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Encyclopedia > National language

A national language is a language (or language variant, i.e. dialect) which represents the national identity of a nation or country. A national language is used for political and legal discourse. [citation needed] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... For publications of this name, see also Nation (disambiguation) A nation is a community of people who live together in an area (or, more broadly, of their descendants who may now be dispersed); and who regard themselves, or are regarded by others, as sharing some common identity, to which certain... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ...


Some countries have more than one national language, such as Canada which uses both French and English. A national language declared as such by legislation is the same as an Official language. It is different for that reason from the national predominant language, which is a national language only through de facto use or by historical association with a particular nation. [citation needed] Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ...

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Official versus national languages

The national languages of stateless nations are often not official languages in any country. Some have no government recognition, while others may enjoy a high degree of official recognition. Some examples of national languages that are not official languages include Aromanian, Cherokee, and Navajo (and other living Native American languages). Certain languages may enjoy government recognition or even status as official languages in some countries while not in others. [citation needed] A stateless nation is a political term used to imply that a group, usually a minority ethnic group is a nation, and is entitled to its own state, specifically a nation-state for that nation. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Original distribution of the Cherokee language Cherokee (; Tsalagi) is an Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people which uses a unique syllabary writing system. ... Reading Adahooniigii — The Navajo Language Monthly Navajo or Navaho (native name: Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken in the southwest United States by the Navajo people (Diné). It is geographically and linguistically one of the Southern Athabaskan languages (the majority of Athabaskan languages are spoken... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique status in the constitutions of countries, states, and other territories. ...


China

See also: Standard Mandarin and History of Standard Mandarin.

In China, plenty of spoken variants have been existing in different parts of the country. In the ancient time, several local dialects were chosen as the official spoken language, such as dialects from Hangzhou, Nanjing, etc. Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), Malaysia and Singapore. ... Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ...


After the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 , the Chinese Nationalist party - Kuomintang founded the Republic of China. In order to promote a sense of national unity and enhance the efficiency of communications within the nation, the Government decided to designate a national language. The Beijing dialect of Mandarin and Guangzhou dialect of Cantonese were the most popular options, and the Beijing dialect was chosen to be the national language, given the name " 国语" in Chinese (Pinyin: Guóyǔ, lit. national language, commonly known as "Standard Mandarin" in English). In the beginning there were attempts to introduce elements from other Chinese spoken variants into the national language, in addition to those existing in Beijing dialect. But this was deemed too difficult, and was abandoned in 1924 . Since then the Beijing dialect became the major source of standard national pronunciations, due to its prestigious status in the preceding Qing Dynasty. Elements from other dialects continue to exist in the standard language. Combatants  Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Standard Cantonese is a variant, and is generally considered the prestige dialect of Cantonese Chinese. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


After the Chinese Civil War in 1949 , the Chinese communist party established the People's Republic of China in mainland China. The nationalist regime of the Republic of China retreated to the island of Taiwan and maintained the same policy. On the other hand, the People's Republic of China, which administers mainland China, continued the effort, and renamed the national language that is largely based on the Beijing dialect as "普通話" (Pinyin: pǔtōnghuà, lit. common speech) in Chinese. Combatants Kuomintang of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (traditional... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: Zhōnggu ngchǎndǎng) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... ...


European Union

Sign in the entrance of the European Parliament building in Brussels written in the 20 official languages used in the European Union as of July 2006.

European Union has a list of 23 official languages, including English, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Italian and others. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (641x1767, 294 KB)[edit] Summary author: Nuno Nogueira == Licensing == ur mom fool I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (641x1767, 294 KB)[edit] Summary author: Nuno Nogueira == Licensing == ur mom fool I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Chameleon, a symbol of the multilingualism of the European Union. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


India

India has a list of 23 official languages. Hindi is the official language of India. As a large and linguistically diverse country, India does not have a single official language. ...


Republic of Ireland

Irish (Gaeilge), a Celtic language, is recognized as the primary constitutional language of Ireland; notwithstanding that English is the de facto language of the nation. Irish is spoken by about 1% of its population as a first language in restricted geographical locations. However, according to the 2002 Census of Population, 42% of the population of Ireland have the ability to speak Irish. The Irish government is committed to the development of a bilingual society, where as many people as possible can use Irish and English with equal ease and facility.[1] Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Celtic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Malta

In Malta, the Maltese language is the national language. This is recognised as official as well together with English. In Malta most of the people speak the Maltese language and it is recognised as "national" in Chapter 1 of the Laws of Malta. This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...


Philippines

The Filipino language, which is based on Tagalog and other existing Filipino languages, is designated by the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines as the national language. The constitution designates both Filipino and English as official languages. More than 170 languages are spoken in the Philippines and almost all of them belong to the Borneo-Philippines languages group of the Austronesian language family. Filipino (formerly Pilipino) is the national and an official language of the Philippines as designated in the 1987 Philippine Constitution. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Languages in the Philippines number more than 170 and almost all of them belong to the Western Malayo-Polynesian languages. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Constitution of the... The Borneo-Philippines languages (or Outer Hesperonesian or Outer Western Malayo-Polynesian languages) are a branch of the Austronesian family which include the languages of the Philippines, much of Borneo, the northern peninsula of Sulawesi, and Madagascar, as outlined in Wouk and Ross (2002). ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ...


Singapore

In Singapore, the Malay language is the national and official language, since it is the native language of Malay Singaporeans, who were the original inhabitants of the land but are now a minority due to mass ethnic Chinese immigration and who, as of the 2000 census, make up only about 14% of the total population of 4.55 million.[2] Three other languages enjoy official language status, including English, which is the language of business and governance and the medium of instruction in public schools; Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil.[3] Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...


United States

In the USA, English is the national language only in an informal sense, by numbers and by historical and contemporary association. The US Constitution does not explicitly declare any Official language, although the constitution is written in English, as is all federal legislation. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America and is... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...


On May 8, 2007, Senator James M. Inhofe (R-Okla.) introduced Senate Bill S.1335, which would declare English as the official language of the government of the United States. The bill would require that the U.S. government conduct its official activities in English, repeal Federal bilingual voting requirements, and require naturalization ceremonies to be conducted solely in the English language. The bill contains a provision preventing it from pre-empting any law of any U.S. state.[4] is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... James Mountain Inhofe (born November 17, 1934) is an American politician from Oklahoma. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article describes the government of the United States. ... Bilingual redirects here. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...


Previous incarnations of this bill were co-written and supported by Ron Unz, a California millionaire. He, along with his organization (U.S. English), has been pushing for the "English-Only" cause for many years. Ron K. Unz, born 1961, is a former businessman and political activist, best known for an unsuccessful run for the governorship of California, and for sponsoring propositions promoting structured English immersion education. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... U.S. English, Inc. ... English-only movement, called also Official English movement by its supporters, refers to a political movement for the use only of English language in public occasions through the establishing of English as the explicitly only official language in the United States. ...


As of May 2007, several bills relating to English as a national language are pending in the U.S.House of Representatives.[5][6][7] For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party...


See also

Ethnolect is a variant of a language spoken by a certain ethnic/cultural subgroup and distinguishing them as a mark of social identity. ... This is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous peoples. ... Many countries have a language policy designed to favour or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ...

References

  1. ^ Statement on the Irish Language 2006. Government of Ireland. Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  2. ^ World Factbook — Singapore. CIA. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
  3. ^ Languages of singapore. Ethonologue. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
  4. ^ James M. Inhofe (8 May 2007). Senate Bill S.1335: S. I. Hayakawa Official English Language Act of 2007. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  5. ^ Steve King (31 January 2007). House Bill H. R. 768: To provide that Executive Order 13166 shall have no force or effect, and to prohibit the use of funds for certain purposes.. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  6. ^ Peter T. King (31 January 2007). House Bill H. R. 769: To amend title 4, United States Code, to declare English as the official language of the Government of the United States, and for other purposes.. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  7. ^ Peter T. King (12 February 2007). House Bill H. R. 997: English Language Unity Act of 2007. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.

 
 

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