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Encyclopedia > Nationalities in Spain
This article has been nominated to be checked for its neutrality.
Discussion of this nomination can be found on the talk page.

Historically, the modern country of Spain was formed by the accretion of several independent Iberian realms through dynastic inheritance, conquest and the will of the local elites. These realms had their own personalities and borders. Portugal, an independent country since the 12th century, was the only of the Iberian realms not to be absorbed to the the Spanish kingdom.
Since the reign of the Catholic Monarchs, there has been a process of uniformization by the central authorities. Simultaneously, this uniformization has been repelled by some of the local elites that formed their own national consciences based on traditional historical, linguistical and cultural traits. Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ...


The dynamics between centralization and decentralization is one of the forces in the history of the latest centuries. Since the beginning of the transition to democracy in Spain after the Francisco Franco dictatorship there have been many movements towards more autonomy in certain regions of the country in order to achieve full independence in some cases, to get their own autonomous community in others. The Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20th (or possibly 19th) November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ...


It is a fact that it does not exist something so straightforward as just one Spanish nationality for the whole country nowadays. Many Spanish citizens feel no conflict in having several national identities at the same time.
The Spanish Constitution of 1978 states the following intentionally ambiguous sentence that lies in the root of the matter: The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. ...

"The Constitution is based on the indissoluble unity of the Spanish Nation, the common and indivisible homeland of all Spaniards; it recognizes and guarantees the right to self-government of the nationalities and regions of which it is composed and the solidarity among them all."

This article intends to describe the nationalist and regionalist parties' claims in Spain and it is divided between them, independently of their self-denomination, clearly distinguishable by their goals.
The structure of the article is also determined by social support and thoughts of the claims, so that even if there are political parties claiming independence from Spain for Castile, Cantabria, Aragon, Valencia, Andalusia or Murcia they hardly get any vote and thus do not represent the popular identitary and national sentiment (percentages of nationalist and regionalist votes are given in parentheses according to figures of the elections held at municipality level in May 2003).
Note that the only two autonomous communities not mentioned in this article are Madrid (capital of the State, traditionally part of Castilla-la Nueva - New Castile in English -, most of it population identifies itself primarily just with Spain) and La Rioja (traditionally part of Castile, there are little supported cultural movements to bring it nearer to the Basque Country, see Laminiturri). A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... Capital Madrid Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 12th  7 995 km²  1,6% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 3rd  5 964 143  13,5%  745,98/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Madrilenian  madrileño/a Statute of Autonomy March 1, 1983 ISO 3166-2 M Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats... Capital Logroño Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 16th  5 045 km²  1,0% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 17th   301 084  0,7%  59,68/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€”  riojano/a Statute of Autonomy June 9, 1982 Parliament  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate seats  4  1 President Pedro Sanz... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


Note that part of the politicians were reluctant or opposed in decentralization at the beginning of the transition, but most political forces have reached power in some region and now there is no major question about the decentralization but on its limits and future evolution.

Contents

Nationalism

Nationalist movements in Spain find an undeniable incompatibility between the Spanish nationality and their own nationalities.


Basque Country

Basque nationalism runs the range from full independence to further devolution to the Basque government.
For instance, the PNV wins regularly any election at either the town, region or Spanish levels in the Basque Country autonomous community, but the fact that it achieves a mere plurality and that electors of PNV do not unanimously support (full) independence, counters the belief that independence is a generally accepted idea by Basque population.
The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... Eusko Alkartasuna, Basque and Spanish regional political party, translated as Basque Solidarity and abbreviated as EA, is a party which describes itself as a Basque national, democratic, popular, progressive and non-denominational party. ... Aralar is a Basque nationalist political group in Spain. ... The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms. ... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... Capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Official languages Basque and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 14th  7 234 km²  1,4% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 7th  2 124 846  4,9%  293,73/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€“ Basque  Basque  vasco/a euskal herritar, euskaldun GDP GDP/Cápita 30. ... A plurality, or relative/simple majority as it is also referred to outside the United States (especially in non-English speaking countries; in the US, simple majority has another meaning), is the largest share of something, which may or may not be a majority in the American sense of the...


According to recent studies (see Euskobarómetro [2], [3]) , a plurality (38%) of the population in the Basque Country autonomous community would vote YES, 31% NO, 13% not voting in a hypothetic independence referendum, and 19% did not answer (Voter turnout would be 68-69%, when taking that figure as the whole 100%, 55% of the voters would answer YES and 45% NO). Different results appear when the options are independence, further devolution or the current status. The option for a restoration of centralization is barely recorded. The Euskobarómetro (Basque-barometer) is a sociological statistical survey in the Basque Country (País Vasco), an autonomous community of Spain. ... Voters lining up outside a Baghdad polling station during the 2005 Iraqi election. ...


The nationalists consider Navarre and the French Basque Country as part of the same nation, the Basque Country. In the current Basque Statute of Autonomy it is stated that Navarre has the legal right to belong to the autonomous community of the Basque Country, inside Spain.
Capital Pamplona (Basque: Iruña) Official language(s) Spanish; Basque co-official in the north of community. ... This article is about the traditional Basque domain. ... The Ikurriña, Basque flag Location of Territory of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces. ... For the traditional overall Basque domain, see Basque Country (historical territory). ...


The Basque Statute of Autonomy defines this region as a nationality.
The Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country is the legal document organizing the political system of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country (Basque: Euskadiko Autonomi Elkartea) which includes the historical territories of Alava, Biscay and Guipuscoa. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ...


The current President of the Basque Government proposed in 2003 a plan for changing the current status of the Basque Country as an autonomous community to a "status of free association" (see Associated State and Free State). It was approved by the majority (39 votes against 35) of the Basque Parliament, but the Spanish Congress of Deputies rejected it in 2005 (313 NO, 29 YES, 2 not voting) and it could not reach its goal.
The President of the Spanish Government, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, has stated that he will support any reform to the Statute of Autonomy which is supported by 2/3 of the Basque Parliament (a verbal condition not legally written anywhere, for the only condition needed for a statute to be approve is the half of the total plus one votes in the Basque Parliament), which given the distribution of seats means that if the Basque Socialist Party approves of the reformed text, then the PSOE will support it at the Spanish level. Juan José Ibarretxe Juan José Ibarretxe Markuartu (born May 15, 1957) is a Basque politician. ... Spains fifty provinces (provincias) are grouped into seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades aut nomas), in addition to two African autonomous cities (ciudades aut nomas) (Ceuta and Melilla). ... An associated state is used to describe a free relationship between a territory and a larger nation. ... Free state is a term occasionally used in the official titles of some states. ... The Basque Parliament (Castillian Spanish Parlamento Vasco, Basque Eusko Legebiltzarra) is the autonomous legislative body of the Basque Country and the elected assembly before which the Basque Government is responsible. ... The Spanish Congress of Deputies (Spanish: Congreso de los Diputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spains legislative branch. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Catalonia

Historically Catalan nationalism has supported a federalization that respects a Catalan nation within Spain. Although most nationalist parties in Catalonia do not openly claim an independent state (ERC and the Independence Party do), it is regarded as the wish of a great part of the population, and, in fact, it was, during a short period in the Spanish Civil War. Convergence and Unity (Convergència i Unió, CiU) is a political party in Catalonia, Spain. ... Logo of the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC) party. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Catalan political parties ... Elections to the Parliament of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia were held on November 1, 2006 These were the first elections to be held following the alteration of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia to expand the authority of the Catalan Government. ... Catalan nationalism, or Catalanism, is a political movement that advocates the political autonomy of Catalonia or the Catalan Countries and in some cases, independence from Spain and France. ... Logo of the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC) party. ...


The Catalan nationalists usually consider the Catalan-speaking regions (Catalonia, Land of Valencia, Balearic Islands, the independent state of Andorra, Roussillion and some adjacent strips) as part of the same "nation", the Catalan Countries. The terms Catalan Countries (Catalan: Països Catalans) or Catalanofonia (quite similar, in the liguistic sense, to the French Francophonie or the Spanish Hispanidad) includes all territories where the Catalan language is spoken. ...


The inhabitants of the Aran Valley still speak their own dialect of the Gascon language in addition to Catalan and Spanish.
Val dAran, a small valley (620. ... Aranese (Aranès or Aranais) is a dialect of Gascon (which is part of the Occitan language group of the Romance languages), spoken in Spain, where it is an official language. ... The Gascon language (Gascon, ; French, ) is a language considered by some as a dialect of what we called from only the 19th century Occitan. ...


Its Statute of Autonomy defines this region as a nationality.
Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ...


In 2005, a draft of a new Statute of Autonomy, the 88.9% of the Catalan Parliament declared Catalonia a nation, but finally it was changed back to nationality (due to political pressure from both the Spanish Government and Opposition) and approved in a controversial referendum. However, this statute mentions the word "nation", referring to Catalonia, in its preamble (with declaratory, but not legal value) [4]. This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... This is the main article about the Catalan Parliament and its activity. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ...


Galicia

Since 2005 Galicia is ruled by a coalition government between the PSdeG-PSOE and the nationalist BNG. Unlike in other Spanish regions, the Galician Partido Popular, the major party, includes "galicianism" (regionalism) as one of its ideological principles. The Bloque Nacionalista Galego (Galician Nationalist Bloc), BNG, is a political organisation in Galicia in Spain, founded in 1982. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Socialist Party of Galicia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Bloque Nacionalista Galego (Galician Nationalist Bloc), BNG, is a political organisation in Galicia in Spain, founded in 1982. ... The Galician Peoples Party (Spanish and Galician: Partido Popular de Galicia) is a large liberal-conservative political party in Galicia, Spain. ... Saint James Cathedral Galicianism ideology with the nationalist objective of the defense of Galicia and its culture by the means of the establishment of its own institutions. ...


The Bloque Nacionalista Galego is itself a coalition of parties, neither of which endorses independence. Other nationalist parties stand for further devolution or outright independence but they only have representatives in local councils.


See Galician nationalism, Bloque Nacionalista Galego, Nós-Unidade Popular (Us-People Unity), Primeira Linha (First Line) and Celtic Nations. Sign in the portuguese border town of Valença do Minho where Espanha não é Galiza(Spain is not Galicia) can be read Galician nacionalism is a social and political movement that claims the recognition of Galicia as nation. ... The Bloque Nacionalista Galego (Galician Nationalist Bloc), BNG, is a political organisation in Galicia in Spain, founded in 1982. ... Nós-Unidade Popular it´s an galician political organization, with natonalist ideas. ... Primeira Linha (First Line in galician Portuguese) is a political communist organization joined the Galician Movement of National Liberation, established in 1st of May of 1996, which expect the overcoming of the concrete national and social oppression imposed by the capitalism on Galiza in order to contribute to the world... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ...


Its present Statute of Autonomy (1981) defines this region as a nationality. The Galician Government is drafting a new Statute of Autonomy where Galicia will most probably be defined as a nation. Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ...


Canary Islands

  • (30.76% CC)

Only in recent times a nationalism movement has been developed here. Its insularity requires several specific treatments. Even the Franco government conceded several privileges to the islands to compensate for their remoteness.
This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberal parties | Spanish political parties ...


Its Statute of Autonomy defines this region as a nationality.
Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ...


The Canarian Government is drafting a new Statue of Autonomy where the Canary Islands will be defined as a nation. However it must be noted that this nationalism is mild in its formulation, thus, independence is not even in the nationalist agenda. Historically, the Canarian Coalition can be deemed more as a lobby in order to favour Canarian interests within Spain rather than a nationalist movement like the ones formulated in other areas. One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ...


Regionalism

In most of these following regions people do not find conflictive the Spanish nationality and their own claimed national or regional identity.
There are two main political streams in regionalism: Nationalism-Regionalism, that supports the definition of the region as a nationality or nation but usually within Spain, and "Regionalism", that originally supported the creation of an autonomous community for its region, and now acts only as a promoter of its region but within Spain and respecting the current status of autonomous community, and these "regionalist" parties are commonly associated with PP in its region (or acting as its substitute or branch, as in Navarre UPN), see Federation of Regionalist Parties and Regionalist Party of Cantabria. The Peoples Party (Spanish: Partido Popular) is the largest liberal conservative political party in Spain. ... Navarrese Peoples Union (in Spanish: Unión del Pueblo Navarro) is a conservative political party active in the Navarre region of Spain. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Castile

  • (Nationalism-Regionalism: Castile-Leon 0.88% + Castile La Mancha 0.15% TC)

Regionalists in Castile (such as Tierra Comunera) want to unify the traditional provinces of the kernel of the old Kingdom of Castile (Old Castile and New Castile), and that would include the modern communities of Castile-Leon, Cantabria, La Rioja, Castilla-La Mancha, Extremadura, Madrid, and perhaps even provinces of Valencia, Alicante and Murcia (since Tierra Comunera makes no mention of those once Castilian possessions in its ideological bases, but it does about the Basque Country, Andalusia and Canary Islands being distinct nations from Castile).
In the map shown above it is visible that Castilla has the so many times told shape of a wedge, the way the Castilian language spread to other parts of the peninsula (from Cantabria and La Rioja).
Tierra Comunera (in English: Commoners land) is a far-right political party in the Spanish region of Castile. ... Tierra Comunera (in English: Commoners land) is a far-right political party in the Spanish region of Castile. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Limits of the Kingdom of Castile in 1210 The Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. ... Old Castille (Spanish: Castilla la Vieja) is an historic region of Spain, which included territory that later corresponded to the provinces of politically, Santander (now Cantabria), Burgos, Logroño (now La Rioja), Soria, Segovia, and Ávila, to which some scholars add Valladolid and Palencia. ... New Castile (Spanish: Castilla la Nueva) was the southern part of the Kingdom of Castile in central Spain, taken during the reconquista of the peninsula by Christian kings from Muslim rulers. ... Capital Valladolid Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 1st  94,223 km²  18,6% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 6th  2,510,849  5. ... Anthem: Himno de Cantabria Capital Santander Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 15th  5,321 km²  1. ... La Rioja is a province and autonomous community of northern Spain. ... Categories: Castile-La Mancha | Autonomous communities of Spain ... Capital Mérida Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41 634 km²  8,2% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 12th  1 083 879  2,5%  26,03/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€”  extremeño/a, castúo Statute of Autonomy February 26, 1983 ISO 3166-2 EX Parliamentary representation... Motto: De Madrid al Cielo (From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ...


See Castilian nationalism. Castilian independentist mural in Belfast Castilian nationalism, or Castilianism, is a political movement that advocates for the national recognition of Castile, and in some cases, its independence. ...


Aragon

Aragonese nationalist banner
  • (Nationalism-Regionalism: 12.46% CHA; "Regionalism": 12.03% PAR)

Traditionally it was an independent kingdom that forged Spain in its fusion with the Kingdom of Castile.
While there's small pro-independence support, most of Aragon's population doesn't wish an independent state but to be fully recognized as a distinct and important region in Spain with its own (not yet officially) recognized Aragonese language.
Image File history File links EstreladaAragonesa. ... Image File history File links EstreladaAragonesa. ... The Chunta Aragonesista (CHA) is a regionalist and social democrat party of Aragon (one region of spain), influenced by socialism and ecopacifism. ... The Argonese Party (Spanish: Partido Aragonés, or PAR) is a political party which advocates the interests of Aragon within Spain. ... Aragonese, IPA: (), is a Romance language now spoken by some 10,000 people over the valleys of the Aragón River, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain. ...


See Chunta Aragonesista.
The Chunta Aragonesista (CHA) is a regionalist and social democrat party of Aragon (one region of spain), influenced by socialism and ecopacifism. ...


Its Statute of Autonomy defines this region as a nationality. Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ...


Andalusia

  • (Nationalism-Regionalism: 8.53% PA)

Andalusia first Statute of Autonomy could not be enacted during the Republican government because of the Spanish Civil War, and, although it is not considered an historical community in the literal sense, it had the upper autonomy level thanks to a referendum (1981).
They have a peculiar culture, way of being and behaving of their own, that makes the stereotype of the Spanish people as seen by many foreigners.
They speak a very different dialect of Spanish, in its extreme form sometimes even difficult to understand by non Andalusians because of its hard accent (mainly in phonetics, rather than in grammar). This language is considered an Andalusian dialect of Spanish or as a full Andalusian language of its own by some people.
The Andalucista Party (Partido Andalucista) is a party created by nacionalist and center forces cas a regional party in Andalusia (Spain) but it still has an important power in any capitals of Andalusia such as Cádiz or Seville. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President¹  - 1931 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1937-1939 Juan Negrín Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Surrender to Franco April 1, 1939 Currency Spanish peseta ¹ Formal... The Andalusian dialect (also called andaluz) of European Spanish is spoken in Andalusia (including Gibraltar). ... Andalusian language (andalùh, es: Andaluz) is a proposed term to classify the various Romance lects spoken in the Andalusia region of Spain as a full language. ...


See Andalusian nationalism.
Monument to Blas Infante, Father of Andalusia[1], erected in the same place where he was executed without trial by Fascist rebels in 1936 Andalusian nationalism, Andalusian regionalism or Andalucismo is the name given to the political movement in Spain advocating the recognition of Andalusian people as a nation. It...


Its old Statute of Autonomy defines this region as a nationality.
Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ...


In the new Statute of Autonomy, approved in referendum on February 18, 2007, Andalusia is defined as a national reality in the preamble ('Andalousian manifesto of Cordoba described Andalusia as a national reality in 1919...') and as a historic nationality in its first section. Hovewer most of Andalousian people feel as Spanish as Andalousian. They think that Spain is their country, their Homeland and Andalusia is the Region where they live.


Asturias

The nationalist banner used by Andecha Astur
  • (Regionalism: 2.8% URAS; Nationalism: 1.45% PAS, 0.7% Andecha Astur)

Regionalist and nationalist parties (e.g. Andecha Astur) do not get much support from population, but they have clearly an identity.
A wish for independence is stated sometimes by those parties, but as the independent and pre-Spanish Kingdom of Asturias was the initial core of the Reconquista, most of the people do not feel that there is any incompatibility in being Asturian and Spanish. Moreover, Asturian nationalist and regionalist claims are divided among independence, regionalism itself, conforming an autonomous community of Leon. Image File history File links Andecha_Astur. ... Image File history File links Andecha_Astur. ... The nationalist flag of Asturia, often used by Andecha Astur Andecha Astur (AA) is an Asturian nationalist leftist political party of Spain. ... The nationalist flag of Asturia, often used by Andecha Astur Andecha Astur (AA) is an Asturian nationalist leftist political party of Spain. ... The nationalist flag of Asturia, often used by Andecha Astur Andecha Astur (AA) is an Asturian nationalist leftist political party of Spain. ... Flag Motto: Hoc Signo Tuetur Pius, Hoc Signo Vincitur Inimicus (English: With this sign thou shalt defend the pious, with this sign thou shalt defeat the enemy) Capital Cangas de Onis, San Martín, Pravia, Oviedo Language(s) Asturian, Latin Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 718-737 Pelayo of... Conquista redirects here. ...


Their sign of identity is the Asturian Language, regarded by some as a dialect of the Astur-Leonese. Asturian, Leonese, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as... Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as Mirandese). ...


See Asturian nationalism Asturina. Asturian socialist flag often used by left-wing nationalist asturian parties like Andecha Astur Nationalism and regionalism is present in the politics spectrum of the Principality of Asturias. ...


León

  • (Castile-León 3.67%: León 13.45%, Zamora 5.74%, Salamanca 3.44% UPL+ZU+UPS)

Regionalists of León want to obtain an autonomous community including the provinces of León, Zamora and Salamanca, and Asturias eventually joining them, the territories of the former Kingdom of León. They reject their present unification with Old Castile. UPL symbol Leonese Peoples Union (in Spanish: Unión del Pueblo Leonés) is a regional political party in Castilla y León, Spain. ... León province León (Llión in Asturian-leonese language) is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. ... Zamora province Zamora is a province of western Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. ... Salamanca province. ... The city of León was founded by the Roman Seventh Legion (for unknown reasons always written as Legio Septima Gemina (twin seventh legion). It was the headquarters of that legion in the late empire and was a center for trade in gold which was mined at Las Médulas... Old Castille (Spanish: Castilla la Vieja) is an historic region of Spain, which included territory that later corresponded to the provinces of politically, Santander (now Cantabria), Burgos, Logroño (now La Rioja), Soria, Segovia, and Ávila, to which some scholars add Valladolid and Palencia. ...


Their sign of identity is the Leonese language, that brings them near their Asturian neighbours. Leonese (Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain. ...


The western territory of El Bierzo, and its capital Ponferrada, is linked to their Galician neighbours, and there is a sentiment for a union with Galicia specially among the speakers of the local Galician dialect[citation needed]. Location Location of Ponferrada in Europe Coordinates : 42º3240 N, 2º5410 W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Ponferrada (Spanish) Spanish name Ponferrada Founded 11th century Postal code 244xx Area code 34 (Spain) + 987 (León) Website http://www. ...


See Leonese People's Union and País LLïonés. UPL symbol Leonese Peoples Union (in Spanish: Unión del Pueblo Leonés) is a regional political party in Castilla y León, Spain. ... According to some secesionist parties which call for its independence from Spain (such as Conceyu Xoven) the País LLïonés or Leonese Country would encompass roughly the current Spanish provinces of León, Salamanca and Palencia (all of them in the Autonomous Community of Castilla y León...


Identity ambiguous regions in Spain

The following regions have belonged to different kingdoms, realms, states or regions for a time, and their population regularly consider themselves differently mostly depending on the part of the region.
Some of these want to be identified with their own regional identity (such as Navarre, Cantabria or Valencia), but in fact they are the outcome of different cultural and linguistical adjacent streams.
For instance, people in the South of Navarra have never felt Basque, and if some of them are thinking that way nowadays, it is because of cultural-political influence or inmigration from adjacent Basque areas. The same goes for the people in the Spanish monolingual areas in Valencia (that have never felt Catalan in any way), and people in eastern or southern parts of Cantabria (which will never feel to be related to Astur-Leonese people).
So, generally speaking, these regions are constantly trying to forge its unitary identity (through "regionalist parties"), but in fact they are composed of opposing identities with more or less well established inner frontiers. Although mutual influence on both sides of those imaginary borders is common and may eventually lead to a common identity, it is highly unlikely to happen in regions like Navarre (where the vast majority of its northern population does not even want to be Spanish, but they only represent actually a minority when taking into account the whole population of Navarre). In Valencia it seems that their opposition to both Catalan and Castilian influences has managed to create a unique, distinct (and controversial) identity.


Navarre

Its people may feel to be either Basque or Spanish, and their culture is more akin to either Aragon or Castilla in the southern and eastern parts, but in the northern half lies the original homeland of the Basque people, where Basque language is still spoken and is better preserved than in western and southern parts of the autonomous community of the Basque Country.
Navarrese Peoples Union (in Spanish: Unión del Pueblo Navarro) is a conservative political party active in the Navarre region of Spain. ... Aralar is a Basque nationalist political group in Spain. ... Eusko Alkartasuna, Basque and Spanish regional political party, translated as Basque Solidarity and abbreviated as EA, is a party which describes itself as a Basque national, democratic, popular, progressive and non-denominational party. ... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... Zutik symbol Zutik is a political party in Basque Country, Spain. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: Euskaldunak) are an indigenous people[] who inhabit parts of both Spain and France. ... Basque (native name: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Official languages Basque and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 14th  7 234 km²  1,4% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 7th  2 124 846  4,9%  293,73/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€“ Basque  Basque  Vasco/a Euskal Herritar, Euskaldun GDP GDP/Cápita 30. ...

Distribution of Basque speaking people in Navarre 2001.

As stated by the Basque Statute of Autonomy, if approved by the Navarrese Parliament and popular referendum by majority, Navarre can join the autonomous community of the Basque Country at any time when desired by its government and population, no further actions are required. Navarre is not an Autonomous Community de iure (it is de facto, though) because a Statute of Autonomy was not made nor approved by popular referendum (as it happened in each Autonomous Community). Instead, it is ruled by a document called "Amejoramiento del Fuero" (Improvement of the Fuero) and the region is considered a "Foral Community".
Image File history File links Navarra_-_Mapa_densidad_euskera_2001. ... Image File history File links Navarra_-_Mapa_densidad_euskera_2001. ... The fuero is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, the foral. ...


According to the Ley Foral del Vascuence ("Foral Law regarding Basque Language") of the Navarrese Parliament is divided in three linguistical areas (Basque speaking area, Bilingual area and Spanish speaking area). See map.
The fuero is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, the foral. ...


See Nafarroa Bai and Navarrese People's Union. Navarre Yes or Nafarroa Bai (Basque) is a basque coalition of Navarre for the 2004 Spanish elections made of the Partido Nacionalista Vasco (Basque Nationalist Party), Eusko Alkartasuna (Basque Solidarity) and Aralar political parties, specifically candidating in Navarre aiming to win a seat in the spanish parliament, in which the... Navarrese Peoples Union (in Spanish: Unión del Pueblo Navarro) is a conservative political party active in the Navarre region of Spain. ...


Valencia

  • (Nationalism: 5.69% BNV+EV+ERPV; "Regionalism": 3.54% UV)

Valencian, a dialect of the Catalan language, is spoken in most of the territory of the Valencian autonomous community, however the nationalist sentiment is not widespread and most of the population consider themselves as much Valencian as Spanish.
The nationalist sentiment is slighty higher in Castellón compared to the other provinces (electoral results show that just about 6.96% of the votes in Castellon are nationalist, and slightly higher than the provinces of Valencia with 5.75% and Alicante with 5.15%).
Notwithstanding, their electoral stronghold where they get overall best results is an area split in two provinces: the southernmost end of the Valencia province and the northernmost end of the Alicante one. The fact that this area is split in two provinces reduces relative percentages in both provinces and thus the slight prevalence of the Castellón figures. The Valencian Nationalist Bloc (Bloc Nacionalista Valencià, BLOC or BNV) is a nationalist party of Land of Valencia which was created in 1998. ... Valencian Left (in Catalan: Esquerra Valenciana) is a historical nationalist Valencian left party founded the July 26 in 1934 that advocated the self-determination of the Valencian Country. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Unio Valenciana (Valencian Union) is a Spanish conservative and regional political party for residents of the region of Valencia. ... Valencian (valencià) is the historical, traditional, and official name used in the Valencian Community (Spain) to refer to the language spoken therein, also known as Catalan (català) in the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands; in the country of Andorra; in the southern French region of... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... Castellón province. ...


It's in the local elections that the nationalists obtain their best results, thus they hold several town councils and significant representation -mostly in the areas mentioned above. Reversely, it is in the general elections to the Spanish Parliament where they score worse (approx. 2% of the votes). In the regional elections to the Autonomous Parliament, the main nationalist party BNV gets usually around 4% of the votes, not having achieved so far the 5% threshold which grants representation in the regional Parliament. The Valencian Nationalist Bloc (Bloc Nacionalista Valencià, BLOC or BNV) is a nationalist party of Land of Valencia which was created in 1998. ...


There are territories in the Valencian autonomous community which are Spanish-speaking only areas, where Valencian was never spoken (roughly the inner 1/3 of the territory) or was historically sparsely spoken and finally disappeared (the southermost part of the autonomous community, around the city of Orihuela). These territories amount approximately 25% of the whole autonomous community. Since Valencian nationalism is primarily built around the Valencian language, this political option is virtually non existent at all in these areas.
Orihuela is a city and municipality located in the province of Alicante, Spain. ... Valencian (valencià) is the historical, traditional, and official name used in the Valencian Community (Spain) to refer to the language spoken therein, also known as Catalan (català) in the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands; in the country of Andorra; in the southern French region of...


In contrast to Unió Valenciana, BNV and its forebears favour cooperation and ties with the other Catalan speaking territories and and greater autonomy -if not independence itself- from Spain.
Esquerra Valenciana is a party "of national, republican and transforming left of the Valencian Country; that fights for the political sovereignty and defends the free confederation of this territory with Catalonia and the Balearic Islands". It hasn't achieved so far electoral representation of any kind. Unio Valenciana (Valencian Union) is a Spanish conservative and regional political party for residents of the region of Valencia. ... The Valencian Nationalist Bloc (Bloc Nacionalista Valencià, BLOC or BNV) is a nationalist party of Land of Valencia which was created in 1998. ... Valencian Left (in Catalan: Esquerra Valenciana) is a historical nationalist Valencian left party founded the July 26 in 1934 that advocated the self-determination of the Valencian Country. ...


See Politics of Valencia, Valencian Left and Valencian Nationalist Bloc.
Valencian Left (in Catalan: Esquerra Valenciana) is a historical nationalist Valencian left party founded the July 26 in 1934 that advocated the self-determination of the Valencian Country. ... The Valencian Nationalist Bloc (Bloc Nacionalista Valencià, BLOC or BNV) is a nationalist party of Land of Valencia which was created in 1998. ...


Its Statute of Autonomy defines this region as a nationality. Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ...


Balearic Islands

  • ("Catalan" nationalism: 7.96% PSM - Entesa Nacionalista and 3.64% Pacte d'Eivissa; Majorcan Regionalism: 7.45% Unió Mallorquina)

They also speak some dialects of Catalan (mallorquí, menorquí, eivissenc, formenterer), but they sympathize with Catalonian nationalistic claims more often than Valencian people do.
In fact, they officially call their language Catalan in the Statute of Autonomy (while in Valencia they call it Valencian). Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... The Mallorcan Union (Unió Mallorquina) is a regional liberal party in Spain. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of...


Anyway, Majorca has been right-winged and much more pro-Spanish historically, than other Autonomous Comunities. There are some centre parties, such as Unió Mallorquina that have Majorcan interests over the others', being a kind of regionalism, because they don't argue with the unity of Spain. The Mallorcan Union (Unió Mallorquina) is a regional liberal party in Spain. ...


Cantabria

  • ("Regionalism": 19.32% PRC; Regionalism: 2.39% UCn; Nationalism: 0.33% CNC)

This region founded the Kingdom of Asturias and later formed part of the Kingdom of Castile. However Cantabria kept its old culture due to its geographic peculiarities and isolation from Castile, being always its natural relations with the northern peoples of Asturias and Biscay.
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


See Cantabrian Nationalist Council and Cantabrian Regionalist Party. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Note that the Eastern coast (Castro Urdiales, Laredo) is a residential area for Basques of Biscay. Castro Urdiales, a seaport of northern Spain, in the province of Cantabria, situated on the bay of Biscay and at the head of a branch railway connected with the Bilbao-Santander line. ... Laredo is a town in the Northern Spanish province and autonomous community of Cantabria. ...


Extremadura

  • ("Regionalism": 1.6% EU)

This region was conquered by the Kingdom of Castile, but repopulated by many Leonese people, and their dialect (castúo) is thought to be a variety of the Leonese language.
Conquista redirects here. ... Leonese (Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain. ...


In the South they speak something related to the Andalusian dialect or accent of Spanish.
See Extremaduran language.
Extremaduran is a Romance language spoken by some thousands in Spain, most of them in the autonomous community of Extremadura and the province of Salamanca. ...


There are some parts where Portuguese is also spoken near Olivenza, over which the Portuguese Republic holds a claim.
Coordinates 38° 45 N, 5° 07 W Mayor Ramón Rocha Maqueda Area 750 km² Population  - Density 8,274 11. ... The exercise of diplomacy by the authorities of the sovereign state of Portugal extends as far back as 1139. ...


Regionalist movements also exist here.


Murcia

  • (>0%)

This Mediterranean region has belonged to several taifa kingdoms of Al-Andalus, Aragon and Castilla, therefore it shares many similarities with Andalusia, Valencia (a dialect of Valencian-Catalan is spoken in El Carxe) and Castile-La Mancha.
The term taifa in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in Spain (Arabic: Al-Andalus) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... King of Aragons arms in 15th century The Crown of Aragon or Aragonese Empire was the regime of a large portion of what is now Spain, plus numerous Mediterranean possessions, for much of the later Middle Ages. ... Limits of the Kingdom of Castile in 1210 The Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. ... now. ...


There have been and there are some regionalist movements too. Their goal is to restore the traditional region of Murcia (including Albacete and maybe Almería, and creating the province of Cartagena).
Albacete its origins is derived from Arabic Al Basita (the plain, or the simple). ... Almería is the capital of the province of Almería in Spain. ... For other places of the same name, see Cartagena Cartagena is a seaport in southeast Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, in the autonomous community of Murcia. ...


The haven of Cartagena declared itself an independent canton in 1868. See also: Kanton Canton or canton may refer to: canton (country subdivision), a territorial subdivision of a country the upper left (hoist) quarter of a flag, see flag terminology canton (heraldry), a subordinary occupying the (shield holders) upper right-hand ninth of the field canton (liqueur), a ginger-flavored...


See Murcian Spanish. The Murcian is a dialect of the Spanish who speaks itself nowadays in the Region of Murcia and in the provinces of Alicante and Albacete, in Spain. ...


Ceuta and Melilla

There are two identities in these African cities. The Spanish-speaking Christians feel similar to Andalusians, a minority of Christians (around 25% in Ceuta) also having Catalan roots. The bilingual Muslims speak Arabic or Berber besides Spanish and have familiar, commercial and cultural relations with neighbour Morocco, although they generally maintain their political allegiance to the Spanish state, despite the Moroccan claim on the two cities. Sephardic minorities evidently feel more strongly Spanish and many have emmigrated to other towns in Southern Spain, especially Malaga. Nevertheless, they too have strong cultural ties with Morocco.


Conflicts with "nationality" and "nation" and related controversy in Spain

This map shows the regions in whose Statutes of Autonomy it is stated that they are nationalities.
The rest of the autonomous communities (Asturias, Cantabria, Castile y Leon, La Rioja, Navarre, Madrid, Extremadura, Castile La Mancha, Murcia and Balearic Islands) are defined as regions.
Ironically, Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia were part of the same state-kingdom under the Crown of Aragon before the Spanish unification.
  • The two terms do not mean the same, but are used indistinctively by nationalist parties when justifying their political plans within the Spanish Constitution (nationality is regarded as an euphemism of nation).
  • The PSOE government under José Luis Zapatero has promoted the concept of Spain as a "Nation of nations"[4] to integrate nationalist claims within Spain, despite of the ambiguous statement in the Spanish Constitution of 1978. It is non-constitutional for a region or nationality to declare itself a nation while inside the Spanish Nation.
  • Apparently, it is stated that a "region" of Spain can be either a nationality or a "plain" region, composing then Spain of nationalities (Basque Country, Catalonia, Galicia, Andalusia, Aragon, Valencia and Canary Islands) and regions (the rest of Spain), but this is not explicitly specified anywhere in the constitution.
  • Even if an autonomous community declares itself a nationality (and it does have the constitutional right to do it) that does not mean actually anything radically different from a region (since the degree of autonomy is determined by historical regionality, i.e. whether they got a Statute of Autonomy during the Second Republic or not, and the will of the population). In the 1980s, the statutes of the "historic" communities were approved in a "fast track" before those of the rest of regions.
  • The Spanish Government does not recognize the right of self-determination of its hypotetical underlying nationalities or nations, and will not respect the outcome of an eventual regional referendum regarding the subject of autodetermination or independence. However the Basque Parliament voted for recognizing this right on its region.
  • The term nationality refers only to the region, and not to its citizens. That is, a region can be a nationality, but that does not imply that their citizens (also) have the nationality of that region, but only Spanish nationality. There is only a Spanish citizenship officially recognized.
  • Nationalities and hypotetical nations in Spain are not always based on ethnic criteria (as in the case of Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia) but on historical, linguistical and cultural facts which any person in those regions can assume and get identified with, regardless of his background origin, family homeland or ancestors belonging to different nationalities.
  • Modern nationalism movements in Spain (such as Basque nationalism, Catalan nationalism, Galician nationalism, Canarian nationalism, etc.) do not regard their "nations" as superior or better in any sense than any other one (although the founder of the Basque nationalism thought so), but just as distinct and independent nations from the Spanish one.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1250x950, 67 KB) Summary Nacionalities in Spain Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1250x950, 67 KB) Summary Nacionalities in Spain Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Spanish Socialist Workers Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español or PSOE) is one of the main parties of Spain. ... José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born August 4, 1960) is the Prime Minister of Spain. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. ... Spains fifty provinces (provincias) are grouped into seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades aut nomas), in addition to two African autonomous cities (ciudades aut nomas) (Ceuta and Melilla). ... Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws). ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President¹  - 1931 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1937-1939 Juan Negrín Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Surrender to Franco April 1, 1939 Currency Spanish peseta ¹ Formal... The Basque Parliament (Castillian Spanish Parlamento Vasco, Basque Eusko Legebiltzarra) is the autonomous legislative body of the Basque Country and the elected assembly before which the Basque Government is responsible. ... Sabino Arana Goiri, self-styled as Arana ta GoiritaÅ• Sabin (January 26, 1865 – November 25, 1903), Spain, founder of the Basque Nationalist Party and a inventor of previously non-existent Basque nationalism. ...

The "Core of Spain" and "Fear of Disintegration"

Despite nationalistic claims in different parts of today's Spain, political analysts generally judge that any actual disintegration of the State is very unlikely.


Even if the Basque Country, Catalonia or Galicia got an independent state, the remaining population in the rest of Spain would keep considering themselves mainly Spaniards.


See also

Autonomous communities of Spain. ... In addition to its seventeen autonomous communities, Spain is divided into fifty provinces. ... Historical regions in Spain are those that are granted by the 1978 Constitution a special status as autonomous communities. ... Often, the flags listed below have two meanings. ... Politics of Spain takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy, whereby the Monarch is the Head of State and the President of the Government is the head of government and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Motto: (Latin) Further Beyond Anthem:  1(Spanish) Royal March Capital (and largest city)  Madrid Official languages Spanish2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Head of State Juan Carlos I (Monarch)  - Head of Government José L. Rodríguez Zapatero Formation 15th century   - Dynastic union 1516   - Unification 1469   - de facto 1716   - de jure 1812  Accession... Coconstitutional is where two institutional cultures exist in a complex semi-automous relationship to each other. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: Euskaldunak) are an indigenous people[] who inhabit parts of both Spain and France. ... The Catalans are an ethnic group or nation whose homeland is Catalonia, or the Principality of Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya, or Principat de Catalunya), which is a historical region in southern Europe, embracing a territory situated in the north-east of Spain and an adjoining portion of southern France. ... The Galician people (Povo Galego) is the ethnic group or nation native to the Spanish autonomous community of Galicia, in the Iberian peninsula of southwest Europe. ... The Andalusians are a cultural group in Spain centered in the Andalusia region. ... “Spaniard” redirects here. ... Motto: (Latin) Further Beyond Anthem:  1(Spanish) Royal March Capital (and largest city)  Madrid Official languages Spanish2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Head of State Juan Carlos I (Monarch)  - Head of Government José L. Rodríguez Zapatero Formation 15th century   - Dynastic union 1516   - Unification 1469   - de facto 1716   - de jure 1812  Accession... The Iberian language describes a linguistic group identified with the Iberian civilization (7th century BC – 1st century BC), formed in the eastern and south-eastern regions of the Iberian peninsula. ... Fueros is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, Forals. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: Land of the South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...

External links

  • Pais Llïonés (Spanish)
  • Ibarretxe Plan (Spanish - Multilingual)
  • Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country (1979) (Spanish)
  • Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (1979) (Spanish)
  • Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (2006) (Spanish)
  • Statue of Autonomy of Galicia (1981) (Spanish)
  • Draft of the new Statute of Autonomy of Galicia (Galician)
  • Nación Mundial Galega (Galician)
  • Statute of Autonomy of Andalusia (1981) (Spanish)
  • Draft of the new Statute of Autonomy of Andalusia
  • Statute of Autonomy of Canarias (1982) (Spanish)
  • Statute of Autonomy of Aragon (1982) (Spanish)
  • Statute of Autonomy of Valencia (1982) (Spanish)
  • Statute of Autonomy of Valencia (2006) (Spanish)
  • Andalusia as a nation (Spanish)
  • Tierra Comunera
  • Detailed linguistic map of the Iberian Peninsula

References

  1. ^ In those elections the leftist nationalist-independentist party of Batasuna had been declared illegal and could not be voted. In past municipality elections (June 1999) it represented a 19.63% of total votes (then renamed as Euskal Herritarrok). In 2003 elections most of its votes went to invalid (spoilt) votes (10.04% against just 0.85% in 1999), followed by votes to PNV-EA (43.84% against 34.16% in 1999) and a minimal part to Aralar (1.49%). So a percentage of 10.04% should probably be added to the nationalist figure of 45.33%, making a total of 55.37%
  2. ^ In that year's elections, Batasuna was illegal. The party asked to vote void. The void (spoilt) votes in Navarre were 6,48% (against 1.44% in 1999). Batasuna (then renamed as Euskal Herritarrok) got 15.95% of the total votes in 1999, making a total of 23.83% Basque nationalist votes (EH + EA + PNV) in 1999, almost the same in 2003 when adding the 6,48% null votes to the 17,55%: 24,03%.
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ "Montilla asegura que España es una 'nación de naciones' y la reforma constitucional debe recoger la 'singularidad'", Europa Press, August 8, 2004. However, compare José Bono: "más como nación de ciudadanos iguales en derechos y obligaciones que como nación de naciones o Estado de pueblos", Ministry of Defence, November 8, 2005.

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Europa Press was a publishing house founded and run by the Irish surrealist poet George Reavey. ... José Bono. ...

Further reading

Amersfoort, Hans Van & Jan Mansvelt Beck 2000 'Institutional Plurality, a way out of the Basque conflict?', Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 26. no. 3, pp. 449-467


Conversi, Daniele 'Autonomous Communities and the ethnic settlement in Spain', in Yash Ghai (ed.) Autonomy and Ethnicity. Negotiating Competing Claims in Multi-Ethnic States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 122-144 [ISBN 0521786428 paperback]


Flynn, M. K. 2004 'Between autonony and federalism: Spain', in Ulrich Schneckener and Stefan Wolf (eds) Managing and Settling Ethnic Conflicts. London: Hurst


Heywood, Paul. The Government and Politics of Spain. New York St. Martin's Press, 1996 (see in particular ch. 2)


Keating, Michael. 'The minority nations of Spain and European integration: A new framework for autonomy?', Journal of Spanish Cultural Studies, vol. 1, n. 1, March 2000, pp. 29-42


Lecours, André 2001 'Regionalism, cultural diversity and the state in Spain', Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, vo. 22, no. 3, pp. 210-226


Magone, Jose' M. 2004 Contemporary Spanish Politics. London: Routledge, 1997


Mar-Molinero, Clare. 'The Iberian peninsula: Conflicting linguistic nationalisms', in Barbour, Stephen and Cathie Carmichael (eds) Language and Nationalism in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000


Moreno, Luis. 'Local and global: Mesogovernments and territorial identities'. Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Sociales Avanzados (CSIC), Documento de Trabajo 98-09, 1998. Paper presented at the Colloquium on ‘Identity and Territorial Autonomy in Plural Societies’, IPSA Research Committee on Politics and Ethnicity. University of Santiago (July 17-19, 1998), Santiago de Compostela, Spain [URL: http://www.csic.es/iesa/dt-9809.htm, 9 September 1998]


Moreno, Luis. The Federalization of Spain. London; Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2001


 
 

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