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Encyclopedia > National missile defense
A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean.
A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean.

National Missile Defense (NMD) as a generic term is a military strategy and associated systems to shield an entire country against incoming Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs). The missiles could be intercepted by other missiles, or possibly by lasers. They could be intercepted near the launch point (boost phase), during flight through space (mid-course phase), or during atmospheric descent (terminal phase). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2400x3761, 1310 KB) description: A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on Dec. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2400x3761, 1310 KB) description: A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on Dec. ... Launch of dual Sprint missiles during a salvo test at Meck Island Meck island is part of Kwajalein Atoll in the Ralik Chain in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), 2,100 nautical miles (3900 km) southwest of Honolulu, Hawaii, at 9°006′ N 167°7269′ E. Meck is... Kwajalein Atoll - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kwajalein Atoll (Marshallese: Kuwajleen ; common English pronunciation , often nicknamed Kwaj by English-speaking residents of the U.S. facilities) is part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). ... ICBM redirects here. ... The Boeing YAL-1 Airborne Laser (ABL) weapons system is a megawatt-class chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) primarily designed to destroy tactical ballistic missiles (TBMs), similar to the Scud, while in boost phase. ...


The term "National Missile Defense" has several meanings:

  • Most common, but now deprecated: The limited United States ground-based nationwide antimissile system in development since the 1990s. In 2002 this system was renamed to Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD), to differentiate it from other missile defense programs, such as space-based, sea-based, laser, or high-altitude intercept programs. As of 2006, this system is operational with limited capability. It is designed to intercept a small number of nuclear-armed ICBMs in the mid-course phase, using interceptor missiles launched from Alaska. They use non-nuclear kinetic warheads.
  • Current definition: The overall limited U.S. nationwide antimissile program in development since the 1990s. After the renaming in 2002, the term now refers to the entire program, not just the ground-based interceptors and associated facilities. Other elements yet to be integrated into NMD may include sea-based, space-based, laser, and high altitude missile systems. The NMD program is limited in scope and designed to counter a relatively small ICBM attack from a less sophisticated adversary. Unlike the earlier Strategic Defense Initiative program, it is not designed to be a robust shield against a large attack from a technically sophisticated adversary. This article focuses mainly on this system and a brief history of earlier systems which led to it.
  • Any national ICBM defense by any country, past or present. The U.S. Sentinel program was a planned national missile defense during the 1960s, but was never deployed. Elements of Sentinel were briefly deployed as the Safeguard Program, but it wasn't national in scope. The Russian A-135 anti-ballistic missile system is currently operational around Moscow, but it also isn't national in scope.
  • Any national missile defense (against any missile type) by any country. Israel currently has a national missile defense against short and medium-range missiles using their Arrow missile system.

The role of defense against nuclear missiles has been a heated military and political topic for several decades. (See also nuclear strategy, Missile Defense Agency, and anti-ballistic missile.) In computer software standards and documentation, deprecation is the gradual phasing-out of a software or programming language feature. ... Nose of Lockheed boost vehicle protruding from silo 64kg Kill Vehicle (EKV) Sea based X band platform arriving in Pearl Harbor, January 2006 In 2002, National Missile Defense (NMD) was changed to Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD), to differentiate it from other missile defense programs, such as space-based and... A projectile is any object sent through space by the application of a force. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... The MSR overlooks missile launchers at the Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard complex in Nekoma, North Dakota. ... The A-135 or ABM-3 anti-ballistic missile system is a Russian military complex deployed around Moscow to counter enemy missiles targeting the city or its surrounding areas. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Arrow anti-ballistic missile launch The Arrow Interceptor (‎, Til hetz) is a theater missile defense (TMD) system; it is the first missile developed by Israel that was specifically designed and built to intercept and destroy ballistic missiles on a national level. ... Nuclear strategy involves the development of doctrines and strategies for the production and use of nuclear weapons. ... The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ... An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ...

Contents

History of national missile defense systems

In the late 1950s, the Nike-Zeus program investigated the use of Nike nuclear missiles as interceptors against Soviet ICBMs. A Nike warhead would be detonated at high altitudes (over 100 km /60 statute miles) above the polar regions in the near vicinity of an incoming Soviet missile. While rocket technology offered some hope of a solution, the problem of how to quickly identify and track incoming missiles proved intractable, especially in light of easily envisioned countermeasures such as decoys and chaff. The Nike-Zeus project was canceled in 1961. Launch of a Nike Zeus missile Project Nike was a US Army project, proposed in May 1945 by Bell Labs, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system. ... CCCP redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Modern US Navy RR-129 and RR-124 chaff countermeasures and containers Chaff, originally called Window by the British, and Düppel by the WWII era German Luftwaffe, is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallised glass fibre...


Project Defender

The Nike-Zeus use of nuclear warheads was necessary given the available missile technology. However, it had significant technical limitations such as blinding defensive radars to subsequent missiles. Also, exploding nuclear warheads over friendly territory (albeit in space) was not ideal. In the 1960s Project Defender and the Ballistic Missile Boost Intercept (BAMBI) concept replaced land-launched Nike missiles with missiles to be launched from satellite platforms orbiting directly above the USSR. Instead of nuclear warheads, the BAMBI missiles would deploy huge wire meshes designed to disable Soviet ICBMs in their early launch phase (the "boost phase"). No solution to the problem of how to protect the proposed satellite platforms against attack was found, however, and the program was canceled in 1968.


The Sentinel Program

In 1963, U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara announced the Sentinel Program, providing a defense against attack for most of the continental United States. The system consisted of a long range Spartan missile, the short range Sprint missile, and associated radar and computer system. However, U.S. military and political strategists recognized several problems with the system: For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ... Launch of a Spartan The Spartan, designation LIM-49A, was a United States Army anti-ballistic missile. ... The Sprint was a United States Army anti-ballistic missile. ...

  • Deployment of even a limited defensive ABM system might invite a preemptive nuclear attack before it could be implemented
  • Deploying ABM systems would likely invite another expensive arms race for defensive systems, in addition to maintaining existing offensive expenditures
  • Then-current technology did not permit a thorough defense against a sophisticated attack
  • Defended coverage area was very limited due to the short range of the missiles used
  • Use of nuclear warheads on antimissile interceptors would degrade capability of defensive radar, thus possibly rendering defense ineffective after the first few intercepts
  • Political and public concern about detonating defensive nuclear warheads over friendly territory
  • An ICBM defense could jeopardize the Mutual Assured Destruction concept, thus being a destabilizing influence

An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...

The Safeguard Program

The Institute of Heraldry approved the shoulder sleeve insignia for Safeguard.
The Institute of Heraldry approved the shoulder sleeve insignia for Safeguard.
Main article: Safeguard Program

In 1967 McNamara announced that the U.S. would instead be installing the Safeguard a scaled-down version of Sentinel designed to defend U.S. cities from a "limited" attack such as those from the People's Republic of China.[1] Growing public pressure led to a re-purposing of the system, which was then dedicated to protecting the U.S. missile fields from attack, guaranteeing their ability to mount a retaliatory strike. Thus, instead of protecting U.S. citizens, Safeguard now allowed attack on enemy citizens. Safeguard used the same Spartan and Sprint missiles and the same radar technology as Sentinel. Safeguard solved some problems of Sentinel: The MSR overlooks missile launchers at the Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard complex in Nekoma, North Dakota. ... The MSR overlooks missile launchers at the Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard complex in Nekoma, North Dakota. ... Launch of a Spartan The Spartan, designation LIM-49A, was a United States Army anti-ballistic missile. ... The Sprint was a United States Army anti-ballistic missile. ...

  • Less expensive to develop due to limited geographic coverage and fewer required missiles
  • Avoided public concern of defensive nuclear warheads detonated nearby
  • Provided better intercept probability due to coverage by short range Sprint missile, which was unable to cover the entire defended area under Sentinel.

However Safeguard still retained several of the previously-listed political and military problems.


ABM treaty

These above issues drove the U.S. and USSR to sign the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty of 1972. Under the ABM treaty and a 1974 revision, each country was allowed to deploy a single ABM system with only 100 interceptors to protect a single target. The Soviets deployed a system named A-35 using a missile code-named Galosh, designed to protect Moscow. The U.S. deployed Safeguard to defend ballistic missile sites at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota, in 1975. The U.S. Safeguard system was only briefly operational. The Russian system (now called A-135) has been improved and is still active around Moscow. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM treaty or ABMT) was a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The A-35 or ABM-1 anti-ballistic missile system was a Soviet military complex deployed around Moscow to counter enemy missiles targeting the city or its surrounding areas operational since the 1960s until the 1990s. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The MSR overlooks missile launchers at the Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard complex in Nekoma, North Dakota. ... Grand Forks Air Force Base (Grand Forks AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force located in Grand Forks County, North Dakota. ... The A-135 or ABM-3 anti-ballistic missile system is a Russian military complex deployed around Moscow to counter enemy missiles targeting the city or its surrounding areas. ...


In December, 1999, the U.N. General Assembly endorsed a resolution aimed at pressing the United States to abandon plans to build an antimissile defense. Voting against the draft, together with the United States, were Albania, Israel and Micronesia. The members of the 15-nation European Union abstained, except for France and Ireland, which voted for the resolution. It called for continued efforts to strengthen and preserve the treaty.[2] On December 15, 2001, the U.S. withdrew from the ABM treaty. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


Homing Overlay Experiment

Homing Overlay Experiment open web.
Homing Overlay Experiment open web.

Given concerns about the previous programs using nuclear tipped interceptors, in the 1980s the U.S. Army began studies about the feasibility of hit-to-kill vehicles, where an interceptor missile would destroy an incoming ballistic missile just by colliding with it head-on. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2400x1900, 950 KB) Caption Homing overlay experiment open web Source http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2400x1900, 950 KB) Caption Homing overlay experiment open web Source http://www. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


The first program, which actually tested a hit-to-kill missile interceptor, was the Army's HOE (Homing Overlay Experiment) which used a Kinetic Kill Vehicle (KKV) . The KKV was equipped with an infrared seeker, guidance electronics and a propulsion system. Once in space, the KKV could extend a folded structure similar to an umbrella skeleton of 4 m (13 ft) diameter to enhance its effective cross section. This device would destroy the ICBM reentry vehicle on collision. After test failures with the first three flight tests, the fourth and final test on 10 June 1984 was successful, intercepting the Minuteman RV with a closing speed of about 6.1 km/s at an altitude of more than 160 km. is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


The Strategic Defense Initiative

SDI insignia.
SDI insignia.

On March 23, 1983 President Reagan announced a new national missile defense program formally called the Strategic Defense Initiative but soon nicknamed "Star Wars" by detractors. President Reagan's stated goal was not just to protect the U.S. and its allies, but to also provide the completed system to the USSR, thus ending the threat of nuclear war for all parties. SDI was technically very ambitious and economically very expensive. It would have included many space-based laser battle stations and nuclear-pumped X-ray laser satellites designed to intercept hostile ICBMs in space, along with very sophisticated command and control systems. Unlike the previous Sentinel program, the goal was to totally defend against a robust, all out nuclear attack by the USSR. Image File history File links Sdilogo. ... Image File history File links Sdilogo. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Reagan redirects here. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... In the military: The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. ...


A partisan debate ensued in Congress, with Democrats questioning the feasibility and strategic wisdom of such a program, while Republicans talked about its strategic necessity and provided a number of technical experts who argued that it was in fact feasible (including Manhattan Project physicist Edward Teller). Advocates of SDI prevailed and funding was initiated in fiscal year 1984. The motivation behind this effort largely collapsed with the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Current NMD program

The logo of the Missile Defense division of the U.S. National Guard
The logo of the Missile Defense division of the U.S. National Guard

In the 1990s and early 21st century, the stated mission of NMD has changed to the more modest goal of preventing the United States from being subject to nuclear blackmail or nuclear terrorism by a so-called rogue state. The feasibility of this more limited goal remains somewhat controversial. Under President Clinton some testing continued but the project was not given much funding. Some have considered this surprising, in light of Clinton's supportive remarks on 5 September 2000. He said that "such a system, if it worked properly, could give us an extra dimension of insurance in a world where proliferation has complicated the task of preserving peace." Image File history File links National Guard Bureau Missile Defense logo (source) File links The following pages link to this file: National Missile Defense Militarisation of space ... The United States National Guard is a significant component of the United States armed forces military reserve. ... Nuclear blackmail is a term used in nuclear strategy to refer to the threat of use of nuclear weapons to force an adversary to perform some action, hence a type of extortion. ... Nuclear terrorism denotes the use of nuclear weapons, radiological weapons (dirty bombs), or attacks against local facilities that handle nuclear material with mass destruction in mind. ... Rogue state is a term applied by some international theorists to states considered threatening to the worlds peace. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


The current NMD system consists primarily of ground based interceptor missiles and radar in Alaska which would intercept incoming warheads in space. A limited number of interceptor missiles (about 10) are operational as of 2006. These would possibly be later augmented by mid-course SM-4 interceptors fired from Navy ships and by boost-phase interception by the Boeing YAL-1. The Airborne Laser (ABL) weapons system is designed to shoot down ballistic missiles in their boost stage. ...


NMD deployment is planned in three phases. The first phase is called Capability 1 (C1), and was originally designed to counter a limited threat from up to about five warheads with either simple or no countermeasures. More recently this phase has been upgraded to include the deployment of up to 100 interceptors and would be aimed at countering tens of warheads. This would require radar upgrades. Since North Korea is perceived to be the earliest missile threat, the interceptors and radar would be deployed in Alaska.


The second phase is called C2 and designed to counter an attack by warheads with more complex countermeasures. It would deploy additional radars and more interceptors, plus a missile-tracking satellite system. The C3 phase is supposed to counter threats consisting of many complex warheads. It would deploy additional radars as well as additional interceptors, including some at a second site, bringing the total to 200 or more. Although the C3 system is the current final deployment goal, the system design permits further expansion and upgrades beyond the C3 level. A Pentagon study concluded that the NMD system could be upgraded by integrating the hundreds of interceptors to be deployed as part of the ship-based Navy Theater Wide missile defense system. These interceptors would be integrated into the sensor infrastructure of the NMD system.


Recent developments

On 14 October 2002, a ground based interceptor launched from the Ronald Reagan Ballistic Missile Defense Site destroyed a mock warhead 225 km above the Pacific. The test included three decoy balloons.[3] The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Reagan redirects here. ...


On 16 December 2002 President George W. Bush signed National Security Presidential Directive 23[4] which outlined a plan to begin deployment of operational ballistic missile defense systems by 2004. The following day the U.S. formally requested from the UK and Denmark use of facilities in Fylingdales, England, and Thule, Greenland, respectively, as a part of the NMD program. The projected cost of the program for the years 2004 to 2009 will be $53 billion, making it the largest single line in The Pentagon's budget. is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Categories: Stub ... BMEWS solid-state phased-array radar at RAF Fylingdales RAF Fylingdales is a British Royal Air Force station on Fylingdales Moor, North Yorkshire, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Map of Greenland Qaanaaq (pron. ... This article is about the United States military building. ...


Since 2002, the US has been in talks with Poland and other European countries over the possibility of setting up a European base to intercept long-range missiles. A site similar to the US base in Alaska would help protect the US and Europe from missiles fired from the Middle East or North Africa. Poland's prime minister Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz said in November 2005 he wanted to open up the public debate on whether Poland should host such a base.[5] Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz ( ) (born December 20, 1959 in Gorzów Wielkopolski) is a Polish politician who served as Prime Minister of Poland from October 2005 to July 2006. ...


In 2002, NMD was changed to Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD), to differentiate it from other missile defense programs, such as space-based, sea-based, and defense targeting the boost phase and the reentry phase (see flight phases). In 2003, National Missile Defense (NMD) was changed to Ground-Based Missile Defense (GMD), to differentiate it from other missile defense programs, such as space-based, sea-based, or high-altitude intercept programs. ... ICBM redirects here. ...


On 22 July 2004, the first ground-based interceptor was deployed at Ft. Greely, Alaska (63.954° N 145.735° W). By the end of 2004, a total of six had been deployed at Ft. Greely and another two at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Two additional were installed at Ft. Greely in 2005. The system will provide "rudimentary" protection. is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


On 15 December 2004, an interceptor test in the Marshall Islands failed when the launch was aborted due to an "unknown anomaly" in the interceptor, 16 minutes after launch of the target from Kodiak Island, Alaska. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kodiak Island is a large island on the south coast of the U.S. state of Alaska, separated from the Alaska mainland by the Shelikof Strait. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


"I don't think that the goal was ever that we would declare it was operational. I think the goal was that there would be an operational capability by the end of 2004," Pentagon representative Larry DiRita said on 2005-01-13 at a Pentagon press conference. However, the problem is and was funding "There has been some expectation that there will be some point at which it is operational and not something else these expectations are not unknown, if Congress pours more attention and funding to this system, it can be operational relatively quick."


On 18 January 2005, the Commander, United States Strategic Command issued direction to establish the Joint Functional Component Command for Integrated Missile Defense. JFCC IMD, once activated, will develop desired characteristics and capabilities for global missile defense operations and support for missile defense. is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) is one of the nine Unified Combatant Commands of the United States Department of Defense. ... Joint Functional Component Command for Integrated Missile Defense (JFCC IMD) is a component of United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). ...


On 14 February 2005, another interceptor test failed due to a malfunction with the ground support equipment at the test range on Kwajalein Island, not with the interceptor missile itself.[6] is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kwajalein Atoll - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kwajalein Atoll (Marshallese: Kuwajleen ; common English pronunciation , often nicknamed Kwaj by English-speaking residents of the U.S. facilities) is part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). ...

On 24 February 2005, the Missile Defense Agency, testing the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System, successfully intercepted a mock enemy missile. This was the first test of an operationally configured RIM-161 Standard missile 3 (SM-3) interceptor and the fifth successful test intercept using this system. On 10 November 2005, the USS Lake Erie detected, tracked, and destroyed a mock two-stage ballistic missile within two minutes of the ballistic missile launch.[7] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Custos Custodum Ipsorum - Guard of the Guardians, Themselves The Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System is a US Department of Defense Missile Defense Agency program developed to provide a last line of defense against ballistic missiles. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ... Custos Custodum Ipsorum - Guard of the Guardians, Themselves The Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System is a US Department of Defense Missile Defense Agency program developed to provide a last line of defense against ballistic missiles. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... USS Lake Erie (CG-70) is a Ticonderoga-class cruiser in the United States Navy. ...


On 1 September 2006, the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense System was successfully tested. An interceptor was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base to hit a target missile launched from Alaska, with ground support provided by a crew at Colorado Springs. This test was described by Missile Defense Agency director Lieutenant General Trey Obering as "about as close as we can come to an end-to-end test of our long-range missile defense system."[8] The target missile carried no decoys or other countermeasures.[9] is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nose of Lockheed boost vehicle protruding from silo 64kg Kill Vehicle (EKV) Sea based X band platform arriving in Pearl Harbor, January 2006 In 2002, National Missile Defense (NMD) was changed to Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD), to differentiate it from other missile defense programs, such as space-based and... Boeing Delta 4 Medium+ (4,2) lifts off from Space Launch Complex Six (SLC-6) at Vandenberg AFB, California (Official photo by Thom Baur for the Boeing Company) Vandenberg Air Force Base (IATA: VBG, ICAO: KVBG) is a United States military installation with a spaceport, in Santa Barbara County, California... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Colorado Springs is a middle-sized city, located just east of the geographic center of the state of Colorado in the United States. ...


Deployment of the Sea-based X-band Radar system is presently underway.[10] Sea-Based X-Band Radar enters Pearl Harbor on January 9, 2006 on its way to Adak Island, Alaska, transported by MV Blue Marlin. ...


On 24 February 2007, The Economist reported that the United States ambassador to NATO, Victoria Nuland, had written to her fellow envoys to advise them regarding the various options for missile-defense sites in Europe. She also confirmed that “The United States has also been discussing with the UK further potential contributions to the system.”[11] is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... ...


In February 2007 US started formal negotiations with Poland and Czech Republic concerning construction of missile shield installations in those countries for a Ground-Based Midcourse Defense System. According to press reports the government of the Czech Republic agreed (while 67% Czechs disagree[12]) to host a missile defense radar on its territory while a base of missile interceptors is supposed to be built in Poland. The objective is reportedly to protect most of Europe from long-range missile strikes from Iran.[13].


On February 23, 2008, the United States successfully shot down a malfunctioning American spy satellite. is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Ustka-Wicko base of the Polish Army is mentioned as a possible site of US missile interceptors. See also Anti-ballistic missile#European front and Słupsk#U.S. Anti-Missile Defence Shield. Russia objects; its suspension of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe may be related. An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ... SÅ‚upsk ( ; former German: , occasionally Stolpe; Kashubian and Pomeranian: Stolpsk; Latin: Stolpe) is a city with approximately 100,000 inhabitants in northwestern Poland. ... The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry. ...


Technical Criticisms

There has been controversy among experts about whether it is technically feasible to build an effective missile defense system and, in particular, if the ground-based midcourse NMD will work.


An April 2000 study by the Union of Concerned Scientists and the Security Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology concluded that “[a]ny country capable of deploying a long-range missile would also be able to deploy countermeasures that would defeat the planned NMD system.” Countermeasures studied in detail were bomblets containing biological or chemical agents, aluminized balloons to serve as decoys and to disguise warheads, and cooling warheads to reduce the kill vehicle’s ability to detect them.[14][15]


In April 2004, a General Accounting Office report concluded that “MDA does not explain some critical assumptions—such as an enemy’s type and number of decoys—underlying its performance Goals.” It recommended that “DOD carry out independent, operationally realistic testing of each block being fielded” but DOD responded that “formal operational testing is not required before entry into full-rate production.”[16]


Proponents did not suggest how to discriminate between empty and warhead-enclosing balloons, for instance, but said that these “simple” countermeasures are actually hard to implement, and that defense technology is rapidly advancing to defeat them.[17] The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) said decoy discrimination techniques were classified, and emphasized its intention to provide future boost and terminal defense to diminish the importance of midcourse decoys.[18] In summer 2002 MDA ceased providing detailed intercept information and declined to answer technical questions about decoys on grounds of national security.[19]


A July 2003 study by the American Physical Society (APS) focused on the feasibilty of intercepting missiles in the boost phase, which the current NMD system does not yet attempt.[20] The American Physical Society was founded in 1899 and is the worlds second largest organization of physicists. ...


The study found it might be possible to develop a limited system capable of destroying a liquid-fuel propelled ICBM during the boost phase. This system could also possibly destroy some solid-propellant missiles from Iran, but not those from North Korea, because of differences in the boost time and range to target. However, there is a trend toward using solid-fueled ICBMs which are harder to intercept during boost phase. ICBM redirects here. ...


Using orbital launchers to provide a reliable boost-phase defense against solid fuel missiles from Iran or North Korea was found to require at least 1,600 interceptors in orbit. Intercepting liquid-fueled missiles would require 700 interceptors. Using two or more interceptors per target would require many more orbital launchers.


The only boost phase systems the U.S. contemplates for near term use are the Airborne laser (ABL) and Kinetic Energy Interceptors. The study found the ABL possibly capable of intercepting missiles if within 300 km for solid fuel missiles or 600 km for liquid fuel missiles.[21] The Airborne Laser (ABL) weapons system is designed to shoot down ballistic missiles in their boost stage. ...


While the APS report did not address the current U.S. mid-course NMD system, it concluded that were the U.S. in the future to develop a boost-phase ABM defense, there could be significant technical problems limiting effectiveness.


See also the article on anti-ballistic missiles for further discussion on the feasibility of NMD-like systems. An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ...


See also

Essentials of Post-Cold War Deterrence is a document produced in 1995 as a Terms of Reference by the Policy Subcommittee of the Strategic Advisory Group (SAG) of the United States Strategic Command (current USSTRATCOM, former CINCSTRAT), a branch of the Department of Defense. ... Deterrence theory is a defensive strategy developed after World War II and used throughout the Cold War. ... An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ... A ground-based interceptor, designed to destroy incoming ICBMs, is lowered into its silo at the missile defence complex at Fort Greely, Alaska, July 22, 2004. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The old United States civil defense logo. ... X band is a radio frequency range designation that denotes the operational frequency of a specific radar system. ... On 24 February 2005, Foreign Affairs Minister Pierre Pettigrew announced Canada would not be joining the United States missile defense program. ... Joint Functional Component Command for Integrated Missile Defense (JFCC IMD) is a component of United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Tom Clancys EndWar is a game for next generation consoles set during World War III. It may connect with already-existing franchises, because the website makes references to a Ghost Leader and a Crosscom, both trademarks of the Ghost Recon series. ...

References

  1. ^ Aerospace Power Journal, Fall 2001 Shades of Sentinel?, The Decision to Deploy Sentinel
  2. ^ Reuters via Space.com. U.N. Opposes U.S. Plan for Antimissile Defense. December 2, 1999.
  3. ^ US Department of Defense. MISSILE INTERCEPT TEST SUCCESSFUL. October 14, 2002.
  4. ^ Federation of American Scientists. National Security Presidential Directive 23. December 16, 2002.
  5. ^ BBC. US considers Polish missile base. November 17, 2005
  6. ^ Missile Defense Agency. Missile Defense Flight Test Conducted. (PDF).February 14, 2005.
  7. ^ Missile Defense Agency.Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Flight Test Successful. (PDF). February 24, 2005.
  8. ^ US Department of Defense. DoD News Briefing with Lt. Gen. Obering from the Pentagon. September 1, 2006.
  9. ^ Center for Defense Information Flight Tests for Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) System, June 18, 2007 . (PDF).
  10. ^ UPI via Space Daily. Analysis: Missile Defense Semantics. January 17, 2005.
  11. ^ "Missile defence systems Bombs bursting in air" (February 2007). The Economist (24 February 2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-24. 
  12. ^ Citizens on U.S. Anti-Missile Radar Base in Czech Republic[1]
  13. ^ Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH Zurich "US Missile Defense: A Strategic Challenge for Europe", Daniel Möckli, CSS Analyses in Security Policy no. 12, April 2007
  14. ^ Union of Concerned Scientists/MIT Security Studies Program. Countermeasures: A Technical Evaluation of the Operational Effectiveness of the Planned U.S. National Missile Defense System(Executive Summary and full text)(PDF). UCS-MIT Study, A.M. Sessler (Chair of the Study Group), J.M. Cornwall, R. Dietz, S.A. Fetter, S. Frankel, R.L. Garwin, K. Gottfried, L. Gronlund, G.N. Lewis, T.A. Postol, and D.C. Wright, April 2000.
  15. ^ Don't Overestimate NMD: Common Countermeasures Can Slip By Shield, Richard Garwin, Lisbeth Gronlund and George Lewis, Defense News, July 10, 2000, p.15
  16. ^ General Accounting Office report GAO-04-409 Missile Defense: Actions are Needed to Enhance Testing and Accountability(PDF)
  17. ^ Countermeasure Doubletalk / UCS Overstates Ease of Defeating Missile Defense Scott McMahon, Stanley Orman, and Richard Speier, Defense News, June 19, 2000 p.19.
  18. ^ Missile Defense Agency Statement of Lieutenant General Ronald T. Kadish, USAF Director, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Before the House Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs, and International Relations Committee on Government Reform, September 8, 2000 "NMD Counter Countermeasures" section
  19. ^ Center for Defense Information IFT-9: A Questionable Success For Missile Defense. Weekly Defense Monitor, Volume 6, Issue #36 October 24, 2002.
  20. ^ American Physical Society.Report of the American Physical Society Study Group on Boost-Phase Intercept System for National Missile Defense: Scientific and Technical Issues, Rev. Mod. Phys. 76, S1 2004. David K. Barton, Roger Falcone, Daniel Kleppner, Frederick K. Lamb, Ming K. Lau, Harvey L. Lynch, David Moncton, David Montague, David E. Mosher, William Priedhorsky, Maury Tigner, and David R. Vaughan.
  21. ^ Physics Today published by the American Physical Society. Boost-Phase Defense Against Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles. January 2004.

is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Federation of American Scientists (FAS)[1] is a non-profit organization formed in 1945 by scientists from the Manhattan Project who felt that scientists, engineers and other innovators had an ethical obligation to bring their knowledge and experience to bear on critical national decisions. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Physical Society was founded in 1899 and is the worlds second largest organization of physicists. ... The American Physical Society was founded in 1899 and is the worlds second largest organization of physicists. ...

External links

PBS redirects here. ... Frontline is an hour-long public affairs television program produced at WGBH in Boston, Massachusetts, and distributed through the Public Broadcasting Service network in the United States. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Deterrence ALOHA!! is a means of controlling a persons behavior through negative motivational influences, namely fear of punishment. ...

 
 

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