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Encyclopedia > National anthem

A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a country's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Anthems rose to prominence in Europe during the nineteenth century; the oldest national anthem is "Het Wilhelmus", the Dutch national anhem, written between 1568 and 1572 during the Eighty Years War. The Japanese anthem, Kimi ga Yo, has its lyrics taken from a Kamakura period poem, yet it was not set to music until 1880.[1] God Save the Queen/King, the national anthem of the United Kingdom, was first performed in 1745 under the title "God Save the King". Spain's national anthem, the "Marcha Real" (The Royal March), dates from 1770. La Marseillaise, the French anthem, was written in 1792 and adopted in 1795. William the Silent (William I) leader and icon of the Dutch revolt Het Wilhelmus ( (help· info)) (English translation: The William, viz. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt from 1568 to 1648 was the secession war in which the proto-Netherlands first became an independent country. ... Score of Kimi ga Yo Kimi ga Yo ), often translated as May your reign last forever is Japans National Anthem, and is also one of the worlds shortest national anthems in current use. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... (The Royal March) is the national anthem of Spain. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... This article is about the anthem La Marseillaise. A sculpture popularly called La Marseillaise is part of the sculptural program of the Arc de Triomphe. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


During the rise of the nation-state in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, most remaining nations adopted an anthem upon attaining nationhood. Because of European colonial influence, many were influenced in a similar way to adopt a national anthem, and thus several anthems outside Europe are in the European style. Only a handful of non-European countries have anthems rooted in indigenous traditions, including India, China, Japan, Costa Rica, Iran, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar. The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


An anthem can become a country's national anthem by a provision in the country's constitution, by a law enacted by its legislature or simply by tradition. The majority of national anthems are either marches or hymns in style. The countries of Latin America tend towards more operatic pieces, while a handful of countries use a simple fanfare. A march, as a musical genre, is a piece of music with a strong regular rhythm which in origin was expressly written for marching to and most frequently performed by a military band. ... For other uses, see Hymn (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fanfare (disambiguation). ...


National anthems are usually either in the most common language of the country, whether de facto or official. India's anthem, Jana Gana Mana, is a highly Sanskritized version of Bengali. States with more than one national language may offer several versions of their anthem: For instance, Switzerland's anthem has different lyrics for each of the country's four official languages (French, German, Italian and Romansh). On the other hand, South Africa's national anthem is unique in that five of the eleven official languages are used in the same anthem (each language comprising a stanza). Another multilingual country, Spain, has no words in its anthem, La Marcha Real, although in 2007 a national competition to write words was launched[2]. Former military dictator General Francisco Franco replaced the original words with words considered fascist, which were dropped after his death. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Jana Gana Mana (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People) is the national anthem of India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Romand which is one of the names for the Franco-Provençal language. ... In poetry, a stanza is a unit within a larger poem. ... The term multilingualism can refer to rather different phenomena. ... (The Royal March) is the national anthem of Spain. ... Generalísimo Francisco Franco, caudillo de España por la gracia de Dios Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Andrade (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde and sometimes known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco, was dictator of Spain from 1939 until...

Contents

Composers

Among the very few countries with a national anthem written by a renowned composer are:

Several national anthems were written by little-known or unknown composers: Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans, also known as Das Deutschlandlied, The Song of Germany) has been used wholly or partially as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. ... “Haydn” redirects here. ... August Heinrich Hoffmann, who used Hoffmann von Fallersleben as his pen name, was a German poet. ... Land der Berge, Land am Strome (Land of the mountains, land on the river) is the national anthem of Austria. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Hymn and Pontifical March (Inno e Marcia Pontificale) is the national anthem of the Vatican City. ... Charles Gounod. ... Himnusz — the song beginning with the words Isten, áldd meg a magyart   listen? (God, bless the Hungarian) — is the official national anthem of Hungary. ... Ferenc Erkel (November 7, 1810, Gyula - June 25, 1893, Budapest) was a Hungarian composer. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Ode to Newfoundland is the official provincial anthem of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry (February 27, 1848 – October 7, 1918) was an English composer, probably best known for his setting of William Blakes poem, Jerusalem. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... To Joy (An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy rather than To Joy) is an ode written in 1785 by the German poet and historian Friedrich Schiller, known especially for its musical setting by Ludwig van Beethoven in the fourth and final movement... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... 4th movement (European Union anthem) samples: Problems playing the files? See media help. ... Abou-Al-kacem ECHEBBI was born in Tozeur in 1909. ...

This article is about the anthem La Marseillaise. A sculpture popularly called La Marseillaise is part of the sculptural program of the Arc de Triomphe. ... Rouget de Lisle, Composer of the Marseillaise, sings it for the first time. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... The Star-Spangled Banner is the national anthem of the United States. ... The Anacreontic Song was the official song of the Anacreontic Society, a club of amateur musicians in London who gathered regularly to perform concerts. ... John Stafford Smith (1750 - 1836) is a composer best known for writing To Anacreon in Heaven. ... Francis Scott Key Maryland Historical Society plaque marking the birthplace of Francis Scott Key Fort McHenry looking towards the position of the British ships (with the Francis Scott Key Bridge in the distance on the upper left) Francis Scott Key (August 1, 1779 – January 11, 1843) was an American lawyer... Goffredo Mameli, author of the text of the Italian national anthem Michele Novaro, composer of the music Il Canto degli Italiani (The Song of the Italians) is the Italian national anthem. ... Michele Novaro (1822 - 1885) was a Italian songwriter. ... For other uses, see O Canada (disambiguation). ... A sketch of Lavall e from 1873 Calixa Lavall e, (1842 - January 21, 1891), a French-Canadian musician, composed the music for the Canadian national anthem O Canada. He was born at Verch res, Quebec. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ...

Lyrics

A few anthems have been composed by Nobel prize winners. India and Bangladesh adopted two songs written by the Nobel prize winner and noted poet/author Rabindranath Tagore as their national anthems, Jana Gana Mana and Amar Shonar Bangla, respectively. Nobel prize winner Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson wrote the lyrics for the Norwegian national anthem Ja, vi elsker dette landet. Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Jana Gana Mana (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People) is the national anthem of India. ... Amar Shonar Bangla (My Golden Bengal) (Bangla:আমার সোনার বাংলা) is a song written and composed by the poet Rabindranath Tagore. ... Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson (December 8, 1832–April 26, 1910). ... Listen to anthem (MIDI) (audio help) //   (or: Ja, vi elsker) (In eng: Yes, we love this country) is the national anthem of Norway. ...


Some national anthems have no official lyrics at all, including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Spain, and San Marino.[3]


Usage

At the commencement of international sporting events, or occasionally (such as in the United States, here pictured) at domestic events, spectators customarily stand for the duration of the national anthem.

National anthems are used in a wide array of contexts. They are played on national holidays and festivals, and have also come to be closely connected with sporting events. During sporting competitions, such as the Olympic Games, the national anthem of the gold medal winner is played at each medal ceremony. National anthems are also played before games in many sports leagues, since being adopted in baseball during World War II.[4] The use of a national anthem outside of its country, however, is dependent on the international recognition of that country. For instance, Taiwan is not recognized by the Olympics as a separate nation and must compete as Chinese Taipei; its National Banner Song is used instead of its national anthem.[5] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 731 KB) Fans during the national anthem at the final official stockcar races at the Lake Geneva Raceway in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 731 KB) Fans during the national anthem at the final official stockcar races at the Lake Geneva Raceway in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Taiwan Strait area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of... The National Banner Song (國旗歌; gúoqí gē) of the Republic of China is played during the raising and lowering of the Flag of the Republic of China. ... Manuscript of the speech at the opening ceremony of the Whampoa Military Academy, handwriting by Dr. Sun Yat-sen National Anthem of the Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國國歌, Simplified Chinese: 中华民国国歌, Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Míngúo gúogē), is the current national anthem of the Republic of China (ROC). ...


In some countries, the national anthem is played to students each day at the start of school as an exercise in patriotism. In other countries the anthem may be played in a theatre before a play or in a cinema before a movie. Many radio and television stations have adopted this and play the national anthem when they sign on in the morning and again when they sign off at night. Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... For other uses, see Play (disambiguation). ... This article is about motion pictures. ... This article is about a television transmitting location or company. ... Sign-on (or startup) is the term used to describe the beginning of operations for a television station. ... Sign-off (or closedown) is the term used to describe the close of operations for a television station during the overnight hours. ...


Nations in the cultural sense or subnational units may also have royal anthems, presidential anthems, state anthems, or anthems for officially recognized constitutive parts of federal or confederal states. These may be better described as "regional anthems", as in the case of the regions of Belgium. A royal anthem is a patriotic song, much like a national anthem that recognizes the nations monarch. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ...


Multinational countries such as the United Kingdom and Denmark compete in sporting events with multiple teams, such as England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland soccer teams for the former and a distinct Faroe Island side in addition to the national team in the case of the latter. This poses problems with the tradition of pre-match anthems, since neither England nor mainland Denmark have regional anthems and use the national anthems, God Save the Queen and Der er et yndigt land respectively. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Soccer redirects here. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... Der er et yndigt land (There is a Lovely Land) is the (civil) national anthem of Denmark. ...


Larger entities also sometimes have anthems. There are a handful of multinational or international anthems. The Internationale is the anthem of the socialist movement, the world communist movement, the Comintern and for a time by the Soviet Union. The tune of the Ode to Joy from Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 is the European anthem; the United Nations[6] and the African Union[7] also have unofficial anthems. Esperanto Speakers at meetings often use the song La Espero as its anthem. LInternationale in the original French. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... The term Third International has two well-established meanings: For the unabridged dictionary, see Websters Third New International Dictionary. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... To Joy (An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy rather than To Joy) is an ode written in 1785 by the German poet and historian Friedrich Schiller, known especially for its musical setting by Ludwig van Beethoven in the fourth and final movement... This article is about the composition. ... The Council of Europe (COE) has developed a series of European symbols for the continent of Europe, and these have since been shared with the European Union (EU). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Largest city Cairo, Egypt Working languages Arabic English French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman John Kufuor  -  Alpha Oumar Konaré Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29... This article is about the language. ... La Espero (The Hope) is a poem written by L. L. Zamenhof (1859-1917), the initiator of the Esperanto language. ...


See also

This is a list of national anthems. ... A patriotic song is a song that demonstrates love for ones country. ... An anthem is a composition to an English religious text sung in the context of an Anglican service. ... This page is about musical songs. ...

References

  1. ^ Japan Policy Research Institute JPRI Working Paper No. 79. Published July 2001. Retrieved July 7, 2007
  2. ^ The EconomistLost for words. Published July 26, 2007. Retrieved August 17, 2007
  3. ^ Associated Press Spain's national anthem to get words. Written by Harold Heckle. Published June 26, 2007.
  4. ^ Musical traditions in sports.
  5. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun Foul cried over Taiwan anthem at hoop tourney. Published August 6, 2007
  6. ^ United Nations Organization Does the UN have a hymn or national anthem? Fact Sheet # 9. PDF
  7. ^ African Union AU Symbols.

Yomiuri-TOKYO Office Yomiuri-Osaka Office Yomiuri YC The Yomiuri Shimbun (読売新聞 Yomiuri Shinbun) is a Japanese newspaper published in Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka, and other major Japanese cities. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

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