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Encyclopedia > National park

A national park is a reserve of land, usually, but not always declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. National parks are a protected area of IUCN category II. The largest national park in the world is the Northeast Greenland National Park, which was established in 1974. National Park highlighted in Gloucester County. ... National Park is a small town on the central plateau of the North Island of New Zealand. ... The United Kingdom has 14 national parks, twelve in England and Wales and two in Scotland. ... Nationals Ballpark (or Nationals Park) is the new ballpark for the Washington Nationals of Major League Baseball. ... Moraine Lake, and the Valley of the Ten Peaks Banff National Park is Canadas oldest national park, established in 1885, in the Canadian Rockies. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Location in Greenland Northeast Greenland National Park is the largest national park in the world, with an area of 972,000 square kilometres. ...

Contents

History

In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a "sort of national property in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy". The painter George Catlin, in his travels though the American West, wrote in 1832 that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved "by some great protecting policy of government . . . in a magnificent park . . . A nation's park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty!" Similar ideas were expressed in other countries—in Sweden, for instance, the Finnish-born Baron Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld made such a proposition in 1880. The Scottish-American naturalist John Muir was inspirational in the foundation of national parks, anticipating many ideas of conservationism, environmentalism, and the animal rights movement. Wordsworth redirects here. ... The panorama across Eskdale from Ill Crag. ... George Catlin (1796 in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania – December 23, 1872 in Jersey City, New Jersey) was an American painter who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. ... The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld by Axel Jungstedt 1902 Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld with the Vega by Georg von Rosen Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld Baron (Nils) Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld [IPA: [nuːrdenʃɶld]], also known as A. E. Nordenskioeld (November 18, 1832, Helsinki... For other persons named John Muir, see John Muir (disambiguation). ...


Establishment

The first effort by any government to set aside such protected lands was in the United States, on April 20, 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the future disposal of the US government. It was known as the Hot Springs Reservation. However no legal authority was established and federal control of the area was not clearly established until 1877. is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Sign from the city limits. ... Established from Hot Springs Reservation, Hot Springs National Park is a United States National Park in central Arkansas adjacent to the city of Hot Springs. ...


The next effort by any government to set aside such protected lands was, again, in the United States, when President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act of Congress on June 30, 1864, ceding the Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias (later becoming the Yosemite National Park) to the state of California: For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance. ... Giant Sequoia in the Mariposa Grove, Yosemite Mariposa Grove is a sequoia grove located near Wawona, California in the southernmost part of Yosemite National Park, at 37°31′ N 119°36′ W. It is the largest grove of Giant Sequoias in the park, with several hundred mature examples of the... Binomial name Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl. ... Yosemite redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


"[T]he said State shall accept this grant upon the express conditions that the premises shall be held for public use, resort, and recreation; shall be inalienable for all time.

Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California, USA.
Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California, USA.

In 1872, Yellowstone National Park was established as the world's first truly national park. When news of the natural wonders of the Yellowstone were first published, the land was part of a territory. Unlike Yosemite, there was no state government that could assume stewardship of the land, so the federal government took on direct responsibility for the park, a process formally completed in October 1, 1890. It took the combined effort and interest of conservationists, politicians and especially businesses—namely, the Northern Pacific Railroad, whose route through Montana would greatly benefit by the creation of this new tourist attraction—to ensure the passage of the legislation by the United States Congress to create Yellowstone National Park. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 479 pixelsFull resolution (2549 × 1527 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 479 pixelsFull resolution (2549 × 1527 pixels, file size: 2. ... Yellowstone redirects here. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Northern Pacific Railway Categories: Stub | Defunct railroad companies of the United States | Idaho railroads | Minnesota railroads | Montana railroads | North Dakota railroads | Oregon railroads | Washington railroads | Wisconsin railroads ...


The 'dean of western writers,' American Pulitzer prize-winning author Wallace Stegner, has written that national parks are 'America's best idea,'—a departure from the royal preserves that Old World sovereigns enjoyed for themselves—inherently democratic, open to all, "they reflect us at our best, not our worst."[1] Even with the creation of Yellowstone, Yosemite, and nearly 37 other national parks and monuments, another 44 years passed before an agency was created in the United States to administer these units in a comprehensive way - the U.S. National Park Service (NPS). Businessman Stephen Mather pushed hardest for the creation of the NPS, writing then-Secretary of the Interior Franklin Knight Lane about such a need. Lane invited Mather to come to Washington, DC to work with him to draft and see passage of the NPS Organic Act, which was approved by Congress and signed into law on August 25, 1916. Wallace Earle Stegner (February 18, 1909—April 13, 1993) was an American historian, novelist, short story writer, and environmentalist. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Stephen Mather (1867 - 1930) was a pioneering American industrialist and conservationist. ... Franklin Knight Lane (1864–1921) was a Canadian-American Democratic politician who served as United States Secretary of the Interior under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1920. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The number of areas now managed by the National Park Service in the United States consists of 391 different sites, of which only 58 carry the designation of National Park.


Following the idea established in Yellowstone there soon followed parks in other nations. In Australia, the Royal National Park was established just south of Sydney in 1879. In Canada, Banff National Park (then known as Rocky Mountain National Park) became its first national park in 1885. New Zealand had its first national park in 1887. In Europe the first national parks were a set of nine parks in Sweden in 1909. Europe has 370 national parks at the moment.[2] In 1926, the government of South Africa designated Kruger National Park as the nation's first national park. Protected areas of Australia are maintained by the Department of the Environment and Heritage, with the exception of the Great Barrier Reef, which is managed by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, a body within the department. ... Winter at Wattamolla beach. ... Moraine Lake, and the Valley of the Ten Peaks Banff National Park is Canadas oldest national park, established in 1885, in the Canadian Rockies. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The national parks of Sweden are managed by the Swedish National Environmental Protection Agency, or Naturvårdsverket. ... Kruger National Park is the largest game reserve in South Africa. ...


After World War II, national parks were founded all over the world. The Vanoise National Park in the Alps was the first French national park, created in 1963 after public mobilization against a touristic project. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Vanoise National Park ( Parc National de la Vanoise), is a national park in the mountains of France. ... Alp redirects here. ... Tourist redirects here. ...


Features preserved

Bryce Canyon National Park in southern Utah, United States was established in 1928. It had previously been a National Monument.
Bryce Canyon National Park in southern Utah, United States was established in 1928. It had previously been a National Monument.

National parks are usually located in places which have been largely undeveloped, and often feature areas with exceptional native animals, plants and ecosystems (particularly endangered examples of such), biodiversity, or unusual geological features. Occasionally, national parks are declared in developed areas with the goal of returning the area to resemble its original state as closely as possible. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1231x821, 258 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): National park Bryce Canyon National Park User:Moondigger ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1231x821, 258 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): National park Bryce Canyon National Park User:Moondigger ... Bryce Canyon National Park Bryce Canyon National Park is a national park located in southwestern Utah in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Navajo National Monument Devils Tower National Monument Statue of Liberty National Monument Fort Matanzas National Monument A National Monument is a protected area of the United States that is similar to a national park (specifically a U.S. National Park) except that the President of the United States can quickly... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 737 KB) en: The Bastei in the Elbsandsteingebirge - the Bastei bridge from lookout point Ferdinandstein at the top of the Wehltürme - in the background the Lilienstein de: Die Bastei im Elbsandsteingebirge - Die Basteibrücke vom Aussichtspunkt Ferdinandstein auf den... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 737 KB) en: The Bastei in the Elbsandsteingebirge - the Bastei bridge from lookout point Ferdinandstein at the top of the Wehltürme - in the background the Lilienstein de: Die Bastei im Elbsandsteingebirge - Die Basteibrücke vom Aussichtspunkt Ferdinandstein auf den... View from the Carolafelsen The Saxon Switzerland National Park is a National Park in the german Free State of Saxony next to the capital city of Dresden. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


In some countries, such as England and Wales, areas designated as a national park are not wilderness, nor owned by the government, and can include substantial settlements and land uses which are often integral parts of the landscape.


Park mandates

Most national parks have a dual role as offering a refuge for wildlife and as serving as popular tourist areas. Managing the potential for conflict between these two roles can become problematic, particularly as tourists often generate revenue for the parks which, in turn, are spent on conservation projects. Parks also serve as reserves for substantial natural resources, such as timber, minerals and other valuable commodities. The balance of the demand for extraction of these resources, against the damage this might cause, is often a very important challenge in national park management. National parks have been subject to illegal logging and other exploitation, sometimes because of political corruption, or lack of law enforcement. For example, Lorentz National Park in Indonesia has no dedicated staff of guards. This threatens the integrity of many valuable habitats. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of national laws. ... Exploitation means many different things. ... World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers (green) indicate relatively less corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate relatively more corruption. ... The Lorentz National Park is located in Indonesia, in the province of Papua. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ...


Other sites designated for preservation

Some countries also designate sites of special cultural, scientific or historical importance as national parks, or as special entities within their national park systems. Other countries use a different scheme for historical site preservation. Some of these sites, if they meet the criteria required, are awarded the title World Heritage Site by the UNESCO. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ...


In many countries, local governmental bodies may be responsible for the maintenance of park systems. Some of these are also called national parks. Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ...


See also

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Landsat 7 is the latest satellite of the Landsat program. ... Kavir (Desert) National Park is a 400,000-hectare (1,000,000-acre) protected ecological zone in northern Iran. ... This is a list of national parks ordered by nation. ... The term national monument can either refer to a specific monument which aims to represent a nation, or to a general concept. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... Some conservation ecologists have been concerned about the Amazon rainforest. ... Map of land managed by the US Federal Government Federal lands are lands for which ownership is claimed by the Federal Government. ... The International Network of Geoparks (INoG) is a UNESCO Geoparks programme established in 1998. ... A Transboundary Protected Area is a protected area that spans across boundaries of multiple countries, where the political border sections that are enclosed within its area are abolished. ... This article is on national forests in the United States. ... Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. ... Klaus Töpfer, former UNEP Exec. ... A protected area with rich deposits of fossils is called a fossil park. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
National parks
  • National Parks Worldwide
  • UNESCO — Man and the Biosphere Programme (Biosphere Reserves)
  • World Heritage Sites
  • UN Protected Areas database
  • EUROPARC Federation — Europe's protected areas
  • European National Parks Centre (ENPC)
  • National Park of China

 
 

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