FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Native American fighting styles

Native American fighting styles were used by the indigenous people on the North American continent to fight each other; when Europeans arrived, the indigenous people tried, unsuccessfully, to use them to repel the encroachment of the European expansion into the territories. Many Native American tribes viewed warfare as both a physical and spiritual experience. The killing of an enemy warrior was considered, generally, to be the least important part of battle (being more ritual than predatory). Native American ritual fighting with enemy tribes was not always expensive in terms of lives lost nor was it composed of a search for destructive weaponry. Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Political highlights of North America North America is the third largest continent in area and the fourth ranked in population. ... This article is about the continent. ...


Some of the Native American fighting styles could be regarded today as forms of guerrilla warfare, in the French and Indian War for example. Over 400 years, the experiences of other Native Americans, such as the Seneca Indians with Europeans resulted in decades of conflicts, but typically were ultimately disastrous for the Native Americans. The Native Americans performed well during earlier conflicts against European advances. The Native American fighting styles also influenced the English settlers. Guerrilla War redirects here. ... The French and Indian War is the common American name for the decisive nine-year conflict (1754–1763) in North America between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its North American Colonies against France and its North American Colonies, which was one of the theatres of the Seven Years War. ... The Seneca are a Native American people, one of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my [birth]right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked...


In the 15th century, Europeans introduced the horse to the Americas and the Native Americans became excellent mounted warriors. The introduction of the horse had a most profound impact on Native American cultures in the Great Plains of North America. This new mode of transportation made it possible for some tribes to greatly expand their territories. Later, the United States military had several wars with the of Native American tribes (in particular, the Great Plains and Prairie tribes), learning the concepts of asymmetric warfare of the native peoples (i.e., war parties). (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 nugget For other uses, see Horse (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas The Americas commonly refers to the landmass in the Western Hemisphere consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Great Plains is the broad expanse of prairie which lies east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States of America and Canada, covering all or parts of the U.S. states of New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota and North Dakota and the... An Atsina named Assiniboin Boy Native Americans in the United States (also known as Indians, American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Peoples, Aboriginal Peoples, Aboriginal Americans, Amerindians, Amerinds, or Original Americans) are the indigenous peoples within the territory that is now encompassed by the continental United States and their descendants in... Asymmetric warfare describes the potential for an optimal interaction between the respective strengths and weaknessess of two belligerents. ...

Contents


General styles

One style, known as Cla'shiha, was practiced by the Algonquin people, especially the Mohawk tribe of the New York area. It has belonged to the family of Mateos Farnham and taught to Shannon Maloy, William Banks, and Steven Alimonda; the last two live and teach in Tampa. More information can be found at [www.williambanks2.com]; or at [escape_institute@yahoo.com]. The style is in its original form as it was practiced hundreds of years ago. It concentrates on the immediate and certain dispatch of the enemy. ('Thanks to Michael Melanson and his colleagues at Mountain Hall for the posting of this updated information).'


There are a number of general regional fighting styles of the Native Americans:


Alaska Native

  • The Tlingit of Southeast Alaska were noted as fierce fighters by early European explorers, and had some notable victories against large Russian military expeditions. Armor made of rawhide and cedar slats was said to be able to stop Russian musket balls. Headgear included heavy solid wood helmets which could take axe blows without splitting, and which might be covered with copper sheathing to absorb blows and blunt blades. The typical method of fighting before the introduction of rifles involved eight to ten foot spears hafted with flint, obsidian, or copper blades that were used as polearms and were not thrown. These spears contrast with the ones used for hunting which were around twice as long and unwieldy in battle. Close fighting was done with double bladed daggers of bone, ivory, or copper which were worn around the neck as sidearms by most Tlingit freemen. Short bows held horizontally at the waist were also used for both hunting and battle. Slaves were ritually killed with a special club, other specialized clubs were used for fishing and hunting, and certain long, heavy clubs made of bone, ivory, slate, or fine-grained greenstone were used in battle. After the introduction of firearms the Tlingit people became excellent shots. Introduction of iron and steel were quickly adopted for the production of weapons, and the Sitka chief Katlian used a blacksmith's hammer while leading his famous battle against the Russians in Sitka, which is still on display there along with his helmet.
  • The Athabaskans of Interior Alaska utilized spears hafted with bone, ivory, and stone, as well as knives, bows, and clubs. Little is known about their fighting techniques as they had little contact with Europeans before more modern times.
  • The Aleut of the Aleutian Islands in Southwest Alaska fought primarily with bows, although knives were also used for close fighting. Harpoons used in whaling and sealing might also be used in an emergency, although their use generally required more careful aim than might be available in the heat of battle. They readily adopted the Russian rifle alongside their indigenous bows, and both were used in battles against the Tlingit under Russian supervision.
  • The Alutiiq Eskimos of Southcentral Alaska and the Prince William Sound area used much the same techniques and weapons in battle as did the Aleuts, although their weapons are clearly more closely related to the Inupiat and Yup'ik Eskimos from whence they came.
weapons used: spears, bows, daggers, clubs

A Tlingit totem pole in Ketchikan ca. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 1st 1,717,854 km² 1,300 km 2,380 km 13. ... Sitka City and Borough is a borough located on the west side of Baranof Island in the Alexander Archipelago of the Pacific Ocean, in the state of Alaska. ... Areas in which Athabaskan languages and Eyak and Tlingit are traditionally spoken Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, located in two main Southern and Northern groups in western... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 1st 1,717,854 km² 1,300 km 2,380 km 13. ... The Aleuts (self-denomination: Unangax, Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, U.S.A. and Chukotka, Russia. ... Looking down the Aleutians from an airplane. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 1st 1,717,854 km² 1,300 km 2,380 km 13. ... The Alutiiq (plural: Alutiit), also called Pacific Yupik or Sugpiaq, are a southern, coastal branch of Alaskan Yupik. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 1st 1,717,854 km² 1,300 km 2,380 km 13. ... Prince William Sound, on the south coast of Alaska. ... The Aleuts (self-denomination: Unangax) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, U.S.A.. The homeland of the Aleuts includes the Aleutian Islands, the Pribilof Islands, the Shumagin Islands, and the far western part of the Alaska Peninsula. ... Hunting spear and knife, from Mesa Verde National Park. ...

Arctic

  • Warriors in the Arctic relied on the dogsled. Weapons were ornate, featuring elaborate, colorful designs, as well as feathers and ivory. The armor of these peoples was of a high technical and artistic standard. Helmets were usually adorned with expressive grimacing faces depicting terrifying animals or men, a form of psychological warfare. A thick face guard of bent wood just below the helmet protected the face, with a small gap for vision. Helmets were also used as crest hats (emblems of the family status). The noblemen warriors wore these helmets and wooden slat armor. With the introduction of firearms, however, wooden armor became impractical.
weapons used: Bows, Shield, warclub. spears

The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border The Arctic is the area around the Earths North Pole. ... Dog sled A dog sled (or dogsled) is a sled pulled by one or more dogs used to travel over ice and through snow. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Hunting spear and knife, from Mesa Verde National Park. ...

West coast

  • The Klamath warrior's headdress was made from the material of tule stems woven by a twining process. Accounts of the aggressive activities of the peoples of the west coast include intertribal conflicts. Some female warriors of the west coast were renowned for defending their communities.

This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Binomial name Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. ...

East Coast

  • The Seneca used a body hardening technique which allowed them to endure many strong blows. This was an extension of their planting rituals.
weapons used: Bows, Shield, Slings

Sources http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/legends/fourwarriors.htm The Seneca are a Native American people, one of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League. ... This is about the projectile weapon bow. ... Statue showing a Gallic shield with a butterfly boss. ... Home-made sling. ...


http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/iro/sim/sim03.htm


Eastern Woodlands

  • The Cherokee developed the fighting style involving throwing a special type of hatchet, called the tomahawk. However, this method of fighting was lost in the Trail of Tears. Up to a range of 30 feet, a Cherokee warrior wielding a tomahawk could split a coconut, and in a melee a Cherokee wielding this hatchet was able to open up the chest of an enemy with a single blow. Today the Cherokee have no use for such fighting methods, and there are no longer any practitioners of this style.

This method was adopted by some U.S. Army Rangers as part of the Ranger Challenge course. For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... Native American Afraid of Hawk holding Tomahawk. ... Trail of Tears refers to the forced relocation of the Cherokee Native American tribe to the Western United States in 1838, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokee Indians. ...

weapons used: Bows, Shield, Pipe tomahawk, Warclub, Gunstock Club, Warclub with Slingshot Head

Source: James White Fort, Knoxville, TN. "Cherokee Heritage Day" August 5th & 6th 2005. This is about the projectile weapon bow. ... Statue showing a Gallic shield with a butterfly boss. ... Native American Afraid of Hawk holding Tomahawk. ... Simple slingshot A slingshot, also called a shanghai or a catapult (not to be confused with either the catapult siege engine or shepherds sling) is a small hand-powered projectile weapon. ...


Northwest Coast

  • Full blood Choctaw and Martial Arts Hall of Fame inductee Adrian Roman has created his own fighting system, which he calls Red Warrior or Tushka-homa. It is supposedly a blend of Native American arts and American Kenpo.

Pushmataha was the most famous leader of the Choctaws. ... Red Warrior, also known as Tushka-homa, is a martial art created by full blood Choctaw Indian and Martial Arts Hall of Famer Adrian Roman. ... Ed Parker’s American Kenpo Karate is a martial arts style characterized by the use of quick moves in rapid-fire succession intended to overwhelm an opponent. ...

Plains - Prairies

  • The peoples of the Great Plains in central North America had a system of graded war honors for acts of bravery. Counting coup (from the French word meaning "hit" or "blow") was regularly practiced and had strong spiritual connotations. The object of counting coup was to touch an enemy without harming him, either with the hand or a special stick known as a coup stick. Another form of counting coup was to capture an enemy‚Äôs weapon(s) or horse(s).
    • Noted Sioux Indian warriors such as Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse were able to defeat the 7th US Army Cavalry in Montana in the battle of Little Big Horn, otherwise known as "Custer's Last Stand", by changing their fighting techniques. Use of Spencer and Winchester rifles effectively outgunned Custer's single-shot carbine-armed soldiers. The weakness of the hotchkiss machine gun was its inability to turn around quickly. Using a special technique of the ritual martial arts of the "dog soldier", the Sioux forces were able to completely destroy Custer's cavalry. This technique of the "dog soldiers" were widely lost after the Wounded Knee Massacre. Sioux teton lances were typically 44 inches in length, and were primarily designed for hunting bison. In the hands of the dog soldiers they were used to impale an opponent. On horseback, the teton lance could penetrate several people standing in a row.
weapons used: Atlatl, Lance, Bows, Shield, Warclubs, spears

The Great Plains is the broad expanse of prairie which lies east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States of America and Canada, covering all or parts of the U.S. states of New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota and North Dakota and the... The Sioux (also: Lakota) are a Native American people. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed February 2006. ... Crazy Horse (Lakota: Tasunka witko, pronounced tashúnka uitko), (c. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 4th 381,156 km² 410 km 1,015 km 1 44°26 N to 49° N 104°2 W to 116°2 W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 44th 902,195 2. ... The Battle of the Little Bighorn, also called Custers Last Stand, was an engagement between a Lakota-Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army that took place on June 25, 1876 near the Little Bighorn River in the eastern Montana Territory. ... Battle of the Little Bighorn Conflict Black Hills War, Indian Wars Date June 25, 1876 Place Near the Little Bighorn River, Big Horn County, Montana Result Substantial Native American victory The Battle of the Little Bighorn, also called Custers Last Stand, was an engagement between a Lakota-Northern Cheyenne... The Dog-Soldiers were a warrior society of the Cheyenne Tribe. ... Combatants Great Sioux Nation United States Commanders Big Foot† James W. Forsyth Strength 120 men 230 women and children 500 men Casualties 153 killed 50 wounded 150 missing 25 killed 39 wounded The Wounded Knee Massacre was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States... Species B. bison B. bonasus B. priscus Bison is a taxonomic genus containing six species of large even-toed ungulates within the subfamily Bovinae. ... The atlatl (pronounced ät-lät-Å­l), or spear thrower, is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in spear-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to temporarily store elastic energy during the throw. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... This is about the projectile weapon bow. ... Statue showing a Gallic shield with a butterfly boss. ... Hercules fights the Lernaean Hydra with a club A club or cudgel is perhaps the simplest of all mêlée weapons. ... Hunting spear and knife, from Mesa Verde National Park. ...

Southwest

  • The Hopi people possessed a primarily agricultural and usually peaceful society. However, they did learn to use some Aztec warfare styles in their combat formations. Additionally, they used leather shields for both ritual and combate purposes. These shields are known as Mandellas.
weapons used: Atlatl, bows

Sources; http://www.azteca.net/aztec/aztlan.html Hopi woman dressing hair of unmarried girl Part of a Hopi pueblo Hopi House near Grand Canyon, stereoptical view c. ... Sculpture commemorating the moment when Aztecs found the sign for Tenochtitlan foundation place given by Huitzilopochtli. ... The atlatl (pronounced ät-lät-ŭl), or spear thrower, is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in spear-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to temporarily store elastic energy during the throw. ...


Mesoamerican

  • In Mesoamerica, a number of guerrilla strategies were used to try to repel the Spanish conquistadors, provoking a harsh reaction from the Spanish military. Mesoamerican peoples used a special spear combined with a "foot" or handle, called an atlatl which functioned as a lever to aid in throwing.
weapons used: Atlatl, Bows, spears

Conquistador (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who achieved the Conquista (this Spanish term is generally accepted by historians), i. ... The atlatl (pronounced ät-lät-ŭl), or spear thrower, is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in spear-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to temporarily store elastic energy during the throw. ... The atlatl (pronounced ät-lät-ŭl), or spear thrower, is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in spear-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to temporarily store elastic energy during the throw. ... This is about the projectile weapon bow. ... Hunting spear and knife, from Mesa Verde National Park. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Native American fighting styles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1511 words)
Native American fighting styles were used by the indigenous people on the North American continent to fight each other; when Europeans arrived, the indigenous people tried, unsuccessfully, to use them to repel the encroachment of the European expansion into the territories.
Native American ritual fighting with enemy tribes was not always expensive in terms of lives lost nor was it composed of a search for destructive weaponry.
Some of the Native American fighting styles could be regarded today as forms of guerrilla warfare, in the French and Indian War for example.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m