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Encyclopedia > National Cancer Institute

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal government's National Institutes of Health. The NCI is a federally funded research and development center, one of eight agencies that compose the Public Health Service in the United States Department of Health and Human Services. As of September 2006, the current director of the NCI is Dr. John E. Niederhuber. The NCI coordinates the National Cancer Program. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for medical research. ... Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs) conduct research for the United States Government. ... Template:Higher standard // History of the United States Public Health Service The United States Public Health Service (PHS) was founded first by President John Adams in 1798 as a loose network of hospitals to support the health of American seamen. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ...


The National Cancer Institute has a large intramural research program in Bethesda, Maryland and at Fort Detrick, in Frederick, Maryland. In addition, the NCI funds cancer researchers around the United States. Bethesda is an urbanized, but unincorporated, area in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, near Washington, D.C. It takes its name from a church located there, the Bethesda Presbyterian Church, built in 1820 and rebuilt in 1850, which in turn took its name from Jerusalems Pool of Bethesda. ... Fort Detrick—formerly Camp Detrick—is a United States Army medical installation located in Frederick, Maryland. ... Location in Maryland Coordinates: Country United States State Maryland County Frederick Founded 1745 Mayor Brian Artusio (R) Board of Alderman Marcia Hall (D) Alan E. Imhoff (R) David P. Koontz (D) Donna K. Ramsburg (D) C. Paul Smith (R) Area    - City 52. ...

National Cancer Institute
National Cancer Institute

Contents

Image File history File links NCI_logo. ... Image File history File links NCI_logo. ...

Legislative history

Congress established the NCI by the National Cancer Institute Act, August 5, 1937, as an independent research institute. Congress then made the NCI an operating division of the National Institutes of Health by the Public Health Service Act, July 1, 1944. Congress amended the Public Health Service Act with The National Cancer Act of 1971 to broaden the scope and responsibilities of the NCI "in order more effectively to carry out the national effort against cancer." Over the years, legislative amendments have maintained the NCI authorities and responsibilities and added new information dissemination mandates as well as a requirement to assess the incorporation of state-of-the-art cancer treatments into clinical practice. Congress in Joint Session. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Table of Contents Public Health Service Act References are to Title 42 United States Code TITLE 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE CHAPTER 6A - PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE Subchapter I - Administration and Miscellaneous Provisions Part A - Administration § 201 Definitions Part B - Miscellaneous Provisions §238 Gifts for Benefit of Service §238a Use... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Anti-cancer drug investigations

The NCI played an early role in the development of anti-cancer drugs in the U.S. According to a 1996 NCI analysis of drugs approved by the FDA, two-thirds of the anti-cancer drugs approved as of the end of 1995 were NCI-sponsored Investigational New Drugs: The era of chemotherapy began in the 1940s with the first uses of nitrogen mustards and folic acid antagonist drugs. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food (humans and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal) and radiation emitting devices (including non-medical devices), biologics, and... The Food and Drug Administrations Investigational New Drug (IND) program is the means by which a pharmaceutical company obtains permission to ship an experimental drug across state lines (usually to clinical investigators) before a marketing application for the drug has been approved. ...

Alkylating agents .

Antimetabolites Alkylating agents are so named because of their ability to add alkyl groups to many electronegative groups under conditions present in cells. ... Image File history File links Cyclophosphamide structure. ... Cyclophosphamide (the generic name for Cytoxan, Neosar) is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, used to treat various types of cancer and some autoimmune disorders. ... Chlorambucil (marketed as Leukeran by GlaxoSmithKline) is a chemotherapy drug that has been mainly used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. ... Chlorambucil (marketed as Leukeran® by GlaxoSmithKline) is a chemotherapy drug that has been mainly used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. ... Cyclophosphamide (the generic name for Cytoxan, Neosar) is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, used to treat various types of cancer and some autoimmune disorders. ... Cyclophosphamide (the generic name for Cytoxan, Neosar) is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, used to treat various types of cancer and some autoimmune disorders. ... N,NN-triethylenethiophosphoramide (ThioTEPA) is a cancer chemotherapeutic member of the alkylating agent group, now in use for over 50 years. ... Melphalan hydrochloride ( Alkeran®) is a chemotherapy drug belonging to the class of nitrogen mustard alkylating agents. ... Melphalan chemical structure Melphalan hydrochloride ( Alkeran®) is a chemotherapy drug belonging to the class of alkylating agents. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Streptozotocin (STZ, Zanosar) is a drug used in treating cancer of the pancreas. ... Streptozotocin (Streptozocin, STZ, Zanosar) is a naturally occurring chemical that is particularly toxic to the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas in mammals. ... Ifosfamide (Mitoxana®) Ifosfamide (pronounced i fos fa mide) is chemotherapy that is given as a treatment for many different types of cancer. ... An antimetabolite is a chemical with a similar structural to a substance (a metabolite) required for normal biochemical reactions, yet different enough to interfere with the normal functions of cells, including cell division. ...

Plant alkaloids and antibiotics
Synthetic drugs

Hormones and steroids Mercaptopurine: chemical structure Mercaptopurine (also called 6-MP or by its brand name Purinethol®) is an immunosuppressive drug used to treat leukemia. ... Methotrexate (rINN) (IPA: ), abbreviated MTX and formerly known as amethopterin, is an antimetabolite drug used in treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. ... Tioguanine (INN), formerly Thioguanine (BAN), is a drug that is used in the treatment of cancer. ... Cytarabine is a shortened form of cytosine arabinoside, a commonly used chemotherapy agent used mainly in the treatment of leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ... Cytarabine is a shortened form of cytosine arabinoside, a commonly used chemotherapy agent used mainly in the treatment of leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ... Floxuridine is an oncology drug that belongs to the class known as antimetabolites. ... Fludarabine (marketed as fludarabine phosphate under the trade name Fludara®) is a chemotherapy drug used in the treatment of hematological malignancies. ... Pentostatin (Deoxycoformycin) is an anticancer chemotherapeutic drug. ... Cladribine is a drug used to treat hairy cell leukemia (leukemic reticuloendotheliosis). ... Diagram of Ephedrine An alkaloid, strictly speaking, is a naturally-occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Image File history File links Vincristine structure. ... Image File history File links Vincristine structure. ... Vincristine (Oncovin®) is a vinca alkaloid from the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, formerly Vinca rosea and hence its name). ... Vincristine (Oncovin®) is a vinca alkaloid from the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, formerly Vinca rosea and hence its name). ... Vincristine (Oncovin®) is an alkaloid from the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, formerly Vinca rosea and hence its name). ... The antibiotic actinomycin D (produced by Streptomyces antibioticus) binds to DNA duplexes, thereby interfering with the action of enzymes engaged in replication and transcription. ... Mithramycin is an anti-neoplastic antibiotic. ... Bleomycin is an anti-cancer agent. ... Doxorubicin or adriamycin or hydroxyldaunorubicin is a DNA-interacting drug widely used in chemotherapy. ... Doxorubicin or adriamycin is a DNA-interacting drug widely used in chemotherapy. ... The mitomycins are a family of aziridine-containing natural products isolated from One of these compounds, mitomycin C, finds use as a chemotherapeutic agent by virtue of its antitumour antibiotic activity. ... Asparaginase (EC 3. ... Daunorubicin or daunomycin (daunomycin cerubidine) is chemotherapy of the anthracycline family that is given as a treatment for some types of cancer. ... Etoposide: chemical structure Etoposide phosphate (Eposin®, Etopophos®, Vepesid®, VP-16®) is an inhibitor of the enzyme topoisomerase II. It is used as a form of chemotherapy for malignancies such as lung cancer, testicular cancer, lymphoma, non-lymphocytic leukemia, and glioblastoma multiforme. ... Teniposide is a prescribed medication mainly used to treat childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. ... Paclitaxel is a drug used in the treatment of cancer. ... Paclitaxel is a drug used in the treatment of cancer. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... Image File history File links Carboplatin drawn in OpenOffice. ... Image File history File links Carboplatin drawn in OpenOffice. ... Carboplatin is a chemotherapy drug used against some forms of cancer. ... Hydroxyurea chemical structure Hydroxyurea or hydroxycarbamide (rINN), (brand names include Hydrea®) is an antineoplastic drug used in hematological malignancies. ... Hydra (Greek: Υδρα, IPA pronunciation: ) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece, located in the Aegean Sea between the Saronic Gulf and the Argolic Gulf. ... Procarbazine (Matulane® (US), Natulan (Canada)) is an antineoplastic chemotherapy drug for the treatment of Hodgkins lymphoma and certain brain cancers (such as Glioblastoma multiforme). ... Matulane (procarbozine) is a pharmaceuitcal drug for the treatment of Hodgkins lymphoma. ... Mitotane is a substance used for the rare disease adrenocortical carcinoma. ... Dacarbazine (da-KAR-ba-zeen) (brand names DTIC, DTIC-Dome; also known as DIC or Imidazole Carboxamide) is an antineoplastic chemotherapy drug used in the treatment of various cancers, among them malignant melanoma (a form of skin cancer which can spread to other parts of the body). ... Lomustine (or CCNU) is an alkylating nitrosourea compound used in chemotherapy. ... Lomustine (or CCNU) is an alkylating nitrosourea compound used in chemotherapy. ... The Prisoner - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Carmustine is an nitrosourea compound used as an alkylating agent in chemotherapy. ... Cisplatin, cisplatinum or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug used to treat various types of cancers, including sarcomas, some carcinomas (e. ... Mitoxantrone belongs to the general group of medicines known as antineoplastics, specifically the anthracycline class. ... Mitoxantrone is an anthracycline antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, mostly metastatic breast cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, and non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... Carboplatin is a chemotherapy drug used against some forms of cancer. ... Carboplatin is a chemotherapy drug used against some forms of cancer (mainly ovarian carcinoma, lung, head and neck cancers). ... Levamisole hydrochloride (Ergamisol®) is an antibiotic medication used in combination with fluorouracil to treat colon cancer. ... Levamisole (Ergamisol®, HCl salt) is an antibiotic medication used in combination with fluorouracil to treat colon cancer. ... Altretamine (also hexalen) is a drug that is used to treat ovarian cancer. ... Altretamine (also hexalen) is a drug that is used to treat ovarian cancer. ... Tretinoin is the acid form of vitamin A and so also known as all-trans retinoic acid or ATRA. It is a drug commonly used to treat acne vulgaris and keratosis pilaris. ... Tretinoin is the acid form of vitamin A and so also known as all-trans retinoic acid or ATRA. It is a drug commonly used to treat acne vulgaris and keratosis pilaris. ... Porfimer is a sensitizer used in photodynamic/Radiation therapy. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Steroid skeleton of lanosterol. ...

Biologicals Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a drug, a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen that was first synthesized in 1938. ... Prednisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug which is usually taken orally and can be used for a large number of different conditions. ... Fluoxymesterone is an androgen hormone. ... The structure of prednisolone Prednisolone is the active metabolite of prednisone. ... Goserelin is an injectable luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa). ...


To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An apparatus (4-5 cm length, with nine short needles) used for BCG vaccination in Japan. ... Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a glycoprotein, growth factor or cytokine produced by a number of different tissues to stimulate the bone marrow to produce granulocytes. ... Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a glycoprotein, growth factor or cytokine produced by a number of different tissues to stimulate the bone marrow to produce granulocytes. ... Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of biological response modifier, a substance that can improve the bodys natural response to disease. ... Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of biological response modifier, a substance that can improve the bodys natural response to disease. ...


In addition, scientists in the NCI played an important role in the discovery and development of important AIDS drugs including zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), and zalcitabine (ddC). Zidovudine (INN) or azidothymidine (AZT) (also called ZDV) is an antiretroviral drug, the first one approved for treatment of HIV. It is also sold under the names Retrovir® and Retrovis®, and as an ingredient in Combivir® and Trizivir®. It is an analog of thymidine. ... Didanosine (2-3-dideoxyinosine, ddI) is sold under the trade names Videx® and Videx EC®. It is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, effective against HIV and usually used in combination with other antiviral drug therapy as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). ... Zalcitabine (2-3-dideoxycytidine, ddC), is a derivative of the naturally existing deoxycytidine, made by replacing the hydroxyl group in position 3 with a hydrogen. ...


Controversy

The previous Director of the Institute is Dr. Andrew von Eschenbach, who has been tapped by the administration to head the FDA replacing Lester Crawford. The NCI, in partnership with pharmaceutical companies, funds research into new drugs. These drugs may appear before the FDA for approval, and some anticipate that the FDA cannot be impartial if its head has an interest in seeing the drug approved because of another relationship. Andrew C. von Eschenbach (born October 30, 1941 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is acting commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration as of September 26, 2005 and was previously the 12th director of the National Cancer Institute. ... Dr. Lester M Crawford Dr. Lester M. Crawford (born 1939) is a former Commissioner of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). ...


According to the Center for American Progress, shortly after Dr. Eschenbach was appointed Director in 2002, he changed an informational fact sheet on breast cancer on the NCI site which for years had stated that there was no causal link between abortion and breast cancer. The new text said that "tests disproving the abortion - breast cancer link are inconclusive." One hundred NCI scientists signed a statement taking issue with that change, citing many studies, none of which found any such causal link. Dr. Eschenbach eventually relented and the original text in the fact sheet was restored. The Center for American Progress is a liberal U.S. think tank and advocacy organization led and created by John Podesta, a former chief of staff to Bill Clinton. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ...


Quality Assurance

The NCI provides funding for numerous cancer research endeavors. Two of its largest known grants include the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) in Houston, Texas and the Quality Assurance Review Center (QARC) in Providence, Rhode Island. The RPC assures the NCI of proper participation in the physics-related aspects of its studies and QARC provides radiotherapy quality assurance and diagnostic imaging data management to all of the NCI sponsored cooperative groups. The RPC essentially guides all participating institutions as to how radiation is to be applied in a radiotherapy protocol. QARC on the other hand performs thousands of radiotherapy reviews per year and receives radiotherapy data from around one-thousand hospitals in both the United States and abroad. In all, over thirty-thousand cases have been reviewed at QARC since its inception in 1977. QARC also maintains a strategic affiliation with the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester, Massachusetts. The RPC has been consistently funded by the NCI since 1968 and QARC has received support from the NCI since 1980. Mission Statement The mission of the Radiological Physics Center is to assure NCI and the Cooperative Groups that institutions participating in clinical trials deliver prescribed radiation doses that are clinically comparable and consistent. ... Nickname: Space City Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas Counties Harris County Fort Bend County Montgomery County Incorporated June 5, 1837  - Mayor Bill White Area    - City  601. ... The Quality Assurance Review Center (QARC) is a publicly funded, not-for-profit healthcare organization located in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Nickname: Beehive of Industry, The Renaissance City, The Divine City Location in Rhode Island Coordinates: Country United States State Rhode Island County Providence  - Mayor David N. Cicilline (D) Area    - City 53. ... Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Medical imaging is the process by which physicians evaluate an area of the subjects body that is not normally visible. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... The University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) is one of five campuses of the University of Massachusetts (UMass) system and is home to three schools: the #School of Medicine, the #Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, the #Graduate School of Nursing; a thriving #biomedical research enterprise; and a range of #public...   Nickname: The Heart of the Commonwealth, The City of the Seven Hills, Wormtown Settled: 1673 â€“ Incorporated: 1684 Zip Code(s): 01608 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


See also

NCI-designated Cancer Centers are a group of approximately 60 cancer research institutions in the United States supported by the National Cancer Institute. ... caBIG is the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid, a National Cancer Institute (USA) initiative to link cancer researchers and their data. ... The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer or EORTC is an international non-profit organisation that develops, coordinates and stimulates cancer laboratory and clinical research in Europe. ...

External links

A view of the city from the castle (Schloss) A view of stone bridge from the castle (Schloss) The castle (Schloss) above the town Shopping district Heidelberg and the other cities of the Neckar valley View from the so called alley of philosophers (Philosophenweg) towards the Old Town, with Heidelberg...

References

  • "NCI MISSION STATEMENT." National Cancer Institute. [1]. Retrieved 18 August 2004.
  • "THE NATIONAL CANCER ACT OF 1971." National Cancer Institute. [2]. Retrieved 18 August 2004.
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National Institutes of Health
Institutes National Cancer Institute | National Eye Institute | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute | National Human Genome Research Institute | National Institute on Aging | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism | National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases | National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering | National Institute of Child Health and Human Development | National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders | National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research | National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | National Institute on Drug Abuse | National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences | National Institute of General Medical Sciences | National Institute of Mental Health | National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke | National Institute of Nursing Research | National Library of Medicine |
Centers Center for Information Technology | Center for Scientific Review | John E. Fogarty International Center | National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine | National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities | National Center for Research Resources | Quality Assurance Review Center | Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center | Radiological Physics Center
Related United States Public Health Service | National Institutes of Health Director's Pioneer Award

 
 

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