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Encyclopedia > Nationalization

Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owner's consent, with or without payment of compensation. Nationalization without compensation is a case of expropriation. Nationalization is distinguished from property redistribution in that the government retains control of nationalized property. For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Expropriation is the act of removing from control the owner of an item of property. ... Property redistribution is a term applied to various political policies involving taxation or expropriation of property from some in order to finance payments to others. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Nationalization usually refers to private assets, but may also mean assets owned by lower levels of government, such as municipalities. The opposite of nationalization is usually privatization or de-nationalisation, but may also be municipalization. A renationalization occurs when state-owned assets are privatized and later nationalized again, often when a different political party or faction is in power. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Municipalization is the transfer to municipal ownership of corporations or other assets. ... “Political Parties” redirects here. ... A faction is a special interest group. ...


Some nationalizations take place when a government seizes property acquired illegally. For example, the French government seized the car-makers Renault because its owners had collaborated with the Nazi occupiers of France. For the author, see Mary Renault. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...

Contents

Compensation

A key issue in nationalization is payment of compensation to the former owner. The most controversial nationalizations, known as expropriations, are those where no compensation, or an amount far below the likely market value of the nationalized assets, is paid. Many nationalizations through expropriation have come after revolutions. Expropriation is the act of removing from control the owner of an item of property. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ...


The traditional Western stance on compensation was expressed by United States Secretary of State Cordell Hull, during the 1938 Mexican nationalization of the petroleum industry, that compensation should be "prompt, effective and adequate." According to this view, the nationalizing state is obligated under international law to pay the deprived party the full value of the property taken. The opposing position has been taken mainly by developing countries, claiming that the question of compensation should be left entirely up to the sovereign state, in line with the Calvo Doctrine. Socialist states have held that no compensation is due, based on socialist notions of private properties. Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871–July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The Expropiación Petrolera (Oil expropiation) is one of the Fiestas Patrias of Mexico when Mexicans celebrate the date that President of Mexico, General Lázaro Cárdenas, declared that oil reserves in Mexican soil belong to the nation. ... The Calvo Doctrine is a foreign policy doctrine which holds that jurisdiction in international investment disputes lies with the country in which the investment is located. ...


In 1962, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution 1803, "Permanent Sovereignty over National Resources," which states that in the event of nationalization, the owner "shall be paid appropriate compensation in accordance with international law." In doing so, the UN rejected both the traditional Calvo-doctrinist view and the Communist view. The term "appropriate compensation" represents a compromise between the traditional views, taking into account the need of developing countries to pursue reform even without the ability to pay full compensation, and the Western concern for protection of private property. The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ...


When nationalizing a large business, the cost of compensation is so great that many legal nationalizations have happened when firms of national importance run close to bankruptcy and can be acquired by the government for little or no money. A classic example is the UK nationalization of the British Leyland Motor Corporation. At other times, governments have considered it important to gain control of institutions of strategic economic importance, such as banks or railways, or of important industries struggling economically. The case of Rolls-Royce plc, nationalized in 1971, is an interesting blend of these two arguments. This policy was sometimes known as ensuring government control of the "commanding heights" of the economy, to enable it to manage the economy better in terms of long-term development and medium-term stability. The extent of this policy declined in the 1980s and 1990s as governments increasingly privatized industries that had been nationalized, replacing their strategic economic influence with use of the tax system and of interest rates. Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... British Leyland corporate logo The British Leyland Motor Corporation (BLMC), was a vehicle manufacturing company formed in the United Kingdom in 1968. ... This article is about the aircraft engine company. ...


Nonetheless, national and local governments have seen the advantage of keeping key strategic assets in institutions that are not strongly profit-driven and can raise funds outside the public-sector constraints, but still retain some public accountability. Examples from the last five years in the United Kingdom include the vesting of the British railway infrastructure firm Railtrack in the not-for-profit company Network Rail, and the divestment of much council housing stock to "arms-length management companies," often with mutual status. In law vesting is to give an immediately secured right of present or future enjoyment. ... For the generic term, see rail tracks. ... Network Rail is a British not for dividend company limited by guarantee whose principal asset is Network Rail Infrastructure Limited, a company limited by shares. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Notable nationalizations by country

Canada

The Canadian National Railway (CN; AAR reporting marks CN, CNA, CNIS) is a Canadian Class I railway operated by the Canadian National Railway Company headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Hydro-Québec is a crown corporation that provides hydroelectric power for Quebec, Canada and the north-eastern parts of the United States. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Jean Lesage, PC, CC, CD (June 10, 1912 – December 12, 1980) was a lawyer and politician in Quebec, Canada. ...

India

1 Jan. 1949 Reserve Bank of India nationalised (Ref.- Reserve Bank of India cronology of events)The Reserve Bank of India was state-owned at the time of Indian independence. The RBI headquarters in Mumbai The RBI Regional Office in Mumbai The RBI heaquarters in Delhi. ... The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ...

Air India (formerly Air-India, Hindi: ) is the national flag carrier of India with a worldwide network of passenger and cargo services. ... Structure of the organised banking sector in India. ...

Russia and the Soviet Union

Soviet Russian and Soviet Union (1918-1992)

  • 1918, 1948 All manufacturing enterprises in the Soviet Union, in 1918, as well as in other countries of the Eastern bloc (for example, Czechoslovakia in 1948).
  • 1918 Many retailing enterprises.

A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ...

Russia

  • 1998 State began seizing Gazprom assets. claiming that the company owed back taxes, from 2004 reversal of privatization of Gazprom which had been reduced to 38.37% in the mid 1990's with the intention having been full privatization, the stake has since been increased to 50% with Vladimir Putin's plan being to increase the stake to 100%, Gazprom is also buying up both Russian and other international Utility companies.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gazprom (LSE: OGZD; Russian: , sometimes transcribed as Gasprom) is the largest Russian company and the biggest extractor of natural gas in the world. ... Gazprom (LSE: OGZD; Russian: , sometimes transcribed as Gasprom) is the largest Russian company and the biggest extractor of natural gas in the world. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ...

United Kingdom

The following companies were created following the nationalization of one or more companies in the given year:

For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... // The State Management Scheme (known locally as The Scheme) saw the UK government take over and run the brewing, distribution and sale of liquor in three regions of the UK from 1916 until 1973. ... , Carlisle is a city in the far north-west of England, and is the largest urban area in Cumbria. ... Gretna (Gd: Greatna) is a township in Dumfries and Galloway, in the south of Scotland, on the A74 road near the border to England, and near the mouth of the River Esk. ... Location within the British Isles The Royal Burgh of Cromarty (Cromba in Gaelic) is a burgh in Ross and Cromarty, Highland, Scotland. ... Enfield is the name of several places. ... // The State Management Scheme (known locally as The Scheme) saw the UK government take over and run the brewing, distribution and sale of liquor in three regions of the UK from 1916 until 1973. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ... The United Kingdom Central Electricity Board was set up under The Electricity (Supply) Act 1926 to standardise the nations electricity supply. ... The National Grid is the high-voltage electric power transmission network in Great Britain, connecting power stations and major substations and ensuring that electricity generated anywhere in Great Britain can be used to satisfy demand elsewhere. ... The British Broadcasting Company Ltd was a British commercial company formed on October 18, 1922 by British and American electrical companies doing business in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... A Statutory Corporation is a corporation created by statute. ... For the ship of the same name, see Royal Charter (ship). ... The transport of London has, since 1933, been under a single control with various names. ... BOAC Logo The British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) was the British state airline from 1939 until 1946 and the long-haul British state airline from 1946. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... This article deals with the 1930s airline British Airways Ltd. ... The Imperial Airways Empire Terminal, Victoria, London. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... British Coal was a former British corporation consisting of the assets of various coal mining firms which had been nationalised. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) was the cornerstone of the British electricity industry for almost 50 years, from its nationalisation in 1947 to privatisation in the 1990s. ... Cable and Wireless (LSE: CW.) is a British telecommunications company. ... The British General Post Office (GPO) was officially established in 1660 by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of both the state postal system and telecommunications carrier. ... For other uses, see Thomas Cook (disambiguation). ... The British Transport Commission (BTC) was created by Clement Attlees post-war Labour government as a part of its nationalisation programme, to oversee railways, canals and road freight transport in Great Britain (Northern Ireland had the separate Ulster Transport Authority). ... This article is about the defunct entity British Railways, which later traded as British Rail. The History of rail transport in Great Britain is covered in its own article. ... British Road Services, often shortened to BRS, was the nationalised company that operated the former road transport networks of the pre-nationalisation railway companies, after the 1962 break-up of the British Transport Commission The company was made up of four main operating areas: British Road Services Ltd BRS Parcels... British Waterways sign near Gas Street Basin on the BCN. British Waterways is a government body sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and the Scottish Executive in the United Kingdom. ... “NHS” redirects here. ... This page is about the former gas monopoly in the United Kingdom for information about the successor companies please see Centrica, BG Group and Transco. ... British Steel is a large British steel producer, privatised in 1988 under the Thatcher government. ... This article is about the aircraft engine company. ... Rolls-Royce Limited was a British car and aero-engine manufacturing company founded by Henry Royce and C.S. Rolls in 1906 and was the result of a partnership formed in 1904. ... The Water Act 1973 (1973 c. ... British Leyland corporate logo The British Leyland Motor Corporation (BLMC), was a vehicle manufacturing company formed in the United Kingdom in 1968. ... British Aerospace (BAe) was a UK aircraft and defence systems manufacturer, now part of BAE Systems. ... British Aerospace (BAe) was a UK aircraft and defence systems manufacturer, now part of BAE Systems. ... The British Aircraft Corporation, or BAC, was a British aircraft manufacturer, formed from the merger (under government pressure) of English Electric Aviation Ltd. ... Hawker-Ciggerley was a group of UK aircraft manufacturing companies formed as a result of the merger of Hawker Aircraft with Armstrong Siddeley. ... British Shipbuilders was a public corporation that owned and managed the UK shipbuilding industry from 1977 to 1986. ... Cammell Laird logo Cammell Laird, one of the most famous names in British shipbuilding during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, came about following the merger of Laird, Son & Co. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Swan Hunter, formerly known as Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson, is one of the best known shipbuilding companies in the United Kingdom. ... Yarrow Shipbuilders Limited (YSL) was a major British shipyard, now part of BAE Systems Marine which also includes the nearby Govan shipyard and the former VSEL yard in Barrow. ... London Transport Portal The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of East London, England. ... For the generic term, see rail tracks. ... Network Rail is a British not for dividend company limited by guarantee whose principal asset is Network Rail Infrastructure Limited, a company limited by shares. ...

British assets nationalised by other countries

  • 1950s British Petroleum's Iranian assets by their government (actually a nationalisation of part of a part-nationalised company), in addition the Egyptian Government nationalised the Suez Canal in 1956 which was owned by the Suez Canal Company which was part owned by the British State.

This article is about the energy corporation. ... Anthem Bilady, Bilady, Bilady Capital (and largest city) Cairo Official languages Arabic1 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Hosni Mubarak  -  Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif Establishment  -  First Dynasty c. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ...

United States

  • All United States railroads were nationalized as the United States Railroad Administration during World War I as a wartime measure but were returned to their private owners almost immediately after the war. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) was a government-owned corporation created in 1971 for the express purpose of relieving American railroads of their legal obligation to provide inter-city rail service. They were trying to get out of this obligation anyway, but by taking over their passenger rail assets, Amtrak was able to keep the passenger trains running. In 1976 the Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail), another government corporation, was created to take over the operations of six bankrupt rail lines operating primarily in the Northeastern United States; Conrail was privatized in 1987. Initial plans for Conrail would have made it a truly nationalized system like that during World War I, but an alternate proposal by the Association of American Railroads won out.
  • Organization of the Tennessee Valley Authority entailed the nationalization of the facilities of the former Tennessee Electric Power Company in 1939.
  • In 2001, in response to the September 11th attacks, the then-private airport security industry was nationalized[citation needed] and put under the authority of the Transportation Security Administration.

The United States Railroad Administration was the name of the nationalised railroad system of the United States between 1917 and 1920. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The high-speed Acela Express in West Windsor, New Jersey. ... A government corporation or government-owned corporation is a legal entity created by a government to exercise some of the powers of the government. ... Inter-city rail services are express train passenger services which cover longer distances than commuter trains. ... Conrail 6114, a GE Dash 8-40CW, leads a train westbound out of Altoona, Pennsylvania. ... Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States. ... A World War II era print advertisement for the Association of American Railroads (AAR). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... TSA emblem The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is a U.S. government agency that was created as part of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President George W. Bush on November 19, 2001. ...

Other countries

  • Philippines - During the administration of Ferdinand Marcos, important companies such as PLDT, Philippine Airlines, Meralco and the Manila Hotel were nationalized. Other companies were sometimes absorbed into these government-owned corporations, as well as other companies, such as Napocor and the Philippine National Railways, which in their own right are monopolies (exceptions are Meralco and the Manila Hotel). Today, these companies have been reprivatized and some, such as PLDT and Philippine Airlines, have been de-monopolized. Others, like government-formed and owned Napocor, are in the process of privatization.
  • Nationalization of the oil industry in numerous countries, including Libya, Kuwait, Mexico, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela.
  • Cuba - The Castro government gradually expropriated all foreign-owned private companies after the Cuban Revolution of 1959. Most of these companies were owned by U.S. corporations and individuals. Bonds at 4.5% interest over twenty years were offered to U.S. companies, but the offer was rejected by U.S. ambassador Philip Bonsal, who requested the compensation up front.[1] Only a minor amount, $1.3 million, was paid to U.S. interests before deterioratng relations ended all cooperation between the two governments.[1] The United States established a registry of claims against the Cuban government, ultimately developing files on 5,911 specific companies. The Cuban government has refused to discuss the effective and adequate compensation of U.S. claims. The United States government continues to insist on compensation for U.S. companies. In 1966-68, the Castro government nationalized all remaining privately owned business entities in Cuba, down to the level of street vendors.
  • Zimbabwe's nationalization of its food distribution infrastructure.
  • 1944 Renault (seized from Louis Renault after World War II for his collaboration with Nazi Germany). Renault was successful whilst nationalised and remains successful today, after having been privatized in 1996.
  • 1946 USAMGIK nationalized all South Korean private railroad companies and made Department of Transportation. This now becomes Korail.
  • 1947 Nationalization of Qantas, the leading airline of Australia.
  • 1948 With the Decree 119 of June 1948 the new Romanian communist regime nationalised all the existing private companies and their assets in Romania leading to the transformation of the Romanian economy from a market economy to a planned economy.
  • 1948 The Australian government attempted to nationalize the banks, but the act was declared unconstitutional by the High Court of Australia.
  • 1953 Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh nationalized the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in Iran.
  • 1956 On July 26, 1956 Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal Company company provoking the United Kingdom, France and Israel to launch a combined attack on Egypt that was stopped by the U.S. and the former Soviet Union.
  • 1972 Nationalization of Olympic Airlines, main airline of Greece. The company was bought out by its founder, Aristotle Onassis.
  • 1972 Chilean nationalization of copper mining industry by the government of Salvador Allende. A very important step for a small country which happens to be the biggest copper producer in the world.
  • 1974 Bank of Valletta is founded following nationalisation of the National Bank of Malta
  • 1982 The Paris business of M&A advisory firm Rothschild was nationalized and renamed.
  • 1982 The nationalization of the Mexican banking system made by President José López Portillo, later in the Carlos Salinas de Gortari presidency (1988-1994) a large number of banks were privatized.
  • 1983 Nationalization without compensation of the Spanish Rumasa. Separate business were later privatized.
  • 1983 Nationalization of the major Israeli banks: Bank Hapoalim, bank Leumi, Discount Bank, Mezrachi bank due to the Bank stock crisis that struck Israel in 1983.
  • 2003 The Labour Government of New Zealand took an 80% stake in national air carrier Air New Zealand in exchange for a large financial infusion.
  • 2006 On May 1, 2006, newly elected Bolivian leader Evo Morales announces plans to nationalize the country's natural gas industry; foreign-based companies are given six months to renegotiate their existing contracts.
  • 2007 On May 1, 2007, Venezuela stripped the world's biggest oil companies of operational control over massive Orinoco Belt crude projects, a vital move in President Hugo Chavez's nationalization drive.
  • 2007 On August 3, 2007, The Irish government have been offered a stake in Eircom's copper network infrastructure[2], should they accept it, it shall represent the return to state ownership of Ireland's Telecommunication's network which was privatised in 1999.

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was President of the Philippines from 1966 to 1986. ... The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PSE: TEL, NYSE: PHI), commonly known as PLDT, is the largest telecommunications company in the Philippines. ... Philippine Airlines, also known historically as Philippine Air Lines (PAL), is the national airline of the Philippines. ... The Manila Electric Company (PSE: MER and MERB), also known as MERALCO, is the Philippines largest distributor of electrical power. ... The Manila Hotel is a 570-room,[4] five star[2] hotel in Manila, Philippines, located in the heart of the Manila Bay area. ... The National Power Corporation (Filipino: Pambansang Korporasyon sa Elektrisidad), also known as the NPC or Napocor, is a state-owned company that serves as the largest provider and generator of electricity in the Philippines. ... Philippine National Railways, also known by its acronym, PNR, is a state-owned railway system in the Philippines, organized under the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) as an attached agency. ... This article is about the economics of markets dominated by a single seller. ... The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements in the country. ... Philip Bonsal (1903-1995) was a United States foreign diplomat and the last American ambassador to Cuba. ... For the author, see Mary Renault. ... Louis Renault (February 15, 1877, Paris, France – October 24, 1944) was a French industrialist and one of the foremost pioneers of the automobile industry. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The United States Army Military Government in Korea, also known as USAMGIK, was the official ruling body of the southern half of the Korean Peninsula from September 8, 1945 to August 15, 1948. ... The Korea Railroad Corportation, now known as Korail, is the national railroad operator in South Korea. ... Qantas (Qantas Airways Limited) (pronounced ) is the name and callsign of the national airline of Australia. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ... This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ... High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ... Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Mohammed Mossadegh ( )(Persian: ‎ ​, also Mosaddegh or Mosaddeq) (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967) was the democratically elected[1] prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was founded in 1909 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... The Universal Suez Ship Canal Company (French: Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez) was the French corporation which constructed the Suez Canal between 1859 and 1869. ... Olympic Airlines (Ολυμπιακές Αερογραμμές - OA) is the state-run flag carrier of Greece, employing about 1850 people. ... Aristotelis Sokratis (also Ari) Onassis (in Greek, Αριστοτέλης Ωνάσης) (January 20, 1900 – March 15, 1975) was the most famous shipping magnate of the 20th century. ... The nationalization of the Chilean copper industry, (Chilenization) during the Salvador Allende government was the espoused basis for a later international boycott, which further isolated Chile from the world economy, worsening the state of political polarization. ... Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens[1] (July 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his death during the coup détat of September 11, 1973. ... Bank of Valletta is Maltas oldest bank and one of its largest. ... The phrase mergers and acquisitions (abbreviated M&A) refers to the aspect of corporate strategy, corporate finance and management dealing with the buying, selling and combining of different companies that can aid, finance, or help a growing company in a given industry grow rapidly without having to create another business... This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. ... José López Portillo y Pacheco (June 16, 1920 – February 17, 2004) was the President of Mexico from 1976 to 1982. ... Carlos Salinas de Gortari (born April 3, 1948 in Mexico City) was President of Mexico from 1988 to 1994. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Rumasa (Ruíz Mateos Sociedad Anónima) was a Holding company founded by Spanish entrepeneur José María Ruiz Mateos and expropiated by the Spanish government on February 23th 1983. ... Boeing 747-400 Boeing 747-400 Air New Zealand Limited ASX: AIZ NZX: AIR (Air New Zealand) is a scheduled passenger airline based in Auckland, New Zealand, and the national flag carrier. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959 in Orinoca, Oruro), popularly known as Evo (IPA: ), is the President of Bolivia, and has been declared the countrys first indigenous head of state since the Spanish Conquest over 470 years ago. ... This article is about the fossil fuel. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Formally named in spanish Faja Petrolífera del Orinoco (Orinoco Petroleum Belt), is a territory which occupies the southern strip of Eastern river basin of Venezuela, specifically at the south of Guárico, Azoátegui, Monagas, and Delta Amacuro states, and it is close to the river line. ... President Hugo Chávez Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (born July 28, 1954) has been the President of Venezuela since 1999. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... eircom Group plc is the largest telecommunications operator in the Republic of Ireland. ...

See also

Look up Nationalization in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... In law, eminent domain is the power of the state to appropriate private property for its own use without the owners consent. ... Eminent domain (United States), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia) or expropriation (Canada, South Africa) in common law legal systems is the inherent power of the state to seize a citizens private property, expropriate property, or rights in property, without the owner... Expropriation is the act of removing from control the owner of an item of property. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Reprivatization refers to the process of restoring to its former owners properties seized by a government, or to the process of compensating previously uncompensated former owners. ... This article is about state ownership. ... Railway nationalization refers to the act of nationalizing rail transport assets, taking them into public ownership. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Thomas, Hugh (March 1971). Cuba; the Pursuit of Freedom. New York: Harper & Row, p224, p252. ISBN 0060142596. 
  2. ^ Eircom and State in broadband swap?

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nationalism (2058 words)
Nationalism is the doctrine or practice of promoting the collective interests of the national community or STATE above those of individuals, regions, special interests or other nations.
Nationalism does not necessarily have a particular ideological slant, but varies from right to left on the political spectrum; its flavour and content depend upon the historical circumstances.
A select committee of the Ontario legislature on economic and cultural nationalism, a national commission on Canadian Studies at the university level led by T.H.B. Symons, and various commissions on national identity in the media were active in the early 1970s.
nationalism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1284 words)
Nationalism is basically a collective state of mind or consciousness in which people believe their primary duty and loyalty is to the nation-state.
Nationalism is a comparatively recent phenomenon, probably born with the French Revolution, but despite its short history, it has been extremely important in forming the bonds that hold modern nations together.
It was exactly this latter type of nationalism, however, that arose in Nazi Germany, preaching the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and the need for the extermination of the Jews and the enslavement of Slavic peoples in their “living space” (see National Socialism).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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