla is the both the county seat of Walla Walla County, Washington, USA, and the countys largest city. ... 1854 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... External link http://www. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Grattan Massacre occurred in what is today Nebraska, USA on August 17, 1854 near Fort Laramie, in which a number of US soldiers were killed by Brule Sioux. ... Brule may refer to: Brule (people), a branch of the Sioux Naive American tribe. ... Alternative meaning: Lakota, Côte dIvoire is a département of Côte dIvoire. ... Nebraska Territory was a historic, organized territory of the United States from May 30, 1854 until March 1, 1867 when Nebraska became the 37th U.S. state. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Humboldt County is a county located on the northwest coast of California, on the Pacific Ocean. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Chief Taoyateduta, known as Little Crow The Sioux Uprising, also known as the Dakota Conflict or the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862, was an armed conflict between the United States and several eastern bands of the Dakota people (often referred to as the Santee Sioux) that began on August... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Battle of Bear River Conflict Indian Wars (Civil War] Date January 29, 1863 Place Franklin County, Idaho Result Union victory (massacre) The Bear River Massacre, also called the Battle of Bear River and the Massacre at Boa Ogoi, took place on January 29, 1863 between the U.S. and the... Preston is a city located in Franklin County, Idaho. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Kern County is a county located in the southern Central Valley of California. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Sand Creek Massacre refers to an infamous incident in the Indian wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864 when Colorado Militia troops in the Colorado Territory massacred an undefended village of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped on the territorys eastern plains. ... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 The Cheyenne are a Native American nation of the Great Plains, closely allied with the Arapaho and loosely allied with the Lakota (Sioux). ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1866 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Fort Phil Kearny was an outpost of the United States Army that existed in the late 1860s in present-day northeastern Wyoming along the Bozeman Trail. ... State nickname: Equality State Other U.S. States Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Governor Dave Freudenthal (D) Official languages English Area 253,554 km² (10th)  - Land 251,706 km²  - Water 1,851 km² (0. ... William Judd Fetterman (1833–1866) Captain, Army, 18th U.S. Infantry. ... Oglala can refer to the following: Oglala is a town located in Shannon County, South Dakota. ... Crazy Horse (Sioux: Tasunka witko, pronounced tashúnka uitko), (c. ... The Powder River Country, northeast of the Bighorn Mountains and south of the Yellowstone River, is shown in red in the western United States Red Clouds War (also referred to as the Bozeman War) was an armed conflict between the Sioux and the United States in Wyoming and Montana... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd on leap years) of the year. ... 1868 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Washita occurred on November 27, 1868 when George Armstrong Custer’s 7th U.S. Cavalry attacked Black Kettle’s Cheyenne village on the Washita River (near present day Cheyenne, Oklahoma). ... The Washita River forms in eastern Roberts County, Texas (35°38 N, 100°36 W) near the town of Miami, Texas in the Texas Panhandle. ... Oklahoma is a South Central state of the United States (with strong southern, western and midwestern influences) and its U.S. postal abbreviation is OK; others abbreviate the states name Okla. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Marias Massacre is a now little-known massacre that took place in Montana during the late-19th century Indian Wars between the United States government and the American Indians. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Battle of the Little Bighorn, also called Custers Last Stand, was an engagement between a Lakota-Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army that took place on June 25, 1876 near the Little Bighorn River in the eastern Montana Territory. ... George Armstrong Custer George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839 - June 25, 1876) was an American cavalry commander in the Civil War and the Indian Wars who is best remembered for his defeat and death at the Battle of the Little Bighorn against a coalition of Native American tribes, led by... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 The Cheyenne are a Native American nation of the Great Plains, closely allied with the Arapaho and loosely allied with the Lakota (Sioux). ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Wounded Knee Massacre or the Battle of Wounded Knee was the last armed conflict between the Great Sioux Nation and the United States of America. ... Wounded Knee is a census-designated place located in Shannon County, South Dakota. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Native American (3204 words)
Native Americans (also Indians, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Red Indians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants.
Native Americans officially make up the majority of the population in Bolivia, Peru, and Guatemala and are a significant element in most other former Spanish colonies, with the exception of Costa Rica, Cuba, Argentina, Dominican Republic and Uruguay.
While many Native American groups retained a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle down to the time of European invasion, in some regions, specifically in the Mississippi River valley of the United States, in Mexico, Central America, the Andes of South America, they built advanced civilizations with monumental architecture and large-scale organizaton into cities and states.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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