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Encyclopedia > National myth

A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nation's past. Such myths often serve as an important national symbol and affirm a set of national values. A national myth may sometimes take the form of a 'national epic'. A considerable amount of related material is at civil religion. An anecdote is a short tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident. ... National symbols are symbols of states, nations and countries in the world. ... A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... The intended meaning of the term civil religion often varies according to whether one is a sociologist of religion or a professional political commentator. ...


A 'national myth' may be a legend or fictionalized narrative, but have been elevated to a serious mythological, symbolical and esteemed levels to be true by the nation (Renan 1882). It might simply over-dramatize true incidents, omit important historical details, or add details for which there is no evidence; or it might simply be a fictional story that no one takes to be true literally (see Abizadeh 2004), but contains a symbolic meaning for the nation. The national folklore of many nations includes a "founding myth", which may involve a struggle against colonialism or a war of independence. In some cases, the meaning of the national myth may become disputed among different parts of the population. The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from μυολογείν mythologein to relate myths, from μύος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λόγος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... A founding myth is a story or myth surrounding the foundation of a nation-state. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The term War of Independence is generally used to describe a war occurring over a territory that has declared independence. ...


In some places, the national myth may be spiritual in tone, and refer to stories of the nation's founding at the hands of God, gods, leaders favored by gods, and other supernatural beings. Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


National myths serve many social and political purposes. In totalitarian dictatorships, national myths often exist only for the purpose of state-sponsored propaganda. The leader might be given, for example, a mythical supernatural life history in order to make himself or herself seem god-like and supra-powerful (see also cult of personality). However national myths exist in every society, in liberal regimes they can serve the purpose of inspiring civic virtue and self-sacrifice (see Miller 1995), or shoring up the power of dominant groups and legitimating their rule. The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Propaganda is a type of message aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people. ... A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a countrys leader uses mass media to create a larger-than-life public image through unquestioning flattery and praise. ...

Contents

Examples of "national myths"

Albania

Skanderbeg remains the cornerstone of Albanian national identity. His figure is clothed with such mystical powers that all national movements since the birth of Albanian nationalism have evoked Skanderbeg's deeds against the Ottomans in the fifteenth century. Legends abound of Skanderbeg prowess; his fiery steed who could jump from one mountaintop to the next, his powerful arm that could cut his enemy in half with a single blow, his exceptional cunning in luring the enemy and achieving the impossible, and especially his invincibility in battle. [[Skanderbeg_sculpture. ...


Britain

The legend of King Arthur (the Arthurian romance) is important in the mythology of Great Britain. He is the central character in the cycle of legends known as the Matter of Britain. A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ... The Matter of Britain or the Arthurian legend is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, especially those focused on King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ...


Canada

The "loyalist migration" of Americans loyal to the United Kingdom from the United States to Canada following the American Revolution, has long been a national founding-myth of Canada. The story is used to suggest that Canadians are fundamentally more Tory than citizens of the United States, that is, more in tune with such values as monarchism, Anglicanism, and civil hierarchy. In recent years, however, these "loyalist" values have largely fallen out of fashion, and as a result the story of the loyalist migration is now used only to justify the event that started the formation of modern Canada, rather than to promote loyalist values. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ... The term Anglican (from Medieval Latin ecclesia anglicana, meaning the English Church) is used to describe the people, institutions and churches as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the state established Church of England, and developed in the Anglican Communion. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , it is derived from -hieros, sacred, and -arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is subordinate to a single other element. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The proportion of immigrants that were actually "loyalists" was likely to be significant immediately following the US revolution years, but it has been argued that much of the immigration from United States to Canada between the American Revolution and the War of 1812 was because of surplus cheap and plentiful land that was available and burgeoning business activity that resulted, rather than out of a sense of loyalty to the British crown. Immigration increased heavily over the subsequent decades of the 19th century from Europe (majority British Isles) and the vast majority of these immigrants had no such staunch loyalist affiliations. Combatants United States Great Britain Canada Bermuda Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other...


The War of 1812 is the subject of another national myth in which Canada defines itself in opposition to the United States. Many Canadians firmly believe that Canada won the war, just as many Americans believe the opposite, and the comment that "Canadians burnt down the White House" may be used by Canadian patriots to mock the United States. Combatants United States Great Britain Canada Bermuda Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


The 20th Century war poem In Flanders' Fields has achieved legendary status in contemporary Canada. Wreaths of artifical poppies used as a symbol of remembrance In Flanders Fields is one of the most famous poems about World War I. It was written by Canadian physician John McCrae, who died of pneumonia and meningitis while serving in a field hospital in Belgium. ...


China

In both mainland China and Taiwan, one of the most important parts of Chinese nationalism is the invention of gunpowder, paper making, printing and the compass. The Wuchang Uprising and the creation of the Republic of China under Sun Yat-sen also forms an important part of modern Chinese nationalism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Blackpowder. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... For other articles which might have the same name, see Print (disambiguation). ... Compass in a wooden box A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the earth. ... The Wuchang Uprising (武昌起義, pinyin: Wǔchāng Qǐyì) of October 10, 1911, started the Xinhai Revolution, which triggered the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China (ROC). ... The Republic of China is commonly known as Taiwan or Chinese Taipei, and it is not to be confused with the Peoples Republic of China. ... Sun Yat-sen (Chinese: ; November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the “father of modern China”. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ...


Within the People's Republic of China, the Long March is another such event. In Taiwan, the 228 Incident has also become part of the national folklore. Combatants Nationalist Party of China and allied warlords Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek various, eventually Mao Zedong Strength over 300,000 First Front Red Army: 86,000 (October 1934) 7,000 (October 1935) The Long March (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a massive military retreat undertaken... Image:228 Massacre02. ...


Other prominent stories of Chinese nationalist ideology include the Yellow Emperor as the ancestor of all Chinese, the idea that all Chinese are the 'sons of the dragon', the concept of "5,000 years of Chinese history", and the ideology of the Zhonghua Minzu(Chinese nation). Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor or Huang Di (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: huángdì) is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


England

England's Sir Francis Drake remains a national hero for his attacks on the Spanish Armada. Despite his death during a failed raid, Drake remains a legendary figure who circumnavigated the globe, destroyed dozens of Spanish warships, and (apocryphally) was the secret lover of Queen Elizabeth. His jaunty, daring attitude in the face of overwhelming opposition remains a symbol of pride for the English nation. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral, (c. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Charles Howard Francis Drake Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured, 4 merchant ships sunk or captured The Spanish Armada (Old... Elizabeth I redirects here. ...


Estonia

Main article: Kalevipoeg

Kalevipoeg is an epic poem by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald held to be the Estonian national epic. The main material is taken from Estonian folklore of a giant hero named Kalevipoeg ("Kalev's Son"). These tales mainly interpret various natural objects and features as traces of Kalevipoeg's deeds and have similarities with national epics from neighbouring regions, especially the Finnish Kalevala, and also in Scandinavia. Illustration to Kalevipoeg by Oskar Kallis Kalevipoeg is an epic poem by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald held to be the Estonian national epic. ...


Ethiopia

Main article: Kebra Nagast

According to legend, the first emperor of Ethiopia, Menelik I, was the son of the Biblical King Solomon and Makeda, the Queen of Sheba. Modern book cover of Kebra Nagast: The Glory of the Kings The Kebra Nagast (var. ... Menelik I, first Emperor of Ethiopia, is traditionally believed to be the son of King Solomon of ancient Israel and Makeda, Queen of Sheba. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... King Solomon Latin name (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה, (Shelomo) (Shlomo pronounced with Yiddish accent)Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: سليمان, Sulayman; all essentially meaning peace) is a figure described in Middle Eastern scriptures as a wise ruler of an empire centred on the united Kingdom of Israel. ... Sheba (from the English transcription of the Hebrew name shva: שבא, and Saba, Arabic: سبأ, also Saba, Amharic: ሳባ) is a southern kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Quran. ...


Finland

Main article: Kalevala

The Kalevala is Finland's national epic compiled from Finnish and Karelian folk lore in 19th century by Elias Lönnrot. Its first publication in 1835 - well-timed in the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland where the first ideas of a complete independence began to form - started a surge of interest in examining "Finnishness" in paintings, sculptures, writings etc. by Finnish artists in a wave of national romanticism later termed Karelianism. The Kalevala is an epic poem which Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish folk lore in the 19th century. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish folk lore in the 19th century. ... Elias Lönnrot ( ) (April 9, 1802 – March 19, 1884) was a Finnish philologist and collector of traditional Finnish oral poetry. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... Liberty leading the people, embodying the Romantic view of the French Revolution of 1830; its painter Eugène Delacroix also served as an elected deputy Romantic nationalism (also organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of... Historically, Finland has been part of Russia and part of Sweden, with varying degrees of autonomy. ...


France

In the Middle Ages, the legends and myths of Charlemagne helped to consolidate and romanticize Frankish power, and Charlemagne legends spread throughout France and most of Europe. The chansons de geste relating to the Matter of France romanticize the national founding legends about Charlemagne and his paladins, Roland (of The Song of Roland) and Oliver. Originally, the Matter of France focused on the conflict between the Franks and Saracens or Moors during the period of Charles Martel and Charlemagne. A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... The Song of Roland (French: ) is the oldest major work of French literature. ... For the 13th century titular King of Hungary, see Charles Martel dAnjou. ...


Schoolchildren in France were long taught to trace their ancestry to the Gauls. Vercingétorix is a national hero, whose defeat with grandeur is to be contrasted with the treacherous Julius Caesar. The popular cartoon and comic book character Asterix is a Gaul who resists Roman rule. Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Statue of Vercingetorix by Bartholdi, on Place de Jaude, in Clermont-Ferrand Vercingetorix (pronounced in Gaulish) died 46 BC), chieftain of the Arverni, led the Gauls in their ultimately unsuccessful war against Roman imperialism. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in classical antiquity. ... For other uses, see Asterix (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


After the conquest of Soissons in 486, a soldier is said to have broken a vase to deny it to Clovis I. Years later, while reviewing the troops, Clovis broke the soldier's skull, admonishing the others to "Remember the Soissons vase." That kings never forget, or are always right, may be taken as lessons. Soissons is a town and commune in the Aisne département, Picardie, France, located on the Aisne River, about 60 miles northeast of Paris. ... For the processor, see Intel 80486. ... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ...


At one time the execution of King Louis was likewise a national myth which played up the triumph of the common people over the out-of-touch aristocracy, exemplified by Queen Marie Antoinette's statement (actually a misquote) of "Let them eat cake" when she was told the people had no bread. The French Revolution gave rise to the belief that France had a special role to carry its universal values to the world (the mission civilisatrice), which was used to justify the Napoleonic Wars and France's overseas colonial empire. Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is hereditary, and split between a small number of families. ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... A misquotation is an accidental or intentional misrepresentation of a persons speech or writing, involving one or more of: Omission of important context: The context can be important for determining the overall argument the quoted person wanted to make, for seeing whether the quoted statement was restricted or even... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl...


Germany

In the Battle of Teutoburg Forest of the year 9, united Germanic tribes led by Arminius defeated three Roman Legions, preventing Germania from becoming a Roman province. The historical facts were only recorded by Romans, but oral reports, in which the battle developed into a description of "slaying the dragon", might have developed into the Nibelungensaga. Written down as the Nibelungenlied in the 12th century, it connects old Norse mythology with recounts of actual history of the 5th/6th century plus contemporary events. Arminius, called Hermann by Martin Luther when the Roman records were rediscovered, became a popular figure in 19th century German nationalism, who wanted to identify themselves with the Germanic tribes, thereby giving the "german people" a long and common history. At that time, the fairy tales collected by the Brothers Grimm were important in developing a romantic conception of a folk-based German nation at a time when "Germany" was nothing more than a geographic expression comprising dozens of small states, with real princes and princesses in abundance. In collecting these traditional stories from among the people, the brothers were partially motivated by a desire to help create a German identity. Battle of the Teutoburg Forest Conflict Roman-Germanic wars Date 9 Place Teutoburg Forest Result German victory In the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (AD 9) an alliance of Germanic tribes led by Arminius (also known in German as Hermann), the son of Segimerus of the Cherusci, ambushed and wiped... For other uses, see 9 (disambiguation). ... The Hermannsdenkmal Arminius (also Hermann, Armin, 16 BC–AD 21) was a war chief of the Germanic tribe of the Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. ... Lindwurm Brunnen in the center of Klagenfurt A lindworm (called lindorm in Scandinavia and Lindwurm in Germany; the name consists of two Germanic roots meaning roughly ensnaring serpent) is a large serpent-like dragon from European mythology and folklore. ... German Nibelung and the corresponding Old Norse form Niflung (Niflungr) refers in most of the German texts and in all the Old Norse texts to the royal family or lineage of the Burgundians who settled at Worms. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... Norse or Scandinavian mythology comprises the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Hermann is a German given name (meaning army man or warrior), and might refer to: Persons: Hermann der Cherusker, victor of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest; see Arminius Hermann Huppen, a Belgian comic book artist Johann Wilhelm Herrmann, a German theologian Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909) Other use: Hermann, a... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Wilhelm (left) and Jacob Grimm (right) from an 1855 painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann The Brothers Grimm were Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, German professors who were best known for publishing collections of folk tales and fairy tales,[1] and for their work in linguistics, relating to how the sounds in... Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans) or Das Deutschlandlied (The Song of Germany) has since 1922 been the national anthem of Germany. ... The States of the German Confederation were those member states that from June 20, 1815 were part of the German Confederation, which lasted, with some changes in the member states, until August 24, 1866, under the presidency of the Austrian imperial house of Habsburg, which was represented by an Austrian... German nobility was the aristocratic class in Germany. ...


India (Bharat)

The Kathas (stories) of Mahābhārata and Rāmāyaṇa are of immense religious and philosophical importance within the Republic of India. These two epics are traditionally called Itihāsas (Sanskrit, literally, history). The Purāṇas (Sanskrit, literally, ancient) also form a profound literary base for several traditions and beliefs of Hindus. While the Vedas, which form the source texts of Hinduism, are mostly seen as sources of elaborate rituals and metaphysics, the Itihasas together with the Puranas, being some of the most ancient writings in the world, form the major basis for the Hindu religion today. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Itihasa (Sanskrit: इतिहास - itihāsa in IAST notation, literally meaning that which happened) is the word for History. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद) are a large corpus of texts originating in Ancient India. ... Hinduism (known as in some modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ...


From the Ramayana, known as the "Ādikāvya" (the first poem), the figure of Rama is venerated all over India as the embodiment of Dharma, virtue and respect. He is thus called the "Maryāda puruṣottama" (the ultimate man of respect). His wife Sita is similarly held as the embodiment of chastity and womanhood. Hanuman, the vanara servant of Rama, is held to be the model bhakta (devotee). Similarly, the Mahabharata and the Puranas provide several stories that are cherished and emulated all over India. Lord Sri Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ...   (Sanskrit) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... For the Tamil movie by same name see Anjaneya (film). ... Vanara is a Sanskrit word literally meaning monkey or inhabitants of forests=like the primitive tribes (probably vaanar as pronounced in hindi). ... Bhakta is a Hindu term for a person who practices bhakti, that is loving devotion for God. ...


From later times, the Maratha king Shivaji is widely held as a symbol of valour and defiance against tyranny all over India, especially in Maharashtra. Subash Chandra Bose, Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and other participants in the Indian freedom struggle are also taught to school children as characters worthy of emulation. The Marāthās (Marathi: मराठा)is a collective term referring to an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a substantial empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries AD. The Marathas... Shivaji Bhonsle, also known as Chatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhonsle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजी राजे भोसले) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... Maharashtra   (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , English: , IPA: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Netaji poster in Thiruvananthapuram Subhas Chandra Bose (January 23, 1897 - August 18, 1945) also known as Netaji, was a Orissa born and Bengal based Indian leader of the movement to win independence from British rule. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhÄ«, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... Vallabhbhāī Paá¹­el (Gujarati: , DevanāgarÄ«: ; IPA: ) (October 31, 1875 – December 15, 1950) was a political and social leader of India who played a major role in the countrys struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. ... The Indian independence movement was a series of steps taken in the Indian subcontinent for independence from British colonial rule, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ...


Iran

Persian heros from Shahnameh such as Rustam (symbol of power), Kaveh (symbol of fighting the tyranny and Arash (symbol of defending the country) play a vivid role in the consciousness of today's Iranians. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Shahnameh Scenes from the Shahnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried. ... Rostam (رستم Rostæm in Persian) is a mythical warrior of ancient Persia, son of Zal and Rudabe. ... Statue of Kaveh in Isfahan My name is Kaveh, I am a Persian-American and live in San Diego. ... Arash, the Archer (Persian: آرش کمانگیر) is a heroic archer of the Persian mythology. ...


The Zoroastrian story about the colour of fire giving people joy is expressed in popular expressions each year during the Persian Fire Festival (Chaharshanbe Suri). Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Chaharshanbe Suri (in Persian: چهارشنبه‌سوری) is the national Persian Festival of Fire. ...


Mythological objects such as The Cup of Jamshid (Jaam-e Jam) and other mythical figures from the Persian mythology such as Shahrzad (the story-teller), Peri, Anahita, Mithra and Homa are universally known in Iran and are used for naming people, institutions, companies etc. The Cup of Jamshid, (or the Cup of Djemscheed or Jaam-e Jam, in Persian: جام جم) is a cup of divination, which according to legend was long possessed by rulers of ancient Persia. ... JAAM-E JAM is the name of a U.S.-based television channel, featuring content from Persian (Iranian) immigrants. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... Scheherazade or Shahrazad (Persian: شهرزاد Shahrzad) is the (fictional) storyteller of The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. ... Doctor Who character, see Peri Brown. ... Temple of Anahita: goddess of ancient Persia, Iran. ... Mithra (Avestan Miθra, modern Persian مهر Mihr, Mehr, Meher) is an important deity or divine concept (so called Yazata) in Zoroastrianism and later Persian mythology and culture. ... Statues of two head Homa in Persepolis ruins, Iran A relief of Armenian tribute bearer carrying a metal vessel with Homa (griffin) handles. ...


Israel

The history of the Jewish people (including the Exodus and the story of the biblical Abraham) and the nation of Israel (referring both to the modern state of Israel and the Jewish diaspora interchangeably) is recorded in the Old Testament of the Bible. The modern state of Israel was founded based on Zionists — both Jewish and Christian — who believed that the Old Testament foretold and justified the establishment of a Jewish state in the Land of Israel. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ...


Italy

The Roman empire was the prominent national myths under Fascism, which itself had a symbol of imperial Rome as its symbol. The Risorgimento and World War I (sometimes termed "fourth war of independence") were also common themes. After fascism, political correctness demanded less patriotism in politics: the main political parties had their roots in Catholicism (that had opposed Italian unity) or Marxism, and were not keen to perpetuate patriotic national myths. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...


Imperial Rome is today uncommon as a source of national identity. The focus on Risorgimento moved more to figures as Giuseppe Garibaldi and Giuseppe Mazzini (both considered criminals and dangerous radicals in their lifetimes) and prime minister Camillo Cavour, for his diplomatics skills, rather than the ousted Savoy kings. Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... Garibaldi in 1866. ... Giuseppe Mazzini. ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... Look up Radical in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ... Count Camilio Benso di Cavour (August 10, 1810 _ June 6, 1861) was a statesman who was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification and the first Prime Minister of the new Kingdom of Italy. ... Diplomat redirects here. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ...


Christian heritage is important to a large sector of the population, but is not universally shared; the role of the Church has been a matter of debate in recent years as the Vatican has become more and more active in Italian politics, especially under the papacy of Benedict XVI. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The word tradition comes from the Latin word traditio which means to hand down or to hand over. ... Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany) is the 265th reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ...


In popular culture, Italian food and football (especially the 1982 victory) are important themes. Popular culture, sometimes called pop culture, (literally: the culture of the people) consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... Italian cuisine is characterized by its flexibility, its range of ingredients and its many regional variations. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Qualifying countries The 1982 FIFA World Cup, the 12th staging of the World Cup, was held in Spain from June 13 to July 11. ...


Japan

The legendary founder and first emperor of Japan was Emperor Jimmu, a lineal descendant of the goddess Amaterasu. This genealogy was used to justify the rule of the Imperial house. For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... Meiji era print of Emperor Jimmu Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇 Jinmu Tennō; also known as: Kamuyamato Iwarebiko; given name: Wakamikenu no Mikoto or Sano no Mikoto, born according to legend on January 1, 711 BC, and died, again according to legend, on March 11, 585 BC,[citation needed] was the mythical founder... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ...


Korea

According to myth, a tiger and a bear living in a cave prayed to the god of the sky, Hwanin, to become human. He ordered them to remain out of sunlight for 100 days and to eat only 20 cloves of garlic and mugwort. The tiger left, but the bear was transformed into a woman; now alone, she prayed for a companion, and Hwanin took her for his own wife. Their child, Dangun, became the first king of Korea, by tradition on October 3, 2333 BC. Hwanin in medieval Korean mythology is Indra, the ruler of heaven and earth in Buddhism. ... Binomial name Allium sativum L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... Binomial name Artemisia vulgaris L. Mugwort or Common Wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris) is a species from the daisy family Asteraceae. ... Dangun is the mythical founder of Korea. ... Korea has been ruled by a number of kingdoms/empires and republics over the last several millennia. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (Redirected from 2333 BC) (25th century BC - 24th century BC - 23rd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2350 BC - End of the Early Dynastic IIIb Period in Mesopotamia 2334 - 2279 BC -- Sargon...


The "founding myth" was revived several times in history to encourage Korean nationalism, and is taught in South Korean schools as a lesson of reverence, patience, and perseverance. The name Dangun itself is used colloquially to express satisfaction with excellence or rightness. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Motto None (Unofficial: Broadly benefit humankind also translated as Devotion to the welfare of humanity) Anthem Aegukga (Patriotic Hymn) Capital (and largest city) Seoul Official languages Korean Government Presidential republic  -  President Roh Moo-hyun  -  Prime Minister Han Duck-soo Establishment  -  Gojoseon October 3, 2333 BCb   -  Liberation declared March 1, 1919...


North Korea

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is perhaps the most thoroughly propagandized populace in the modern world, with the national identity intrinsically tied to the extensive personality cults of President Kim Jong-il and his father, the "Great Leader" Kim Il-sung. Many elements of their lives and of national history have been rewritten to exalt them and to conform to and support the ideology of juche. Adolf Hitler built a strong cult of personality, based on the Führerprinzip. ... Kim Jong-il (also written as Kim Jong Il) (born February 16, 1942) is the leader of North Korea. ... Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of North Korea from its founding in 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ... Manse Manse! Kim Jong Il! The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ...


Kim Il-sung is commemorated as a leading commander of the independence movement against Japan. Over the years, his early life was attributed greater and greater hardship, and his abilities increased commensurately to the nearly supernatural. He is for instance said to have participated in 100,000 battles against the Japanese in 15 years. His ancestors were refashioned into heroic revolutionary fighters.


Since at least 1982 Kim Jong-il is said to have been born in an army camp on the sacred Baitou Mountain, amidst thunderstorms and rainbows (even though it was winter). It links him to the guerilla movement against the Japanese occupation and provides a spiritual foundation for his rule. He is then said to have graduated from the elite Namsan School in Pyongyang, and to have served as a construction and factory worker—so inspirationally in the latter to have sparked a mass movement, the "Model Machine Movement of Loyalty for Emulating Lathe No. 26." [1] 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Baitou Mountain, or Paektu Mountain, is a mountain on the border between China and North Korea, located at , . It is commonly called Changbai shan (長白山/长白山) in Chinese and the Manchu name Golmin Å anggiyan Alin corresponds to it. ... Full featured double rainbow in Wrangell-St. ... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... Conventional metalworking lathe In woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking, a lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material so that when abrasive, cutting, or deformation tools are applied to the block, it can be shaped to produce an object which has rotational symmetry about an axis...


Mexico

The appearance of Our Lady of Guadalupe to the Aztec convert Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin underpins Roman Catholicism in Mexico and to some extent all of Latin America. That the Virgin Mary appeared to a native, and the image on his apron represents her as olive-skinned, represents the accessibility of the Church to the indigenous peoples. Various indigenous advocates in Mexico have adopted the Lady as a symbol. Our Lady of Guadalupe. ... The Aztecs is a term used for certain Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples of central México. ... Tradition maintains that Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin (1474 – May 30, 1548) was an indigenous Mexican who witnessed an apparition of the Virgin Mary as Our Lady of Guadalupe. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Our Lady redirects here. ... A Hupa man. ...


Norway

The earliest national myth is probably the founding of the Kingdom of Norway by king Harald Fairhair in the middle ages; shortly thereafter, the christianisation of Norway by king Olav Tryggvason became another important historical event. In modern times, the declaration of independence from Denmark and the Constitution of Norway became important symbols of nationalism; May 17, Constitution day, is still a major event in Norway and for Norwegians abroad. Harald I (b. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Olav Tryggvason (969 - September 9, 1000) was a great-grandson of Harald Hairfair He began his meteoric career in exile as his ancestors fled from the executions of the royal family by Eric Bloodaxe. ... The Constitution of Norway was first adopted on May 16, 1814 by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll (a small town north of the countrys capital, Christiania), then signed and dated May 17. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (138th in leap years). ...


In popular culture, Norwegians usually pride themselves with living in "the best country in the world" (a claim backed in recent years by the United Nations's Human Development Index), and with their diversity of dialects in Norwegian language (even though this diversity is so small that most dialects are mutually intelligible in a country that is over 2,000 km long). The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... Norwegian is a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language. ...


Portugal

There are quite a few myths surrounding the first recognized king of Portugal Dom Afonso Henriques, and his followers. Amongst them are the stories concerning Dom Egas Moniz's willingness to sacrifice himself and his family to the king of Leon because of Afonso's rebellion; Martim Moniz's sacrifice during the conquest of Lisbon from the Moors, and Afonso's own fights with his mother, Dona Teresa, self-styled queen of Portugal.


The Lusiads an epic poem by Luís de Camões is often regarded as Portugal's "national epic". In it, Camões presents the Portuguese people as descendants from Lusus, companion of Dionysus and mythical founder of Lusitania, and loosely describes the country's history until the mid 16th century, focussing mainly on Portuguese discoveries from the 14th to the 17th centuries. Camões goes further, by suggesting that the Portuguese nation might be the offspring of Odysseus (mythical founder of Lisbon, or Olissipo). Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads) is considered one of the finest and most important works in Portuguese literature. ... Luís de Camões Monument to Luís de Camões, Lisbon Luís Vaz de Camões (pron. ... Head of Odysseus from a Greek 2nd century BC marble group representing Odysseus blinding Polyphemus, found at the villa of Tiberius at Sperlonga Odysseus or Ulysses (Greek Odysseys; Latin: Ulixes or, less commonly, Ulysses), pronounced /oʊˈdɪs. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ...


Scotland

According to legend, the Scots are descended from an Egyptian princess named Scoti. Scoti or Scotti (Old Irish Scot, modern Scottish Gaelic Sgaothaich) was the generic name given by the Romans to Gaelic raiders from Ireland. ...


Some kings of Scotland have achieved legendary status. Cináed I (Kenneth Mac Alpine), who is thought of as the first true king of Scotland, uniting the Pictish kigdoms and Goidelic Dál Riata. Robert I (Robert the Bruce), notable in the traditional story of his being inspired by a spider while hiding in a cave before fighting a guerrilla war against English occupation. Cináed mac Ailpín (after 800–13 February 858) (Anglicised Kenneth MacAlpin) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... Robert I, King of Scots (Mediaeval Gaelic:Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; 11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scotland (1306 – 1329). ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ...


Serbia

The 1389 Battle of Kosovo was a defining event in Serbian history and identity, although the historical record is sparse. A Serbian-led Christian army was defeated by the Ottoman Empire through treachery, but not before Miloš Obilić assassinated the sultan Murad I, sacrificing himself to oppose tyranny and defend his people. Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... This page is about the Battle of Kosovo of 1389; for other battles, see Battle of Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... According to a Serbian epic poetry, Miloš Obilić was the name of the Serbian knight who, at the Battle of Kosovo, between Serbia and the Ottoman Empire, assassinated the Ottoman sultan Murad I. On June 15th, 1389, Miloš made his way into the Ottoman camp on the... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ...


Switzerland

A highly celebrated national myth is that of William Tell, the legendary Swiss hero who defied the Austrians, leading to rebellion and independence for Switzerland. The historical authenticity of a person named Tell has been disputed. The related Rütli-Schwur describes the legendary oath that markes the beginning of the Old Swiss Confederacy. Statue of William Tell and his Son in Altdorf, Switzerland (Richard Kissling, 1895). ... Oath on the Rütli, Henry Fuseli, 1780 The Rütlischwur is a legendary oath of the Old Swiss Confederacy, best known by the Wilhelm Tell drama of 1804 by Friedrich Schiller. ... 1550 illustration for the Sempacherbrief of 1393, one of the major alliance contracts of the Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy was the precursor of modern-day Switzerland. ...


United States

The travails of the Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower and during their first years in America, are often told to underscore quintessential American values such as religious freedom (the voyagers seen as fleeing religious persecution) and industriousness (required to survive the harsh New England winter), and individual pursuit of happiness. In actuality, the Puritans were outnumbered by unaffiliated settlers and servants, and the Plymouth Colony settlers were seeking separation from all other cultures (separatism), not exactly individual happiness. Pilgrims is the name commonly applied to early settlers of the Plymouth Colony, MA. Their leadership came from a religious congregation who had fled religious persecution in the East Midlands of England for the relative calm of Holland in the Netherlands. ... Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882) For other uses, see Mayflower (disambiguation). ... In historical context The factual accuracy of this section of this article is disputed. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Plymouth Colony was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 until 1691. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separatism is a term usually applied to describe the attitudes or motivations of those seeking independence or separation of their land or region from the country that governs them. ...


Stories of Benjamin Franklin and the tolerant Colony of Pennsylvania are other national myths illustrating that America was a land of religious freedom, oppurtunity and pursuit of happiness.


Pocahontas is said to have saved the life of John Smith from her father Powhatan, and later adopted European customs. Nearly all accounts, however—including Smith's—are at best highly romanticized. A 1616 engraving of Pocahontas by Simon van de Passe. ... John Smith (1580 – June 21, 1631), was an English soldier, sailor, and author. ... Chief Powhatan in a longhouse at Werowocomoco (detail of John Smith map, 1612) The Powhatan (also spelled Powatan and Powhaten), or Powhatan Renape (literally, the Powhatan Human Beings), is the name of a Native American tribe, and also the name of a powerful confederacy of tribes that they dominated. ... John Smith (1580 – June 21, 1631), was an English soldier, sailor, and author. ...


The American Revolution is the source of many national myths, such as the legendary ride of Paul Revere, or Nathan Hale's purported last words ("...My only regret is that I have but one life to lose for my country"). These legends illustrate the virtues of bravery and vigilance, considered essential to the United States. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... Portrait of Paul Revere by John Singleton Copley, c. ... For the U.S. Congressman, see Nathan W. Hale. ... The Last Words - Malcolm Baxter (vocals), Andy Groome (guitar), Leigh Kendall (bass), John Gunn (drums) - were one of the first Australian punk bands. ...


The person of George Washington is particularly idealized as the "father of the country." Parson Weems invented some of the tales about Washington's life, including the story in which a young Washington admits to cutting down a cherry tree with a hatchet, often repeated to children to underscore the virtue of truthfulness. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first president of the United States under the U.S. Constitution. ... Parson Weems Fable by Grant Wood (1939) Parson Mason Locke Weems (1756-1825) was an American printer and author known as the source for almost all of the half-truths about George Washington, the Father of his Country, including the famous tale of the cherry tree. ...


The numerous and complex causes of the American Civil War are romantically simplified as either a war to "free the slaves" or (chiefly in the South) to defend agrarian tradition and independence against homogenizing industrial society. Pickett's Charge during the Battle of Gettysburg is sometimes given as the moment the Confederacy had lost the war, though the CSA survived for almost two additional years. This article is becoming very long. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States began soon after Europeans first settled in what became the United States. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George Gordon Meade Robert Edward Lee Strength 93,921 71,699 Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing) 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing) The Battle of... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President...


The settlement of the American West has also been a source of many national myths, which glorify the frontier virtues of rugged individualism and self-reliance. After the closing of the frontier, stories by Horatio Alger and others depicted diligence, honesty and pluck as the chief qualities required for upward social mobility in the industrial age—not to mention ingraining the view of the nation as a true meritocracy. A quote in the 1962 movie The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance is made about the use of Wild West stories in the US: "This is the west, sir. When the legend becomes fact, print the legend." Horatio Alger, Jr. ... Social mobility or intergenerational mobility is the degree to which, in a given society, an individuals social status can change throughout the course of his or her life, or the degree to which that individuals offspring and subsequent generations move up and down the class system. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance is a classic Western movie made in 1962, starring James Stewart, John Wayne and Lee Marvin, and directed by John Ford. ...


References

  • Abizadeh, Arash. 2004. "Historical Truth, National Myths, and Liberal Democracy." The Journal of Political Philosophy 12.3: 291-313.
  • Miller, David. 1995. On Nationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-828047-5.
  • Renan, Ernest. 1882. "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?"

Renan may refer to: Ernest Renan, French philosopher and writer Renan, Virginia Renan BE, a village in the Canton of Berne This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ...

See also


 
 

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