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Encyclopedia > Nationalism
Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. Marianne is a symbol for France today.
Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. Marianne is a symbol for France today.

Nationalism is a term referring to doctrine[1] or political movement[2] that holds that a nation, usually defined in terms of ethnicity or culture, has the right to constitute an independent or autonomous political community based on a shared history and common destiny.[3] Most nationalists believe the borders of the state should be congruent with the borders of the nation.[4] Extreme forms of nationalism, such as those propagated by fascist movements in the twentieth century, hold that nationality is the most important aspect of one's identity, while some of them have attempted to define the nation in terms of race or genetics. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x1022, 171 KB) Same image in much smaller size is found at Image:Liberty Leading the People. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x1022, 171 KB) Same image in much smaller size is found at Image:Liberty Leading the People. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Liberty Leading the People (French: ) is a painting by Eugène Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled Charles X. A woman personifying Liberty leads the people forward over the bodies of the fallen, holding the tricolore flag of the French Revolution in one hand and brandishing a... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... Marianne busts with features of Brigitte Bardot - Catherine Deneuve - Mireille Mathieu Marianne, a national emblem of France, is a personification of Liberty and Reason. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Fascist redirects here. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Look up Identity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Race. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


Nationalism has had an enormous influence on Modern history, in which the nation-state has become the dominant form of societal organization. Historians use the term nationalism to refer to this historical transition and to the emergence and predominance of nationalist ideology. Nationalism is closely associated with patriotism. Modern history describes the history of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ...

Contents

Principles

This section sets out the components of nationalist ideology as seen by nationalists themselves. (Academic theories of nationalism are skeptical of some of these principles, see below).


Nationalism is a form of universalism when it makes universal claims about how the world should be organized, but it is particularistic with regard to individual nations. The combination of both is characteristic for the ideology, for instance in these assertions: This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

  • "in a nation-state, the language of the nation should be the official language, and all citizens should speak it, and not a foreign language"
  • "the official language of Denmark should be Danish, and all Danish citizens should speak it."

The universalistic principles bring nationalism into conflict with competing forms of universalism, the particularistic principles bring specific nationalist movements into conflict with rival nationalisms - for instance, the Danish-German tensions over their reciprocal linguistic minorities. The Schleswig-Holstein Question was the name given to the whole complex of diplomatic and other issues arising in the 19th century out of the relations of the two duchies, Schleswig and Holstein, to the Danish crown and to the German Confederation. ... Flag used by the Danish minoritys political party, SSW The Danish minority in Southern Schleswig, Germany has existed by this name since 1920, when the Schleswig Plebiscite split the German-ruled Schleswig into Northern Schleswig, with a clear Danish majority which became part of Denmark, and Southern Schleswig which...


The starting point of nationalism is the existence of nations, which it takes as a given. Nations are typically seen as entities with a long history: most nationalists do not believe a nation can be created artificially. Nationalist movements see themselves as the representative of an existing, centuries-old nation. However, some theories of nationalism imply the reverse order - that the nationalist movements created the sense of national identity, and then a political unit corresponding to it, or that an existing state promoted a 'national' identity for itself. For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


Nationalists see nations as an inclusive categorization of human beings - assigning every individual to one specific nation. In fact, nationalism sees most human activity as national in character. Nations have national symbols, a national culture, a national music and national literature; national folklore, a national mythology and - in some cases - a national religion. Individuals share national values and a national identity, admire the national hero, eat the national dish and play the national sport. National symbols are symbols of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community (independent states, but also nations and countries in a state of colonialor other dependence, (con)federal integration, even an ethno-cultural community considered a nationality despite the absence of any political... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... A value system refers to the order and priority an individual or society grants to ethical and ideological values. ... Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as he is influenced by his belonging to a group or culture. ... A culture hero is a historical or mythological hero who changes the world through invention or discovery. ... A national dish is a dish, food or a drink that represents a particular country, nation or region. ... A national sport is a sport or game that is considered to be a popularly intrinsic part of the culture or is the most popular sport of a country or nation. ...


Nationalists define individual nations on the basis of certain criteria, which distinguish one nation from another; and determine who is a member of each nation. These criteria typically include a shared language, culture, and/or shared values which are predominantly represented within a specific ethnic group. National identity refers both to these defining criteria, and to the shared heritage of each group. Membership in a nation is usually involuntary and determined by birth. Individual nationalisms vary in their degree of internal uniformity: some are monolithic, and tolerate little variance from the national norms. Academic nationalism theory emphasizes that national identity is contested, reflecting differences in region, class, gender, and language or dialect. A recent development is the idea of a national core culture, in Germany the Leitkultur, which emphasizes a minimal set of non-negotiable values: this is primarily a strategy of cultural assimilation in response to immigration. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Value redirects here. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... The German language term Leitkultur is a politically controversial concept, first introduced in 1998 by the German orientalist Bassam Tibi. ... Not to be confused with Intermarriage. ...


Nationalism has the strong territorial component, with an inclusive categorization of territory corresponding to the categorization of individuals. For each nation, there is a territory which is uniquely associated with it, the national homeland, and together they account for most habitable land. This is reflected in the geopolitical claims of nationalism, which seeks to order the world as a series of nation-states, each based on the national homeland of its respective nation. Territorial claims characterize the politics of nationalist movements. Established nation-states also make an implicit territorial claim, to secure their own continued existence: sometimes it is specified in the national constitution. In the nationalist view, each nation has a moral entitlement to a sovereign state: this is usually taken as a given. Geopolitics is the study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to spatial politics and patterns at various scales (ranging from home, city, region, state to international and cosmopolitics). ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


The nation-state is intended to guarantee the existence of a nation, to preserve its distinct identity, and to provide a territory where the national culture and ethos are dominant - nationalism is also a philosophy of the state. It sees a nation-state as a necessity for each nation: secessionist national movements often complain about their second-class status as a minority within another nation. This specific view of the duties of the state influenced the introduction of national education systems, often teaching a standard curriculum, national cultural policy, and national language policy. In turn, nation-states appeal to a national cultural-historical mythos to justify their existence, and to confer political legitimacy - acquiescence of the population in the authority of the government. Ethos (ἦθος) (plurals: ethe, ethea) is a Greek word originally meaning the place of living that can be translated into English in different ways. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For a curriculum vitae, see Résumé. In formal education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university. ... Many countries have a language policy designed to favour or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages. ... Look up muthos in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word legitimacy is often interpreted in a normative or a positive way. ...


Nationalists recognize that 'non-national' states exist and existed, but do not see them as a legitimate form of state. The struggles of early nationalist movements were often directed against such non-national states, specifically multi-ethnic empires such as Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Most multi-ethnic empires have disappeared, but some secessionist movements see Russia and China as comparable non-national, imperial states. At least one modern state is clearly not a nation-state: the Vatican City exists solely to provide a sovereign territorial unit for the Roman Catholic Church. This article is about the political and historical term. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Some critics have maintained that (unlike modern nationalism, which is a creation of the 19th century nation state) authentic nationalism (as the Latin 'natio' would suggest) must be based in some form of genophilia and the sharing of ancestors.


Nationalism as ideology includes ethical principles: that the moral duties of individuals to fellow members of the nation override those to non-members. Nationalism claims that national loyalty, in case of conflict, overrides local loyalties, and all other loyalties to family, friends, profession, religion, or class. For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... (UTC):This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause. ...


Theory

Background and problems

Specific examples of nationalisms are extremely diverse since many types, forms, and origins exist. The theory of nationalism has always been complicated by this background, and by the intrusion of nationalist ideology into the theory. There are also national differences in the theory of nationalism, since people define nationalism on the basis of their local experience. Theory (and media coverage)may overemphasize conflicting nationalist movements, and war - diverting attention from many general theoretical issues; for instance, the characteristics of nation-states. For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


Issues

The first studies of nationalism were generally historical accounts of nationalist movements. At the end of the 19th century, Marxists and other socialists produced political analysis that were critical of the nationalist movements then active in central and eastern Europe. Most sociological theories of nationalism date from after the Second World War. Some nationalism theory is about issues which concern nationalists themselves, such as who belongs to the nation and who does not, as well as the precise meaning of 'belonging'. Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Origins

Recent general theory has looked at underlying issues, and above all the question of which came first, nations or nationalism. Nationalist activists see themselves as representing a pre-existing nation, and the primordialist theory of nationalism agrees. It sees nations, or at least ethnic groups, as a social reality dating back twenty thousand years. Primordialism is the argument - put forward by both scholars and activists - which contends that nations are ancient, natural phenomena; that one has a nation as obviously as one has a measure of height. ...


The modernist theories imply that until around 1800, almost no-one had more than local loyalties. National identity and unity were originally imposed from above, by European states, because they were necessary to modernize economy and society. In this theory, nationalist conflicts are an unintended side-effect. For example, Ernest Gellner argued that nations are a by-product of industrialization. Modernization theorists see such things as the printing press and capitalism as necessary conditions for nationalism.[5] Modernization (also Modernisation) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. ... I do not think I could have written the book on nationalism which I did write, were I not capable of crying, with the help of a little alcohol, over folk songs . ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


Anthony D. Smith, typically following the Hegellian dialectic of thesis/antithesis/synthesis, proposed a synthesis of primordialist and modernist views, now commonly referred to as an ethno-symbolist approach. According to Smith, the preconditions for the formation of a nation are as follows: Anthony D. Smith (born 1928) is a noted English theorist of nationalism. ...

  • A fixed homeland (current or historical)
  • High autonomy
  • Hostile surroundings
  • Memories of battles
  • Sacred centers
  • Languages and scripts
  • Special customs
  • Historical records and thinking

Those preconditions may create powerful common mythology. Therefore, the mythic homeland is in reality more important for the national identity than the actual territory occupied by the nation.[6] Smith also posits that nations are formed through the inclusion of the whole populace (not just elites), constitution of legal and political institutions, nationalist ideology, international recognition and drawing up of borders. For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ...


Theoretical literature

There is a large amount of theoretical and empirical literature on nationalism. The following is a minimal selection of some of the more important works, and a series of capsule summaries that do not do justice to the range of views expressed.

  • Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities. 2nd ed. London: Verso. Anderson argues that nations are imagined political communities, and are imagined to be limited and sovereign. Their development is related to the decline of other types of imagined community, especially in the face of capitalist production of print media.
  • Armstrong, John Alexander. 1982. Nations Before Nationalism. Armstrong traces the development of national identities from origins in antiquity and the medieval world.
  • Breuilly, John. 1992. Nationalism and the State. 2nd ed. Manchester: Manchester University Press. This approach focuses on the politics of nationalism, in particular on nationalism as a response to the imperatives of the modern state. It employs the mode of comparative history to study numerous cases of nationalism.
  • Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell. This work links nationalism to the homogenising imperatives of industrial society and the reactions of minority cultures to those imperatives.
  • Greenfeld, Liah. 1992. Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Greenfeld argues that nationalism existed at an earlier age than previously thought: as early as the sixteenth century in the case of England.
  • Steven Grosby, Biblical Ideas of Nationality: Ancient and Modern (2002)dates the idea of the nation to the ancient Levant.
  • Hechter, Michael. 1975. Internal Colonialism. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Hechter attributes nationalism in the "Celtic fringe" of Britain and Ireland to the reinforcing divisions of culture and the division of labour.
  • Hobsbawm, Eric, and Ranger, Terence, eds. 1983. The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. This collection of essays, especially Hobsbawm's introduction and chapter on turn-of-the-century Europe, argues that the nation is a prominent type of invented tradition.
  • Kedourie, Elie. 1960. Nationalism. London: Hutchinson. Kedourie focuses on the role of disaffected German intellectuals in developing the doctrine of nationalism at the beginning of the nineteenth century from Kant's idea of the autonomy of the will and Herder's belief in the primacy of linguistic communities in establishing modes of thought.
  • Kedourie, Elie, ed. 1971. Nationalism in Asia and Africa. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Kedourie's introduction to this volume of nationalist texts extends his analysis in his earlier work to the efforts of intellectuals in colonial states.
  • Hans Kohn The Idea of Nationalism; a Study of its Origins and Background, MacMillan, 1944. Kohn's pioneering work formulates the distinction between civic and ethnic nationalism.
  • Will Kymlicka, "Multicultural Citizenship," (Oxford, 1995). Argues that certain "collective rights" of minority cultures are consistent with liberal democratic principles.
  • David Miller, "on Nationality," Oxford University Press, 1975, 1995, 1999. Millerargues that national identities are valid sources of personal identity, that individuals are justified in recognizing special obligations to co-nationals, and that nations have good grounds for desiring self-determination, but that nationalism cannot justify suppressing other sources of identity.
  • Jeremy A. Rabkin, Law without Nations? Why constitutional government Requires Sovereign States," Princeton U. Press, 2005, Rabkin argues that nations are necessary for the protection of the human rights of individuals.
  • Ernest Renan, his 1882 lecture Qu'est-ce qu'une nation? ("What is a Nation?")described nationalism as the desire of people who see themselves as a community that "avoir fait de grandes choses ensemble, vouloir en faire encore" (having done great things together and wishing to do more), he famously described commitment to the nation as a "daily plebiscite."
  • Smith, Anthony D. 1986. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell. Smith traces modern nations and nationalism to pre-modern ethnic sources, arguing for the existence of an "ethnic core" in modern nations.
  • Yael Tamir, 1993, "Liberal Nationalism," Princeton University Press. Tamir makes a liberal political theory argument for nationalism based on the right of individuals to associate as nations.(JR. Lover 2008)

Benedict Richard OGorman Anderson (born August 26, 1936) // Anderson is professor emeritus of International Studies at Cornell University. ... I do not think I could have written the book on nationalism which I did write, were I not capable of crying, with the help of a little alcohol, over folk songs . ... Liah Greenfeld holds the position of University Professor and Professor of Political Science and Sociology, as well as Director of the Institute for the Advancement of the Social Sciences, at Boston University. ... Eric Hobsbawm (born June 9, 1917) is a British historian and author, once the leading theoretician of the now defunct Communist Party of Great Britain. ... Terence Osborn Ranger is a prominent African historian, focusing much of his work on the colonial History of Zimbabwe. ... Elie Kedourie C.B.E., FBA (25 January 1926-29 June 1992) was a British historian of the Middle East. ... Elie Kedourie C.B.E., FBA (25 January 1926-29 June 1992) was a British historian of the Middle East. ... Hans Kohn (Hebrew: , September 15, 1891, Prague - 1971) was a Czech-born Jewish historian. ... David Miller could refer to any of the following: David Miller (architect), University of Washington, Seattle Professor, FAIA David Miller (Canadian politician), mayor of Toronto David Miller (darts player), an American professional darts player David Miller (director), film director David Miller (editor), British writer and journalist Dave Miller (Mozilla), American... Anthony D. Smith (born 1928) is a noted English theorist of nationalism. ...

Typology

Deffroad Cymru, the Awakening of Wales Christopher Williams (1911)
Deffroad Cymru,
the Awakening of Wales
Christopher Williams
(1911)

Nationalism may manifest itself as part of official state ideology or as a popular (non-state) movement and may be expressed along civic, ethnic, cultural, religious or ideological lines. These self-definitions of the nation are used to classify types of nationalism. However, such categories are not mutually exclusive and many nationalist movements combine some or all of these elements to varying degrees. Nationalist movements can also be classified by other criteria, such as scale and location. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Christopher David Williams (1873 – 1934) was a Welsh artist. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ...


Some political theorists make the case that any distinction between forms of nationalism is false. In all forms of nationalism, the populations believe that they share some kind of common culture, and culture can never be wholly separated from ethnicity. The United States, for example, has "God" on its coinage and in its Pledge of Allegiance, and designates official holidays which are seen by some to promote cultural biases. The United States has an ethnic theory of being American (nativism), and, for a short period in the 20th century, had a committee to investigate Un-American Activities. This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... The Pledge of Allegiance is a promise or oath of allegiance to the United States and the its national flag. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... HUAC hearings The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA,[1] 1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Ethnic nationalism

Main article: Ethnic nationalism
See also: National mysticism and Nationalism and archaeology

Ethnic nationalism, or ethnonationalism, defines the nation in terms of ethnicity, which always includes some element of descent from previous generations - i.e. genophilia. It also includes ideas of a culture shared between members of the group and with their ancestors, and usually a shared language. Membership in the nation is hereditary. The state derives political legitimacy from its status as homeland of the ethnic group, and from its function to protect the national group and facilitate its cultural and social life, as a group. Ideas of ethnicity are very old, but modern ethnic nationalism was heavily influenced by Johann Gottfried von Herder, who promoted the concept of the Volk, and Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Ethnic nationalism is now the dominant form, and is often simply referred to as "nationalism". Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... This article is about National Mysticism of all cultures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Historiography and nationalism. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor. ... For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and... A homeland is the concept of the territory to which one belongs; usually, the country in which a particular nationality was born. ... Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 - December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his concept of the Volk and is generally considered the father of ethnic nationalism. ... Volk is a German (and Dutch) word meaning people or folk. It is commonly used as prefix in words such as Volksentscheid (plebiscite) or Völkerbund (League of Nations), or the car manufacturer Volkswagen (literally, peoples car). A number of völkisch movements were set up in Germany after... Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814) was a German philosopher. ...


Theorist Anthony D. Smith uses the term 'ethnic nationalism' for non-Western concepts of nationalism, as opposed to Western views of a nation defined by its geographical territory. (The term "ethnonationalism" is generally used only in reference to nationalists who espouse an explicit ideology along these lines; "ethnic nationalism" is the more generic term, and used for nationalists who hold these beliefs in an informal, instinctive, or unsystematic way. The pejorative form of both is "ethnocentric nationalism" or "tribal nationalism," though "tribal nationalism" can have a non-pejorative meaning when discussing African, Native American, or other nationalisms that openly assert a tribal identity.) Anthony D. Smith (born 1928) is a noted English theorist of nationalism. ... Irish nationalist graffiti, Derry 1986, with evidence of vandalism. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ...


Civic nationalism

Civic nationalism (or civil nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from the active participation of its citizenry, from the degree to which it represents the "will of the people". It is often seen as originating with Jean-Jacques Rousseau and especially the social contract theories which take their name from his 1762 book The Social Contract. Civic nationalism lies within the traditions of rationalism and liberalism, but as a form of nationalism it is contrasted with ethnic nationalism. Membership of the civic nation is considered voluntary. Civic-national ideals influenced the development of representative democracy in countries such as the United States and France. Civic nationalism, or civil nationalism, is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from the active participation of its citizenry, from the degree to which it represents the will of the people. It is often seen as originating with Jean-Jacques Rousseau and especially the social... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The word legitimacy is often interpreted in a normative or a positive way. ... Citizen redirects here. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Social contract is a phrase used in philosophy, political science, and sociology to denote a real or hypothetical agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ...

Corsican nationalists sometimes shoot or spray on the traffic signs, damaging the French version of names
Corsican nationalists sometimes shoot or spray on the traffic signs, damaging the French version of names

State nationalism is a variant of civic nationalism, very often combined with ethnic nationalism. It implies that the nation is a community of those who contribute to the maintenance and strength of the state, and that the individual exists to contribute to this goal. Italian fascism is the best example, epitomized in this slogan of Mussolini: "Tutto nello Stato, niente al di fuori dello Stato, nulla contro lo Stato." ("Everything in the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State"). It is no surprise that this conflicts with liberal ideals of individual liberty, and with liberal-democratic principles. The revolutionary Jacobin creation of a unitary and centralist French state is often seen as the original version of state nationalism. Franquist Spain,[7] and contemporary Kemalist Turkish nationalism[8][9] are later examples of state nationalism. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 443 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 443 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... State nationalism is a form of nationalism which implies that the nation is a community of those who contribute to the maintenance and strength of the state. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... Fascist redirects here. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ... Franco redirects here. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ...


However, the term "state nationalism" is often used in conflicts between nationalisms, and especially where a secessionist movement confronts an established nation state. The secessionists speak of state nationalism to discredit the legitimacy of the larger state, since state nationalism is perceived as less authentic and less democratic. Flemish separatists speak of Belgian nationalism as a state nationalism. Basque separatists and Corsican separatists refer to Spain and France, respectively, in this way. There are no undisputed external criteria to assess which side is right, and the result is usually that the population is divided by conflicting appeals to its loyalty and patriotism. For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... The Flemish movement (Dutch: Vlaamse Beweging) is a popular term used to describe the political movement for greater autonomy of the Belgian region of Flanders, for protection of the Dutch language in Flanders, and for protection of the Flemish culture. ... Belgian nationalism (or Belgicistic nationalism; Dutch: Belgicisme; French: Belgicanisme) defines an ideology that favours a strong centralized government, with less or no autonomy for the Flemish Community, French Community of Belgium, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and the Brussels-Capital Region, as well as their regional and ethnic counterparts... Political Spain in 1854, after the first Carlist War The Arrano beltza (black eagle) flag is waved by radical Basque nationalists, mainly supporters of ETA and HB, along the Ikurriña and the Navarrese flag as a claim of unity of the Basque lands. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ...


Expansionist Nationalism

Main article: Expansionist Nationalism

Expansionist Nationalism is a radical form of nationalism that incorporates autonomous, patriotic sentiments with a belief in expansionism. It is most closely associated with the likes of Nazism (nationalist-socialism) and also shares some commonalities with American Manifest Destiny. Expansionist Nationalism is a radical form of nationalism that incorporates autonomous, patriotic sentiments with a belief in expansionism. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ...


Romantic nationalism

Romantic nationalism (also organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of ethnic nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy as a natural ("organic") consequence and expression of the nation, or race. It reflected the ideals of Romanticism and was opposed to Enlightenment rationalism. Romantic nationalism emphasized a historical ethnic culture which meets the Romantic Ideal; folklore developed as a Romantic nationalist concept. The Brothers Grimm were inspired by Herder's writings to create an idealized collection of tales which they labeled as ethnically German. Historian Jules Michelet exemplifies French romantic-nationalist history. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... Expression may refer to: (in the vernacular) the act or particular way of expressing something (including an emotion through a facial expression or configuration) (in mathematics) a mathematical expression (in computing) a programming language expression (in computing) a vector graphics software Microsoft Expression (in genetics) the effect produced by a... Romantics redirects here. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Brothers Grimm (disambiguation). ... Jules Michelet (August 21, 1798 - February 9, 1874) was a French historian. ...


Cultural nationalism

Main article: Cultural nationalism

Cultural nationalism defines the nation by shared culture. Membership in the nation is neither entirely voluntary (you cannot instantly acquire a culture), nor hereditary (children of members may be considered foreigners if they grew up in another culture). Yet, a traditional culture can be more easily incorporated into an individal's life, especially if the individual is allowed to acquire its skills at an early stage of his/her own life . [10] Chinese nationalism is one example of cultural nationalism, partly because of the many national minorities in China.[citation needed] For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


Cultural nationalism has been described as a variety of nationalism that is neither purely civic nor purely ethnic.[11] The nationalisms of Quebec and Flanders have been variously described as ethnic or as cultural.[12] Civic nationalism, or civil nationalism, is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from the active participation of its citizenry, from the degree to which it represents the will of the people. It is often seen as originating with Jean-Jacques Rousseau and especially the social... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ...


Third World nationalism

Recently, there has been a rise of Third World nationalisms. Third world nationalisms, occur in those nations that have been colonized and exploited. The nationalisms of these nations were forged in a furnace that required resistance to colonial domination in order to survive. As such, resistance is part and parcel of such nationalisms and their very existence is a form of resistance to imperialist intrusions. The Third World nationalism attempts to ensure that the identities of Third World peoples are authored primarily by themselves, not colonial powers.[13]


Liberal nationalism

Liberal nationalism is a kind of nationalism defended recently by political philosophers who believe that there can be a non-xenophobic form of nationalism compatible with liberal values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights.[14] Ernest Renan[15] and John Stuart Mill[16] are often thought to be early liberal nationalists. Liberal nationalists often defend the value of national identity by saying that individuals need a national identity in order to lead meaningful, autonomous lives[17] and that liberal democratic polities need national identity in order to function properly.[18] Civic nationalism, or civil nationalism, is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from the active participation of its citizenry, from the degree to which it represents the will of the people. It is often seen as originating with Jean-Jacques Rousseau and especially the social... Xenophobia means fear of strangers or the unknown and comes from the Greek ξενοφοβια, xenophobia, literally meaning fear of the strange. It is often used to describe fear of or dislike of foreigners, but racism in general is sometimes described as a form of xenophobia, as are such prejudices as... Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ...


National conservatism

National conservatism is a political term used primarily in Europe to describe a variant of conservatism which concentrates more on national interests than standard conservatism, while not being nationalist or a far-right approach. Many national conservatives are social conservatives, in favour of limiting immigration, and in Europe, they usually are eurosceptics. National conservatism is a political term used primarily in Europe to describe a variant of conservatism which concentrates more on national interests than standard conservatism, while not being nationalist or a far-right approach. ...


National conservatism is related to social conservatism, and as such may be heavily oriented towards the traditional family and social stability.


Anarchism and Nationalism

Anarchists who see value in nationalism typically argue that a nation is first and foremost a people; that the state is parasite upon the nation and should not be confused with it; and that since in reality states rarely coincide with national entities, the ideal of the Nation State is actually little more than a myth. Within the European Union, for instance, they argue there are over 500 ethnic nations[19] within the 25 member states, and even more in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Moving from this position, they argue that the achievement of meaningful self-determination for all of the worlds nations requires an anarchist political system based on local control, free federation, and mutual aid. There has been a long history of anarchist involvement with left-nationalism all over the world. Contemporary fusions of anarchism with anti-state left-Nationalism include some strains of Black anarchism, Celtic anarchism, and Indigenism. Nationalism and Anarchism, both emerged in Europe following the French Revolution and have a long and complicated relationship, going back at least to Bakunin and his involvement with the Pan-Slavic movement prior to his conversion to anarchism and during the first several years thereafter. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... The term mutual aid has multiple meanings: Mutual aid, a tenet of anarchist thought Mutual aid, an agreement between emergency responders Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, a book by anarchist Peter Kropotkin Mutual aid, in social work with groups Category: ... Black anarchism opposes the existence of a state and subjugation and domination of people of color, and favors a non-hierarchical organization of society. ...


In the early to mid 19th century Europe, the ideas of nationalism, socialism, and liberalism were closely intertwined. Revolutionaries and radicals like Giuseppe Mazzini aligned with all three in about equal measure.[20] The early pioneers of anarchism participated in the spirit of their times: they had much in common with both liberals and socialists, and they shared much of the outlook of early nationalism as well. Thus Mikhail Bakunin had a long career as a pan-Slavic nationalist before adopting anarchism. He also agitated for a United States of Europe (a contemporary nationalist vision originated by Mazzini).[21] In 1880-1881, the Boston-based Irish nationalist W. G. H. Smart wrote articles for a magazine called The Anarchist.[22] Similarly, Anarchists in China during the early part of the 20th century were very much involved in the left-wing of the nationalist movement while actively opposing racist elements of the Anti-Manchu wing of that movement, and Anarchists such as Ricardo Flores Magón participated enthusiastically in the left-nationalist Mexican Revolution. Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Giuseppe Mazzini (June 22, 1805 – March 10, 1872) was an Italian patriot, philosopher and politician. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian: Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814 – June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism. Born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian... Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic people. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chinese Anarchism. ... Ricardo Flores Magón (September 16, 1874 – November 21, 1922) was born on Mexican Independence Day, in San Antonio Eloxochitlán, Oaxaca, Mexico. ... This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ...


Religious nationalism

Religious nationalism defines the nation in terms of shared religion, usually along with other factors such as culture, ethnicity, and language. If the state derives political legitimacy from adherence to religious doctrines, then it is more of a theocracy than a nation-state. Many ethnic and cultural nationalisms include religious aspects, but as a marker of group identity, rather than the intrinsic motivation for nationalist claims. Irish nationalism is largely associated with Roman Catholicism, and most Irish nationalist leaders of the last 100 years were Catholic, although many of the early (18th century) nationalists were Protestant. Irish nationalism does not itself derive from Roman Catholic theological doctrines, although some Protestants in Northern Ireland do fear that these doctrines would be forced on them in a united Ireland. Similarly, although Religious Zionism exists and influences many, see National Religious Party, the mainstream of Zionism is more secular in nature, and based on culture and Jewish ethnicity. In modern India, a contemporary form of Hindu nationalism, or Hindutva has been endorsed by the Bharatiya Janata Party and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, although it is not subscribed to by the majority of Indians.[23] Pakistani Nationalism, has often been associated with Islamic Fundamentalism, by parties such as the Jamaat-e-Islami, the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal and disseminated among the populace through tactics such as Pakistan Studies courses. Religious nationalism characterized by communal adherence to Eastern Orthodoxy and national Orthodox Churches is still prevalent in many states of Eastern Europe and in the Russian Federation. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Kippot Sruggot: Modern Orthodox Jewish students carry the flag of Israel at a public parade in Manhattan, NY, USA The Religious Zionist Movement, or Religious Zionism, also called Mizrachi, is an ideology combining Zionism and Judaism, which offers Zionism based on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... Mafdal party logo The National Religious Party (Hebrew: Mafdal, מפדל) is an Israeli political party representing the religious Zionist movement. ... Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu polity [1] (Hindu Rashtra), and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... For Veer Savarkars book, see Hindutva (book). ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , translation: Indian Peoples Party), created in 1980, is a major right wing Indian political party. ... The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (Hindi: , English: ), also known as the Sangh or the RSS, is a Hindu nationalist organization in India. ... Flag of Pakistan. ... Islamic fundamentalism is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the fundamentals of Islam: the Quran and the Sunnah. ... Jamaat-e-Islami (Arabic: جماعتِ اسلامی, Islamic Assembly Jamaat, JI) is an Islamic political movement founded in Lahore by Syed Abul Ala Maududi on 26 August 1941. ... Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) (Urdu: متحدہ مجلس عمل ) (United Council of Action) is a coalition between religious-political parties in Pakistan. ... Pakistan Studies (Urdu: ) is an interdisciplinary course encompassing various aspects of Pakistan’s history and culture, that is a part of the curriculum in Pakistan at various levels. ... ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Motto: none Anthem: Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) Russian Government Semi-presidential Federal republic  - President of Russia Vladimir Putin  - Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Independence From the Soviet Union   - Declared June 12, 1991   - Finalized December 25, 1991  Area    - Total 17,075,400 km...


Pan-nationalism

Pan-nationalism is usually an ethnic and cultural nationalism, but the 'nation' is itself a cluster of related ethnic groups and cultures, such as Turkic peoples. Occasionally pan-nationalism is applied to mono-ethnic nationalism, when the national group is dispersed over a wide area and several states - as in Pan-Germanism. Pan-nationalism is a form of nationalism distinguished by the large scale of the claimed national territory, and because it often defines the nation on the basis of a ‘’cluster’’ of cultures and ethnic groups. ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... Pan-Germanism, one of the ethnically-charged political movements of the 19th century for unity of the German-speaking peoples of Europe. ...


Diaspora nationalism

Diaspora nationalism (or, as Benedict Anderson terms it, "long-distance nationalism") generally refers to nationalist feeling among a diaspora such as the Irish in the United States, the Jewish in the United States identifying as Israelis, or the Lebanese in the Americas and Africa, and the Armenians in Europe and the United States.[24] Anderson states that this sort of nationalism acts as a "phantom bedrock" for people who want to experience a national connection, but who do not actually want to leave their diaspora community. The essential difference between pan-nationalism and diaspora nationalism is that members of a diaspora, by definition, are no longer resident in their national or ethnic homeland. In the specific case of Zionism, the national movement advocates migration to the claimed national homeland, which would - if 100% effected - end the diaspora. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with identity politics. ... Benedict Richard OGorman Anderson (born August 26, 1936) // Anderson is professor emeritus of International Studies at Cornell University. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


Stateless Nationalism

With the establishment of a nation-state, the primary goal of any nationalist movement has been achieved. However, nationalism does not disappear but remains a political force within the nation, and inspires political parties and movements. The development of state nationalism leads to the development of stateless nationalism movements that feel oppressed by the mainstream nationalistic conception of the nation - such as the "eternal Spain", "La Grande France" - and aspire at setting up their own state either within the nation state or a state of its own.


Stateless Nationalists in this sense typically campaign for:

  • Defending from strengthening national unity, including campaigns for national salvation in times of crisis
  • Confronting nation state policies that attempt to impose a model of political behaviour from the top
  • Unlike state nationalism is more opened to foreign influences, influenced by civic liberalism they reject the extreme xenophobia of state nationalist parties.
  • Attempting to make borders flexible so as to collaborate with neighbouring territories sharing common interests.
  • Redefining the national territory which is considered part of the national homeland. This is called irredentism, from the Italian movement Italia irredenta.
  • Small nations cannot survive unless they are opened to foreign trade so that they reject economic nationalism of nation states.
Catalan independentist mural in Republican district in Belfast
Catalan independentist mural in Republican district in Belfast

Nationalist parties and nationalist politicians, in this sense, usually place great emphasis on national symbols, such as the national flag. irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... Italia Irredenta (English: Unredeemed Italy) was an Italian patriotic and political party, which was of importance in the last quarter of the 19th century. ... Economic nationalism is a term used to describe policies which are guided by the idea of protecting domestic consumption, labor and capital formation, even if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labour, goods and capital. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixel Image in higher resolution (2036 × 1342 pixel, file size: 497 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Catalan independentist mural in Republican district in Belfast File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixel Image in higher resolution (2036 × 1342 pixel, file size: 497 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Catalan independentist mural in Republican district in Belfast File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... National symbols are symbols of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community (independent states, but also nations and countries in a state of colonialor other dependence, (con)federal integration, even an ethno-cultural community considered a nationality despite the absence of any political... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ...


The term 'nationalism' is also used by extension, or as a metaphor, to describe movements which promote a group identity of some kind. This use is especially common in the United States, and includes black nationalism and white nationalism in a cultural sense. They may overlap with nationalism in the classic sense, including black secessionist movements and pan-Africanism. This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... // White nationalism (WN) advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of national identity, as opposed to multiculturalism. ... Secession is the act of withdrawing from an organization, union, or political entity. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ...


Nationalists obviously have a positive attitude toward their own nation, although this is not a definition of nationalism. The emotional appeal of nationalism is visible even in established and stable nation-states. The social psychology of nations includes national identity (the individual’s sense of belonging to a group), and national pride (self-association with the success of the group). National pride is related to the cultural influence of the nation, and its economic and political strength - although they may be exaggerated. However, the most important factor is that the emotions are shared: nationalism in sport includes the shared disappointment if the national team loses. The scope of social psychological research. ... Nationalism and sport are often intertwined, as sports provide a venue for symbolic competition between nations; sports competition often reflects national conflict, and in fact has often been a tool of diplomacy. ...


The emotions can be purely negative: a shared sense of threat can unify the nation. However, dramatic events, such as defeat in war, can qualitatively affect national identity and attitudes to non-national groups. The defeat of Germany in World War I, and the perceived humiliation by the Treaty of Versailles, economic crisis and hyperinflation, created a climate for xenophobia, revanchism, and the rise of Nazism. The solid bourgeois patriotism of the pre-1914 years, with the Kaiser as national father-figure, was no longer relevant. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Revanchism (from French revanche, revenge) is a term used since the 1870s to describe political campaigns to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country during previous wars and strifes, sometimes quite distant in time. ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ...


Extremism

Although nationalism influences many aspects of life in stable nation-states, its presence is often invisible, since the nation-state is taken for granted. Michael Billig speaks of banal nationalism, the everyday, less visible forms of nationalism, which shape the minds of a nation's inhabitants on a day-to-day basis. Attention concentrates on extreme aspects, and on nationalism in unstable regions. Nationalism may be used as a derogatory label for political parties, or they may use it themselves as a euphemism for xenophobia, even if their policies are no more specifically nationalist, than other political parties in the same country. In Europe, some 'nationalist' anti-immigrant parties have a large electorate, and are represented in parliament. Smaller but highly visible groups also self-identify as 'nationalist', although it may be a euphemism for neo-Nazis or white supremacists. Activists in other countries are often referred to as ultra-nationalists, with a clearly pejorative meaning. See also chauvinism and jingoism. Michael Billig is one of the key individuals working in contemporary social psychology. ... The Pledge of Allegiance in the United States is one of the most overt forms of banal nationalism - most are less obvious. ... A euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... White supremacy is the variety of white nationalism that believes the white race should rule over other races. ... Chauvinism (IPA:) is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ... Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip, an 1898 political cartoon depicting the extension of the United States dominion Jingoism is chauvinistic patriotism, usually associated with a War Hawk political stance. ...


Nationalism is a component of other political ideologies, and in its extreme form, fascism. However, it is not accurate to simply describe fascism as a more extreme form of nationalism. Nor is it generally correct to describe non-extreme nationalism as a lesser form of fascism. Fascism in the general sense, and the Italian original, were marked by a strong sense of state nationalism whereas political parties today like the British National Party tend to have a concept of ethnic nationalism, often combined with a form of economic and ethical socialism. That was certainly evident in Nazism. However, the geopolitical aspirations of Adolf Hitler are probably better described as imperialist and, to a lesser degree, colonialist because Nazi Germany ultimately ruled over vast areas where there was no historic German presence (imperialism) with intentions to eventually populate many of the conquered territories with ethnic Germans (colonialism). The Nazi state was so different from the typical European nation-state, that it was sui generis (requires a category of its own). Fascist redirects here. ... State nationalism is a form of nationalism which implies that the nation is a community of those who contribute to the maintenance and strength of the state. ... The British National Party (BNP) is a white nationalist political party in the United Kingdom. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Sui generis is a (post) Latin expression, literally meaning a scholar like what pradeep is or unique in its characteristics. ...


Racism

Nationalism does not necessarily imply a belief in the superiority of one race over others, but in practice, many nationalists support racial protectionism or racial supremacy. Such racism is typically based upon preference or superiority of the indigenous race of the nation, but not always.


In United States for example, non-indigenous racial nationalist movements exist for both black and white races. These forms of nationalism often promote or glorify foreign nations that they believe can serve as an example for their own nation, see Anglophilia or Afrocentrism. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... see African studies for the study of African culture and history in Africa. ...


Explicit biological race theory was influential from the end of the 19th century. Nationalist and fascist movements in the first half of the 20th century often appealed to these theories. The Nazi ideology was probably the most comprehensively racial ideology in history, and race influenced all aspects of policy in Nazi Germany. Racialism is a term used in different ways by different people. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Ethnic cleansing is often seen as both a nationalist and racist phenomenon. It is part of nationalist logic that the state is reserved for one nation, but not all nationalist nation-states expel their minorities. For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ...


Opposition and critique

Nationalism is sometimes an extremely assertive ideology, making far-reaching demands, including the disappearance of entire states. It has attracted vehement opposition. Much of the early opposition to nationalism was related to its geopolitical ideal of a separate state for every nation. The classic nationalist movements of the 19th century rejected the very existence of the multi-ethnic empires in Europe. This resulted in severe repression by the (generally autocratic) governments of those empires. That tradition of secessionism, repression, and violence continues, although by now a large nation typically confronts a smaller nation. Even in that early stage, however, there was an ideological critique of nationalism. That has developed into several forms of anti-nationalism in the western world. The Islamic revival of the 20th century also produced an Islamic critique of the nation-state. Anti-nationalism is the idea that nationalism is undesirable or even dangerous in one form or another, and sometimes, though less often, the idea that all nationalism is dangerous and unfavourable in all cases. ...


In the liberal political tradition there is widespread criticism of ‘nationalism’ as a dangerous force and a cause of conflict and war between nation-states. Liberals do not generally dispute the existence of the nation-states. The liberal critique also emphasizes individual freedom as opposed to national identity, which is by definition collective (see collectivism). Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The pacifist critique of nationalism also concentrates on the violence of nationalist movements, the associated militarism, and on conflicts between nations inspired by jingoism or chauvinism. National symbols and patriotic assertiveness are in some countries discredited by their historical link with past wars, especially in Germany. Famous pacifist Bertrand Russell criticizes nationalism of diminishing individual's capacity to judge his or hers fatherland's foreign policy[25]. Likewise George Orwell, though not a pacifist himself, has stated that "The nationalist not only does not disapprove of atrocities committed by his own side, but he has a remarkable capacity for not even hearing about them." [26] William Blum has said this in other words: "If love is blind, patriotism has lost all five senses"[27] Pacifist redirects here. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip, an 1898 political cartoon depicting the extension of the United States dominion Jingoism is chauvinistic patriotism, usually associated with a War Hawk political stance. ... Chauvinism (IPA:) is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... William Blum (born 1933) is an American author, and critic of United States foreign policy. ...


The anti-racist critique of nationalism concentrates on the attitudes to other nations, and especially on the doctrine that the nation-state exists for one national group, to the exclusion of others. It emphasizes the chauvinism and xenophobia of many nationalisms. Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism. ...


Political movements of the left have often been suspicious of nationalism, again without necessarily seeking the disappearance of the existing nation-states. Marxism has been ambiguous towards the nation-state, and in the late 19th century some Marxist theorists rejected it completely. For some Marxists the world revolution implied a global state (or global absence of state); for others it meant that each nation-state had its own revolution. A significant event in this context was the failure of the social-democratic and socialist movements in Europe to mobilize a cross-border workers' opposition to World War I. At present most, but certainly not all, left-wing groups accept the nation-state, and see it as the political arena for their activities. Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...


In the Western world the most comprehensive current ideological alternative to nationalism is cosmopolitanism. Ethical cosmopolitanism rejects one of the basic ethical principles of nationalism: that humans owe more duties to a fellow member of the nation, than to a non-member. It rejects such important nationalist values as national identity and national loyalty. However, there is also a political cosmopolitanism, which has a geopolitical program to match that of nationalism: it seeks some form of world state, with a world government. Very few people openly and explicitly support the establishment of a global state, but political cosmopolitanism has influenced the development of international criminal law, and the erosion of the status of national sovereignty. In turn, nationalists are deeply suspicious of cosmopolitan attitudes, which they equate with eradication of diverse national cultures. Occident redirects here. ... Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single moral community. ... NOTE: some users are seeking to replace this article by another with the title Federal World Government. ... World empire redirects here. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ...


While internationalism in the cosmopolitanist context by definition implies cooperation among nations, and therefore the existence of nations, proletarian internationalism is different, in that it calls for the international working class to follow its brethren in other countries irrespective of the activities or pressures of the national government of a particular sector of that class. Meanwhile, most (but not all) anarchists reject nation-states on the basis of self-determination of the majority social class, and thus reject nationalism. Instead of nations, anarchists usually advocate the creation of cooperative societies based on free association and mutual aid without regard to ethnicity or race. Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... International Socialism redirects here. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nationalist anarchism. ... Anarchists can refer to several things, among which: The movie Anarchists Supporters of the principles of anarchism The Anarchists (Les Anarchistes), a famous song from Léo Ferré A List of anarchists This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Max Barry set up Jennifer Government: NationStates, a game on the World Wide Web inspired by, and promoting, his novel Jennifer Government. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... A Free Association is an association which meets certain mostly negative criteria. ... The term mutual aid has multiple meanings: Mutual aid, a tenet of anarchist thought Mutual aid, an agreement between emergency responders Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, a book by anarchist Peter Kropotkin Mutual aid, in social work with groups Category: ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ...


See also

This entry is related to, but not included in the Political ideologies series or one of its sub-series. Other related articles can be found at the Politics Portal.

An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as he is influenced by his belonging to a group or culture. ... Defined as regions with limited to full self governance within sovereign countries which were created based on the demographic or ethnic composition of the particular area. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Expansionist Nationalism is a radical form of nationalism that incorporates autonomous, patriotic sentiments with a belief in expansionism. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... Fascist redirects here. ... Charles de Gaulle, in his generals uniform Gaullism (French: Gaullisme) is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... This is a list of currently active autonomist and secessionist movements around the world. ... This is a list of historical autonomist and secessionist movements around the world. ... Historical effect of nationalism Main Article: Nationalism Historical events (not just wars) in which nationalism played an essential role included: The first and second World war between 1914-1918 and 1939-1945. ... This is a list of nationalist conflicts and nationalist organizations. ... // Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottfried von Herder Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jeanne dArc Pasquale Paoli (Corsica) Tiradentes (Brazil) Eugenio Maria de Hostos (Puerto Rico) Abd-el-Kader (Algeria) Ramon Emeterio Betances (Puerto Rico) José Gervasio Artigas (Uruguay) Simón Bolívar (South America) José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia (Paraguay... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ... Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip, an 1898 political cartoon depicting the extension of the United States dominion Jingoism is chauvinistic patriotism, usually associated with a War Hawk political stance. ... The Dannebrog, national flag of Denmark, is the oldest state flag still in use. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about National Mysticism of all cultures. ... Britannia arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I. Germania representing Germany, from 1848. ... Liberty leading the people, embodying the Romantic view of the French Revolution of 1830; its painter Eugène Delacroix also served as an elected deputy Romantic nationalism (also organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of a... Nationalism and sport are often intertwined, as sports provide a venue for symbolic competition between nations; sports competition often reflects national conflict, and in fact has often been a tool of diplomacy. ... National Party or Nationalist Party can refer to several political parties, including: Australia - National Party of Australia, Nationalist Party of Australia Bangladesh - Bangladesh National Party, National Party, National Party (Manju), National Party (Naziur) Bohemia - National Party Britain - British National Party, Cornish Nationalist Party, Constitutional Movement Canada - National Party of Canada... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... Primordialism is the argument - put forward by both scholars and activists - which contends that nations are ancient, natural phenomena; that one has a nation as obviously as one has a measure of height. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Compare

Look up Nationalism in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Anti-nationalism is the idea that nationalism is undesirable or even dangerous in one form or another, and sometimes, though less often, the idea that all nationalism is dangerous and unfavourable in all cases. ... Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single moral community. ... Global justice is a concept in political philosophy denoting justice between societies or between individuals in different societies, as opposed to within a specific society. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

References

  1. ^ Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations of nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  2. ^ Hechter, Michael. 2001. Containing Nationalism. ISBN 0-19-924750-X .
  3. ^ "Nationalism I would define as an ideology claiming that a given human population has a natural solidarity based on shared history and a common destiny. This collective identity as a historically constituted people crucially entails the right to constitute an independent or autonomous political community. The idea of nationalism takes form historically in tandem with the doctrine of popular sovereignty: that the ultimate source of authority lies in the people, not the ruler or government. The foregoing definition of nationalism will be found in any classic text with minor variations." M. Crawford Young, 2004. Revisiting nationalism and ethnicity in Africa. UCLA International Institute, James S. Coleman Memorial Lecture Series. Or: Handler, Richard. "Nationalism is an ideology about individuated being. It is an ideology concerned with boundedness, continuity, and homogeneity encompassing diversity. It is an ideology in which social reality, conceived in terms of nationhood, is endowed with the reality of natural things." Nationalism and the Politics of Culture in Quebec. New Directions in Anthropological Writing: History, Poetics, Cultural Criticism, ed. George E.; Clifford Marcus, James. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1988. Passage online at [1]. Specifically on the issue: M. Freeden, 1998. Is Nationalism a Distinct Ideology? Political Studies, Volume 46, Number 4, September 1998, pp. 748-765(18). However, Benedict Anderson and E. J. Hobsbawm clearly argue that nationalisms are not ideologies, with Anderson stating that "(n)ationalism is the pathology of modern developmental history, as inescapable as 'neurosis' in the individual, with much the same essential ambiguity attaching to it, a similar built-in capacity for descent into dementia, rooted in the iemmas of the helplessness thrust upon most of the world...." (p. 5). Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities. Verso: London, and, E.J. Hobsbawm, Nations and nationalism since 1780. Cambridge University Press.
  4. ^ Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  5. ^ Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities, p. 6. ISBN 0-86091-329-5.
  6. ^ Smith, Anthony D. 1986. The Ethnic Origins of Nations London: Basil Blackwell. pp 6–18. ISBN 0-631-15205-9.
  7. ^ Fascism Anyone?. Council for Secular Humanism (Spring 2003). Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  8. ^ "The Reality Of Turkey And The Chance To Find A Resolution To The Kurdish Question". Tarik Ziya Ekinci, paper for the EU-Turkey Civic Commission.
  9. ^ Faruk Birtek, 2003. From Affiliation to Affinity: The 'Costs' to the 'Private' in the Reconstitution of 'Citizenship' in the Transition from a Multi-Ethnic Empire to the Nation-State - An Essentialist Investigation of the 19th century Ottoman Case.
  10. ^ Daniele Conversi (2008) Democracy, Nationalism and Culture: A Social Critique of Liberal Monoculturalism Sociology Compass 2 (1) , 156–182 .
  11. ^ Nielsen, Kai. (1999). Cultural nationalism, neither ethnic nor civic. In R. Beiner (Ed.), Theorizing nationalism (pp. 119-130). Albany: State University of New York Press.
  12. ^ Kymlicka, Will. (1999). Misunderstanding nationalism. In R. Beiner (Ed.), Theorizing nationalism (pp. 131-140). Albany: State University of New York Press, p. 133; Nielsen, Kai. (1999). Cultural nationalism, neither ethnic nor civic. In R. Beiner (Ed.), Theorizing nationalism (pp. 119-130). Albany: State University of New York Press, p. 126
  13. ^ Chatterjee, Partha. "Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World," University of Minnesota Press, ISBN 0-8166-2311-2
  14. ^ Yael Tamir. 1993. Liberal Nationalism. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07893-9; Will Kymlicka. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827949-3; David Miller. 1995. On Nationality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828047-5.
  15. ^ Renan, Ernest. 1882. "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?"
  16. ^ Mill, John Stuart. 1861. Considerations on Representative Government.
  17. ^ See: Kymlicka, Will. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827949-3. For criticism, see: Patten, Alan. 1999. "The Autonomy Argument for Liberal Nationalism." Nations and Nationalism. 5(1): 1-17.
  18. ^ See: Miller, David. 1995. On Nationality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828047-5. For criticism, see: Abizadeh, Arash. 2002. "Does Liberal Democracy Presuppose a Cultural Nation? Four Arguments." American Political Science Review 96 (3): 495-509; Abizadeh, Arash. 2004. "Liberal Nationalist versus Postnational Social Integration." Nations and Nationalism 10(3): 231-250.
  19. ^ Eurominority (in English)
  20. ^ Hearder (1966), p. 46-47, 50.
  21. ^ Robert Knowles. "Anarchist Notions of Nationalism and Patriotism"
  22. ^ The Raven, No. 6.
  23. ^ van der Veer, Peter (1994). Religious nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 
  24. ^ Humphrey, Michael. 2004. Lebanese identities: between cities, nations and trans-nations. Arab Studies Quarterly, Winter 2004.
  25. ^ Russell Speaks His Mind, 1960. Fletcher and son Ltd., Norwich, United Kingdom
  26. ^ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/g/george_orwell.html Orwell quotes
  27. ^ Blum in his book Rogue State

The Council for Secular Humanism (originally the Council for Democratic and Secular Humanism, or CODESH) regards itself as the only exclusively secular humanist organization in the USA. In 1980 CODESH issued A Secular Humanist Declaration. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nations and Nationalism is a scholarly journal. ... Nations and Nationalism is a scholarly journal. ...

Further reading

  • Abizadeh, Arash. 2002. "Does Liberal Democracy Presuppose a Cultural Nation? Four Arguments." American Political Science Review 96 (3): 495-509.
  • Abizadeh, Arash. 2004. "Liberal Nationalist versus Postnational Social Integration." Nations and Nationalism 10(3): 231-250.
  • Alter, Peter. "Playing with the Nation: Napoleon and the Culture of Nationalism," United and Diversity in European Culture c. 1800, ed. Tim Blanning and Hagen Schulze. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 61-76.
  • Alvis, Robert. Religion and the Rise of Nationalism: A Profile of an East-Central European City. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8156-3081-6
  • Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities. ISBN 0-86091-329-5 .
  • Anderson, Benedict. 1998. The Spectre of Comparison: Nationalism, Southeast Asia and the World. London: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-184-8 .
  • Balakrishnan, Gopal, ed. 1996. Mapping the Nation. London: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-960-1 .
  • Billig, Michael. Banal Nationalism. ISBN 0-8039-7525-2 .
  • Blattberg, Charles. 2006. "Secular Nationhood? The Importance of Language in the Life of Nations." Nations and Nationalism 12(4): 597-612.
  • Breuilly, John. 1994. Nationalism and the State. 2nd ed. Chicago: Chicago University Press. ISBN 0-226-07414-5 .
  • Brubaker, Rogers. 1996. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57224-X .
  • Calhoun, Craig. 1993. "Nationalism and Ethnicity." Annual Review of Sociology 19: 211-239.
  • Canovan, Margaret. 1996. Nationhood and Political Theory. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. ISBN 1-85278-852-6 .
  • Conversi, Daniele. 2008 'Democracy, Nationalism and Culture: A Social Critique of Liberal Monoculturalism'link title, Sociology Compass 2 (1) , 156–182
  • Delanty, Gerard and Krishan Kumar (eds) Handbook of Nations and Nationalism. London: Sage Publications, 2005.
  • Fitzgerald, Francis. 1972. Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam. Boston: Back Bay Books. ISBN 0-316-15919-0."por la cola"
  • Freeden, Michael. 1998. "Is Nationalism a Distinct Ideology?" Political Studies 46: 748-765.
  • Geary, Patrick J. 2002. The Myth of Nations: The Medieval Origins of Europe. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11481-1 .
  • Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-1662-0 .
  • Greenfeld, Liah. 1992. Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-60319-2
  • Hobsbawm, Eric J. 1992. Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43961-2 .
  • Juergensmeyer, Mark. 1993. The New Cold War: Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08651-1 .
  • Kymlicka, Will. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827949-3 .
  • McKim, Robert, and Jeff McMahan. 1997. The Morality of Nationalism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-510391-2 .
  • Mill, John Stuart. 1861. Considerations on Representative Government.
  • Miller, David. 1995. On Nationality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828047-5 .
  • Perlman, Fredy. 1984. Continuing Appeal of Nationalism. Black and Red Press.
  • Patten, Alan. 1999. "The Autonomy Argument for Liberal Nationalism." Nations and Nationalism. 5(1): 1-17.
  • Renan, Ernest. 1882. "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?"
  • Smith, Anthony D. 1986. The Ethnic Origins of Nations London: Basil Blackwell. pp 6–18. ISBN 0-631-15205-9 .
  • Tamir, Yael. 1993. Liberal Nationalism. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07893-9 .
  • Weichlein, Siegfried. "Cosmopolitanism, Patriotism, Nationalism," United and Diversity in European Culture c. 1800, ed. Tim Blanning and Hagen Schulze. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 77-100.
  • Whitmeyer, Joseph M. 2004 'Elites and popular nationalism', British Journal of Sociology, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 321 - 341.

Nations and Nationalism is a scholarly journal. ... Benedict Richard OGorman Anderson (born August 26, 1936) // Anderson is professor emeritus of International Studies at Cornell University. ... The Imagined Community is a concept coined by Benedict Anderson which states that a nation is socially constructed and ultimately imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group. ... Nations and Nationalism is a scholarly journal. ... Liah Greenfeld holds the position of University Professor and Professor of Political Science and Sociology, as well as Director of the Institute for the Advancement of the Social Sciences, at Boston University. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Nations and Nationalism is a scholarly journal. ... Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Portal. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... This is an overview of the ideologies of parties. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This is a list of political parties around the world by ideology. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nationalism (2058 words)
Nationalism is the doctrine or practice of promoting the collective interests of the national community or STATE above those of individuals, regions, special interests or other nations.
Nationalism does not necessarily have a particular ideological slant, but varies from right to left on the political spectrum; its flavour and content depend upon the historical circumstances.
A select committee of the Ontario legislature on economic and cultural nationalism, a national commission on Canadian Studies at the university level led by T.H.B. Symons, and various commissions on national identity in the media were active in the early 1970s.
nationalism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1284 words)
Nationalism is basically a collective state of mind or consciousness in which people believe their primary duty and loyalty is to the nation-state.
Nationalism is a comparatively recent phenomenon, probably born with the French Revolution, but despite its short history, it has been extremely important in forming the bonds that hold modern nations together.
It was exactly this latter type of nationalism, however, that arose in Nazi Germany, preaching the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and the need for the extermination of the Jews and the enslavement of Slavic peoples in their “living space” (see National Socialism).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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