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Encyclopedia > National Security Agency
National Security Agency
NSA
National Security Agency
Agency overview
Formed 4 November 1952
Preceding Agency Armed Forces Security Agency
Jurisdiction United States
Headquarters Fort Meade, Maryland
Employees 30,000 (est)
Annual Budget Classified
Agency Executives Lieutenant General Keith B. Alexander, USA, Director
 
John C. (Chris) Inglis, Deputy Director
Parent agency U.S. Department of Defense

The National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States government, administered under the U.S. Department of Defense. Created on November 4, 1952, it is responsible for the collection and analysis of foreign communications and foreign signals intelligence, which involves a significant amount of cryptanalysis. It is also responsible for protecting U.S. government communications and information systems from similar agencies elsewhere, which involves a significant amount of cryptography. The NSA has recently been directed to help monitor U.S. federal agency computer networks to protect them against attacks.[1] Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The National Computer Security Center, part of the National Security Agency, was established in 1981 and is responsible for testing and evaluating computer equipment for use in high security and/or confidential applications. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the US government agency. ... NSA headquarters in Fort Meade, Maryland Fort George G. Meade, 5 miles (8 km) northeast of the town of Laurel, Maryland, is an active US Army installation. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... A typical classified document. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Lt. ... John C. Inglis John C. (Chris) Inglis is the current Deputy Director of the National Security Agency. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... NSA may refer to: National Security Agency, a United States govenmental agency National Security Advisor, a U.S. government position National Security Archive, a nongovernmental research institution of George Washington University National Scrabble Association, a group of Scrabble players National Sheriffs Association, an organization of law enforcement specialists in the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cryptology is an umbrella term for cryptography and cryptanalysis. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... United States Government redirects here. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ... Close-up of the rotors in a Fialka cipher machine Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... Information System (example) An Information System (IS) is the system of persons, data records and activities that process the data and information in a given organization, including manual processes or automated processes. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ...


The NSA is directed by a lieutenant general or vice admiral. The NSA is a key component of the U.S. Intelligence Community, which is headed by the Director of National Intelligence. The Central Security Service is a co-located agency created to coordinate intelligence activities and co-operation between the NSA and U.S. military cryptanalysis agencies. Contrary to popular impression, the NSA's work is limited to communications intelligence and not field or human intelligence activities. By law the NSA's intelligence gathering is limited to foreign communications,[2] but its work includes some domestic surveillance.[3] US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. ... The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority, direction and control of the President who is responsible under the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 for: Serving as the principal adviser to the President, the National Security Council, and the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... HUMINT, a syllabic abbreviation of the words HUMan INTelligence, is a category of intelligence gathering disciplines that encompasses all gathering of intelligence by means of interpersonal contact. ...

Contents

Organization

The National Security Agency is divided into two major missions: the Signals Intelligence Directorate (SID), responsible for the production of foreign signals intelligence information, and the Information Assurance Directorate (IAD), responsible for the protection of U.S. information systems. [4] SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ...


Role

The NSA's eavesdropping mission includes radio broadcasting, both from various organizations and individuals, the Internet, telephone calls, and other intercepted forms of communication. Its secure communications mission includes military, diplomatic, and all other sensitive, confidential or secret government communications. Despite having been described as the world's largest single employer of mathematicians,[5] and the owner of the single largest group of supercomputers[6], it has tried to keep a low profile. For many years its existence was not even acknowledged by the U.S. government. To eavesdrop is to surreptitiously overhear a private conversation. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... This article is about negotiations. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... For other uses, see Supercomputer (disambiguation). ...


Because of its listening task, the NSA/CSS has been heavily involved in cryptanalytic research, continuing the work of predecessor agencies which had been responsible for breaking many World War II codes and ciphers (see, for instance, Purple code, Venona, and JN-25). Close-up of the rotors in a Fialka cipher machine Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In the context of cryptography, a code is a method used to transform a message into an obscured form, preventing those not in on the secret from understanding what is actually transmitted. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... A fragment of an actual Purple machine found in Berlin at the end of WWII In the history of cryptography, 97-shiki-obun In-ji-ki (九七式欧文印字機) (System 97 Printing Machine for European Characters) or Angooki Taipu B (暗号機B型) (Type B Cipher Machine), codenamed PURPLE by the United States, was... The VENONA project was a long-running and highly secret collaboration between the United States intelligence agencies and the United Kingdoms MI5 that involved the cryptanalysis of Soviet messages. ... JN-25 is the name used by Western cryptography organizations for the main secure command and control communications scheme used by the Imperial Japanese Navy (JIN) during and before WWII (it was the 25th Japanese Navy system identified). ...


In 2004, the NSA Central Security Service and the National Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) agreed to expand the NSA Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education Program.[7] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The National Cyber Security Division (NCSD) is a division of the United States Department of Homeland Securitys Directorate of Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection. ... The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a Cabinet department of the federal government of the United States that is concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ...


As part of National Security Presidential Directive 54/Homeland Security Presidential Directive 23 (NSPD 54), signed on January 8, 2008 by President Bush, the NSA became the lead agency to monitor and protect all of the federal government's computer networks from cyber-terrorism.[1] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with National Security Directive. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Cyber-terrorism is the leveraging of a targets computers and information technology, particularly via the Internet, to cause physical, real-world harm or severe disruption. ...


Facilities

NSA headquarters in Fort Meade, Maryland
NSA headquarters in Fort Meade, Maryland

Headquarters for the National Security Agency are at Fort George G. Meade, Maryland, approximately ten miles (16 km) northeast of Washington, D.C. NSA has its own exit off the Baltimore-Washington Parkway labeled "NSA Employees Only". The scale of the operations at the NSA is hard to determine from unclassified data; photos have shown there to be 18,000 parking spaces at the site. In 2006, the Baltimore Sun reported that the NSA was at risk of electrical overload because of insufficient internal electrical infrastructure at Fort Meade to support the amount of equipment being installed. This problem was apparently recognized in the 1990s but not made a priority, and "now the agency's ability to keep its operations going is threatened".[8] Its secure government communications work has involved NSA in numerous technology areas, including the design of specialized communications hardware and software, production of dedicated semiconductors (at the Ft. Meade chip fabrication plant), and advanced cryptography research. The agency contracts with the private sector in the fields of research and equipment. Image File history File linksMetadata National_Security_Agency_headquarters,_Fort_Meade,_Maryland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata National_Security_Agency_headquarters,_Fort_Meade,_Maryland. ... NSA headquarters in Fort Meade, Maryland Fort George G. Meade, 5 miles (8 km) northeast of the town of Laurel, Maryland, is an active US Army installation. ... NSA headquarters in Fort Meade, Maryland Fort George G. Meade, 5 miles (8 km) northeast of the town of Laurel, Maryland, is an active US Army installation. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Baltimore-Washington Parkway The Baltimore-Washington Parkway is a freeway in the U.S. state of Maryland, running southwest from Baltimore to Washington. ... The Baltimore Sun is the major newspaper in Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of about 430,000 copies, and a Sunday run of 540,000 copies. ... A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. ... Fort Meade is a census-designated place located in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ...


In addition to its Ft. Meade headquarters, the NSA has other facilities such as the Texas Cryptology Center in San Antonio, Texas. The United States National Security Agency has a satellite campus at the Medina Annex, Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, which some in the media have called the Texas Cryptology Center. ... San Antonio redirects here. ...


History

The origins of the National Security Agency can be traced to the May 20, 1949 creation of the Armed Forces Security Agency (AFSA). This organization was originally established within the U.S. Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The AFSA was to be responsible for directing the communications and electronic intelligence activities of the US military intelligence units—the Army Security Agency, the Naval Security Group, and the Air Force Security Service; however, the agency had little power and lacked a centralized coordination mechanism. The creation of the NSA resulted from a December 10, 1951, memo sent by CIA Director Walter Bedell Smith to James S. Lay, Executive Secretary of the National Security Council[citation needed]. The memo observed that "control over, and coordination of, the collection and processing of Communications Intelligence had proved ineffective" and recommended a survey of communications intelligence activities. The proposal was approved on December 13, 1951, and the study authorized on December 28, 1951. The report was completed by June 13, 1952. Generally known as the "Brownell Committee Report," after committee chairman Herbert Brownell, it surveyed the history of U.S. communications intelligence activities and suggested the need for a much greater degree of coordination and direction at the national level. As the change in the security agency's name indicated, the role of the NSA was extended beyond the armed forces. is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the US government agency. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Categories: ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The USAFSS emblem. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... CIA redirects here. ... Walter Bedell Smith as U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union. ... The White House National Security Council (NSC) in the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials and is part of the Executive Office of the President. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Herbert Brownell, Jr. ...


The creation of the NSA was authorized in a letter written by President Harry S. Truman in June of 1952. The agency was formally established through a revision of National Security Council Intelligence Directive (NSCID) 9 on October 24, 1952,[9] and officially came into existence on November 4, 1952. President Truman's letter was itself classified and remained unknown to the public for more than a generation. For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A typical classified document. ...


Insignia

The NSA's insignia.
The NSA's insignia.

The heraldic insignia of NSA consists of a bald eagle facing its right, grasping a key in its talons, representing NSA's clutch on security as well as the mission to protect and gain access to secrets. The eagle is set on a background of blue and its breast features a blue shield supported by thirteen bands of red and white. The surrounding white circular border features "National Security Agency" around the top and "United States of America" underneath, with two five-pointed silver stars between the two phrases. The current NSA insignia has been in use since 1965, when then-Director, LTG Marshall S. Carter (USA) ordered the creation of a device to represent the Agency.[10] Heraldry is the science and art of describing of coats-of-arms, also referred to as achievements or armorial bearings. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Bald Eagle range  Resident, breeding Summer visitor, breeding Winter visitor On migration only Star: accidental records Subspecies (Linnaeus, 1766) Southern Bald Eagle (Audubon, 1827) Northern Bald Eagle Synonyms Falco leucocephalus Linnaeus, 1766 The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a bird of prey found in North America... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Lt. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Impact on non-governmental cryptography

NSA has been involved in debates about public policy, both as a behind-the-scenes adviser to other departments, and directly during and after Vice Admiral Bobby Ray Inman's directorship. NSA was a major player in the debates of the 1990s regarding the export of cryptography. Restrictions on export were reduced but not eliminated in 1996. Bobby Ray Inman (born 1931) was a U.S. admiral who held several influential positions in the US Intelligence community. ... Since World War II, Western governments, including the U.S. and its NATO allies have regulated the export of cryptography for national security considerations. ...


Data Encryption Standard (DES)

The NSA was embroiled in some controversy concerning its involvement in the creation of the Data Encryption Standard (DES), a standard and public block cipher algorithm used by the US government and banking community. During the development of DES by IBM in the 1970s, the NSA recommended changes to some details of the design. There was suspicion that these changes had weakened the algorithm sufficiently to enable the agency to eavesdrop if required, including speculation that a critical component—the so-called S-boxes—had been altered to insert a "backdoor" and that the reduction in key length might have made it feasible for NSA to discover DES keys using massive computing power. It has since been observed that the S-boxes in DES are particularly resilient against differential cryptanalysis, a technique which was not publicly discovered until the late 1980s, but which was known to the IBM DES team. The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence reviewed NSA's involvement, and concluded that while the agency had provided some assistance, it had not tampered with the design.[11][12] The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a cipher (a method for encrypting information) selected as an official Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for the United States in 1976, and which has subsequently enjoyed widespread use internationally. ... The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a cipher (a method for encrypting information) selected as an official Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for the United States in 1976, and which has subsequently enjoyed widespread use internationally. ... Encryption Decryption In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher which operates on fixed-length groups of bits, termed blocks, with an unvarying transformation. ... Flowcharts are often used to graphically represent algorithms. ... ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In cryptography, a substitution box (or S-box) is a basic component of symmetric key algorithms. ... A backdoor in a computer system (or cryptosystem or algorithm) is a method of bypassing normal authentication or securing remote access to a computer, while attempting to remain hidden from casual inspection. ... Differential cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis applicable primarily to block ciphers, but also to stream ciphers and cryptographic hash functions. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is dedicated to overseeing the United States Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the U.S. federal government who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. ...


Clipper chip

Main article: Clipper chip

Because of concerns that widespread use of strong cryptography would hamper government use of wiretaps, the NSA proposed the concept of key escrow in 1993 and introduced the Clipper chip that would offer stronger protection than DES but would allow access to encrypted data by authorized law enforcement officials. The proposal was strongly opposed and key escrow requirements ultimately went nowhere. However, NSA's Fortezza hardware-based encryption cards, created for the Clipper project, are still used within government, and the NSA ultimately published the design of the SKIPJACK cipher (but not the key exchange protocol) used on the cards. The Clipper chip is a chipset that was developed and promoted by the U.S. Government as an encryption device to be adopted by telecommunications companies for voice transmission. ... Telephone tapping (or wire tapping/wiretapping in the US) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... Key escrow (also known as a fair cryptosystem) is an arrangement in which the keys needed to decrypt encrypted data are held in escrow by a third party, so that someone else can obtain them to decrypt messages. ... The Clipper chip is a chipset that was developed and promoted by the U.S. Government as an encryption device to be adopted by telecommunications companies for voice transmission. ... Fortezza is also a town in Italy, see: Franzensfeste-Fortezza A Fortezza card made by Mykotronx Corp. ... In cryptography, Skipjack is a block cipher — an algorithm for encryption — developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA). ...


Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

Possibly because of previous controversy, the involvement of NSA in the selection of a successor to DES, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), was initially limited to hardware performance testing (see AES competition). NSA has subsequently certified AES for protection of classified information (for at most two levels, e.g. SECRET information in an unclassified environment) when used in NSA-approved systems. The widely-used SHA hash functions were designed by NSA. In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the U.S. government. ... In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the U.S. government. ... For other uses, see Hardware (disambiguation). ... The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the block cipher ratified as a standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), was chosen using a process markedly more open and transparent than its predecessor, the ageing Data Encryption Standard (DES). ... SHA redirects here. ...


Dual EC DRBG random number generator

Main article: Dual EC DRBG

The NSA promoted the inclusion of a random number generator called Dual EC DRBG in the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology's 2007 guidelines that has again attracted speculation about the presence of a backdoor which would allow NSA access to data encrypted by systems using that random number generator.[13] NIST logo The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly known as The National Bureau of Standards) is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration. ... A backdoor in a computer system (or cryptosystem or algorithm) is a method of bypassing normal authentication or securing remote access to a computer, while attempting to remain hidden from casual inspection. ...


Academic research

The NSA has invested many millions of dollars in academic research under grant code prefix MDA904, resulting in over 3,000 papers (as of 2007-10-11). NSA funding sources are often declared in the papers, but some researchers try to conceal or otherwise play down the source[citation needed]


The NSA/CSS has, at times, attempted to restrict the publication of academic research into cryptography; for example, the Khufu and Khafre block ciphers were voluntarily withheld in response to an NSA request to do so. In cryptography, Khufu and Khafre are two block ciphers designed by Ralph Merkle in 1989 while working at Xeroxs Palo Alto Research Center. ...


Patents

The NSA has the ability to file for a patent from the US Patent and Trademark Office under gag order. Unlike normal patents, these are not revealed to the public and do not expire. However, if the Patent Office receives an application for an identical patent from a third party, they will reveal the NSA's patent and officially grant it to the NSA for the full term on that date.[14] For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... The United States Patent and Trademark Office (PTO or USPTO) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that provides patent and trademark protection to inventors and businesses for their inventions and corporate and product identification. ... A gag order is an order, sometimes a legal order by a court or government, other times a private order by an employer or other institution, restricting information or comment from being made public. ...


One of the NSA's published patents describes a method of geographically locating an individual computer site in an Internet-like network, based on the latency of multiple network connections.[15] Geolocation refers to identifying the real-world geographic location of an Internet connected computer, mobile device, or website visitor. ... For other uses, see Lag (disambiguation). ...


NSA programs

ECHELON

Main article: ECHELON

NSA/CSS, in combination with the equivalent agencies in the United Kingdom (Government Communications Headquarters), Canada (Communications Security Establishment), Australia (Defence Signals Directorate), and New Zealand (Government Communications Security Bureau), otherwise known as the UKUSA group[16], is widely reported to be in command of the operation of the so-called ECHELON system. Its capabilities are suspected to include the ability to monitor a large proportion of the world's transmitted civilian telephone, fax and data traffic, according to a December 16, 2005 article in the New York Times.[17] Look up echelon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is a British intelligence agency responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance. ... The CSE badge The Communications Security Establishment or CSE is an intelligence agency of the Canadian government, charged with the duty of keeping track of foreign signals intelligence. ... The Defence Signals Directorate (DSD) is Australias signals intelligence (SIGINT) collection agency. ... The Waihopai Valley Government Communications Security Bureau base. ... The UKUSA Community is an alliance of English-speaking nations for the purpose of gathering intelligence via signals intelligence. ... Look up echelon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fax (disambiguation). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Technically, almost all modern telephone, internet, fax and satellite communications are exploitable due to recent advances in technology and the 'open air' nature of much of the radio communications around the world. The NSA's presumed collection operations have generated much criticism, possibly stemming from the assumption that the NSA/CSS represents an infringement of Americans' privacy. However, the NSA's United States Signals Intelligence Directive 18 (USSID 18) strictly prohibits the interception or collection of information about "...US persons, entities, corporations or organizations..." without explicit written legal permission from the Attorney General of the United States [18] The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that intelligence agencies cannot conduct surveillance against American citizens. There are a few extreme circumstances where collecting on a U.S. entity is allowed without a USSID 18 waiver, such as with civilian distress signals, or sudden emergencies such as the September 11, 2001 attacks; however, the USA PATRIOT Act has significantly changed privacy legality. Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... The United States Signals Intelligence Directive 18 (USSID) is a collection of internal rules that govern the collection of intelligence by the United States Government. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... In the United States, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an Act of Congress which President George W. Bush signed into law...


There have been alleged violations of USSID 18 that occurred in violation of the NSA's strict charter prohibiting such acts.[citation needed] In addition, ECHELON is considered with indignation by citizens of countries outside the UKUSA alliance, with numerous allegations that the United States government uses it for motives other than its national security, including political and industrial espionage.[19][20] Examples include the gear-less wind turbine technology designed by the German firm Enercon[21][22] and the speech technology developed by the Belgian firm Lernout & Hauspie. An article in the Baltimore Sun reported in 1995 that aerospace company Airbus lost a $6 billion contract with Saudi Arabia in 1994 after the NSA reported that Airbus officials had been bribing Saudi officials to secure the contract.[23][24] The chartered purpose of the NSA/CSS is solely to acquire significant foreign intelligence information pertaining to National Security or ongoing military intelligence operations. The UKUSA Community is an alliance of English-speaking nations for the purpose of gathering intelligence via signals intelligence. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Competitive Intelligence. ... This article is about the machine for converting the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy. ... Enercon E-112 Enercon GmbH, based in Aurich, Northern Germany, is the third-largest wind turbine manufacturer in the world and the market leader in Germany. ... Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products, or L&H, was a Belgium-based speech and language technology leader company, which was founded by Jo Lernout and Pol Hauspie, and which went bankrupt in 2001. ... Airbus S.A.S. (pronounced in English, in French, and in German) is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace concern. ...


In his book Firewall, Andy McNab speculates that the UKUSA agreement is designed to enable the NSA, GCHQ, and other equivalent organizations to gather intelligence on each other's citizens. For example, the NSA cannot legally conduct surveillance on American citizens, but GCHQ might do it for them. Firewall is a novel written by the ex-SAS member turned author Andy McNab. ... Ian MacNab DCM MM (born December 28, 1959) is a British former soldier turned novelist. ... The UKUSA Community is an alliance of English-speaking nations for the purpose of gathering intelligence via signals intelligence. ... The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) (previously named the Government Code and Cipher School (GC&CS)) is the main British intelligence service providing signals intelligence (SIGINT). ...


Domestic activity

The NSA's mission, as set forth in Executive Order 12333, is to collect information that constitutes "foreign intelligence or counterintelligence" while not "acquiring information concerning the domestic activities of United States persons". The NSA has declared that it relies on the FBI to collect information on foreign intelligence activities within the borders of the USA, while confining its own activities within the USA to the embassies and missions of foreign nations. Executive Order 12333 extends the powers and responsibilities of US intelligence agencies and directs the leaders of other US federal agencies to co-operate fully with CIA requests for information. ...


The NSA's domestic surveillance activities are limited by the requirements imposed by the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution; however, these protections do not apply to non-U.S. persons located outside of U.S. borders, so the NSA's foreign surveillance efforts are subject to far fewer limitations under U.S. law.[25] The specific requirements for domestic surveillance operations are contained in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA), which does not extend protection to non-U.S. citizens located outside of U.S. territory.[25] The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, guards against unreasonable searches and seizures. ... The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978 prescribes procedures for requesting judicial authorization for electronic surveillance and physical search of persons engaged in espionage or international terrorism against the United States on behalf of a foreign government. ...


These activities, especially the publicly acknowledged domestic telephone tapping and call database programs, have prompted questions about the extent of the NSA's activities and concerns about threats to privacy and the rule of law.


Wiretapping programs

Domestic wiretapping under Richard Nixon
Further information: Church Committee

In the years after President Richard Nixon resigned, there were several investigations of suspected misuse of Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and NSA facilities. Senator Frank Church headed a Senate investigating committee (the Church Committee) which uncovered previously unknown activity, such as a CIA plot (ordered by President John F. Kennedy) to assassinate Fidel Castro. The investigation also uncovered the NSA's wiretaps on targeted American citizens. After the Church Committee hearings, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 became law, limiting circumstances under which domestic surveillance was allowed. The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ... Nixon redirects here. ... CIA redirects here. ... Frank Forrester Church III (July 25, 1924 – April 7, 1984) was a four-term U.S. Senator representing Idaho as a Democrat (1957-1981). ... The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978 prescribes procedures for requesting judicial authorization for electronic surveillance and physical search of persons engaged in espionage or international terrorism against the United States on behalf of a foreign government. ...


ThinThread wiretapping and data mining
Main article: ThinThread

A wiretapping program named ThinThread was tested in the late 1990s, but never put into operation. ThinThread contained both advanced data mining capabilities and built-in privacy protections. These privacy protections were abandoned in the post-9/11 effort by President George W. Bush to improve the intelligence community's responsiveness to terrorism. The research done under this program may have contributed to the technology used in later systems.[26] ThinThread is the name of a project that the United States National Security Agency engaged in during the 1990s, according to a May 17, 2006 article in the Baltimore Sun. ... ThinThread is the name of a project that the United States National Security Agency engaged in during the 1990s, according to a May 17, 2006 article in the Baltimore Sun. ... Data mining is the principle of sorting through large amounts of data and picking out relevant information. ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Warrantless wiretaps under George W. Bush
Main article: NSA warrantless surveillance controversy

On December 16, 2005, the New York Times reported that, under White House pressure and with an executive order from President George W. Bush, the National Security Agency, in an attempt to thwart terrorism, had been tapping the telephones of individuals in the U.S. calling persons outside the country, without obtaining warrants from the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, a secret court created for that purpose under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA).[27] For the related controversy about data-mining of domestic call records see NSA call database. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... The presidential seal was used by Rutherford B. Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Telephone tapping (or wire tapping/wiretapping in the US) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... Warrant has several meanings: In law, a warrant is a form of authorization, such as A writ issued by a judge. ... The United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (or FISC) is a U.S. federal court authorized under 50 USC 1803 and established by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (known as FISA for short). ... The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978 is a U.S. federal law prescribing procedures for the physical and electronic surveillance and collection of foreign intelligence information between foreign powers and agents of foreign powers (which may include American citizens and permanent residents engaged in espionage and violating U...


Proponents of the surveillance program claim that the President has executive authority to order such action, arguing that laws such as FISA are overriden by the President's Constitutional powers. In addition, some argued that FISA was implicitly overridden by a subsequent statute, the Authorization for Use of Military Force, although the Supreme Court's ruling in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld deprecates this view. In the August 2006 case ACLU v. NSA, U.S. District Court Judge Anna Diggs Taylor concluded that the NSA's warantless surveillance program was both illegal and unconstitutional. On July 6, 2007 the 6th Circuit Court of Appeals overturned Judge Taylor's ruling, reversing her findings.[28] In American political and legal discourse, the unitary executive theory is a theory of Constitutional interpretation that is based on aspects of the separation of powers. ... The Authorization for Use of Military Force (Public law 107-40) was a joint resolution passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 2001, authorizing the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the attacks on September 11, 2001. ... For the case involving a United States citizen, see Hamdi v. ... ACLU v. ... The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... Anna Diggs Taylor (born Anna Katherine Johnston, 1932, Washington, D.C.) is a United States District Court judge in Detroit, Michigan. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: Eastern District of Kentucky Western District of Kentucky Eastern District of Michigan Western District of Michigan Northern District of Ohio Southern District of Ohio Eastern...


AT&T Internet monitoring
Further information: Hepting v. AT&T,Mark Klein,NSA warrantless surveillance controversy

In May 2006, Mark Klein, a former AT&T employee, alleged that his company had cooperated with the NSA in installing hardware to monitor network communications including traffic between American citizens.[29] Hepting v. ... Mark Klein is a former AT&T technician who leaked knowledge of his companys alleged cooperation with the United States National Security Agency in installing network monitoring hardware to spy on American citizens. ... For the related controversy about data-mining of domestic call records see NSA call database. ... Mark Klein is a former AT&T technician who leaked knowledge of his companys alleged cooperation with the United States National Security Agency in installing network monitoring hardware to spy on American citizens. ... This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ...


Transaction data mining

The NSA is reported to use its computing capability to analyze "transactional" data that it regularly acquires from other government agencies, which gather it under their own jurisdictional authorities. As part of this effort, the NSA now monitors huge volumes of records of domestic emails and Internet searches as well as bank transfers, credit-card transactions and travel and telephone records, according to current and former intelligence officials interviewed by the WSJ.[30]


In fiction

Main article: NSA in fiction

Since the existence of the NSA has become more widely known in the last few decades, and particularly since the 1990s, the agency has regularly been portrayed in spy fiction. Many such portrayals grossly exaggerate the organization's involvement in the more sensational activities of intelligence agencies. An indication of the agency's increased fame is its central role in the films Sneakers and Enemy of the State, and its mention in the James Bond movie Die Another Day. The NSA has been featured in many other films, television shows, books, roleplaying games and video games. Spoiler warning: The signals intelligence body of the United States, the National Security Agency (NSA), has featured in more and more spy fiction over the past two decades, as public awareness of its existence has grown. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed compared to the rest of the article. ... Enemy of the State is a 1998 film written by David Marconi, produced by Jerry Bruckheimer, and directed by Tony Scott, and starring Will Smith, Gene Hackman, Jon Voight, Lisa Bonet and Regina King. ... This article is about the spy series. ... For the theme song of the same movie, performed by Madonna, see Die Another Day (song). ... Spoiler warning: The signals intelligence body of the United States, the National Security Agency (NSA), has featured in more and more spy fiction over the past two decades, as public awareness of its existence has grown. ... In roleplaying, participants adopt and act out the role of characters, or parts, that may have personalities, motivations, and backgrounds different from their own. ...


Staff

Directors

Deputy Directors

  • Dec. 1952 – Nov. 1953 R. Adm. Joseph Wenger, USN
  • Nov. 1953 – June 1956 Brig. Gen. John Ackerman, USAF
  • Jun. 1956 – Aug. 1956 Maj. Gen. John A. Samford, USAF
  • Aug. 1956 – Sep. 1957 Mr. Joseph H. Ream
  • Oct. 1957 – Jul. 1958 Dr. H. T. Engstrom
  • Aug. 1958 – Apr. 1974 Dr. Louis W. Tordella, USN
  • Apr. 1974 – May 1978 Mr. Benson K. Buffham
  • May 1978 – Apr. 1980 Mr. Robert E. Drake
  • Apr. 1980 – Jul. 1982 Ms. Ann Z. Caracristi
  • Jul. 1982 – Jun. 1985 Mr. Robert E. Rich
  • Jun. 1985 – Mar. 1988 Mr. Charles R. Lord
  • Mar. 1988 – Jul. 1990 Mr. Gerald R. Young
  • Jul. 1990 – Feb. 1994 Mr. Robert L. Prestel
  • Feb. 1994 – Oct. 1997 Mr. William P. Crowell
  • Oct. 1997 – June 2000 Ms. Barbara A. McNamara
  • Jun. 2000 – Aug. 2006 Mr. William B. Black, Jr.
  • Aug. 2006 – present Mr. John C. (Chris) Inglis, Brig. Gen. (retired), USAF & USANG

Lt. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... Lieutenant General Ralph J. Canine (1895-1969) was the first director of the United States National Security Agency (NSA). ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... John Alexander Samford (1905-December 1, 1968) was a former director of the NSA. Samford was born at Hagerman, N.M., in 1905. ... USAF redirects here. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Laurence Frost (1902 – ) was a former director of the National Security Agency. ... USN redirects here. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... Gordon Aylesworth Blake (1910-September 1, 1997) was a former director of the NSA. Gordon, son of George and Cecelia Blake, Charles City, Iowa, was born in Charles City in 1910, and graduated from high school there in 1927. ... USAF redirects here. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... was an officer in the U.S. Army. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... USN redirects here. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... General Samuel C. Phillips (February 19, 1921–January 31, 1990) was an officer in the U.S. Air Force. ... USAF redirects here. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... Lew Allen was the Chief of Staff of the U.S. Air Force. ... USAF redirects here. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Bobby Ray Inman (born 1931) was a U.S. admiral who held several influential positions in the US Intelligence community. ... USN redirects here. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... Lieutenant General Lincoln D. Faurer was director of the National Security Agency and chief, Central Security Service from 1981 to 1985. ... USAF redirects here. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... William Eldridge Odom (born 1932) was a U.S. general. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... William O. Studeman is a retired admiral of the United States Navy and former deputy director of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. ... USN redirects here. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Vice Admiral John M. McConnell (United States Navy) was the director of the National Security Agency between May 1992 and January 1996. ... USN redirects here. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan is the former director of the National Security Agency (retired May 1, 1999). ... USAF redirects here. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... For the composer, see Michael Haydn. ... USAF redirects here. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Insignia of a United States Rear Admiral Upper Half Insignia of a United States Rear Admiral Lower Half Rear Admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank that originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons and can trace its origins to the Royal Navy. ... USN redirects here. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... USAF redirects here. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... John Alexander Samford (1905-December 1, 1968) was a former director of the NSA. Samford was born at Hagerman, N.M., in 1905. ... USAF redirects here. ... Dr. Louis W. Tordella (May 1, 1911–January 10, 1996) was the longest serving deputy director of the NSA. Dr. Tordella was born in Garrett, Indiana, on May 1, 1911 and grew up in the Chicago environs. ... USN redirects here. ... Ann Caracristi NSA Deputy Director 1980-1982 Ann Z. Caracristi, born 1921, is a cryptanalyst, former Deputy Director of the National Security Agency[1], where she served at various positions over a 40-year career. ... Barbara A. McNamara was the NSAs Deputy Director from October 1997 until her retirement in June 2000. ... William B. Black, Jr. ... John C. Inglis John C. (Chris) Inglis is the current Deputy Director of the National Security Agency. ... USAF redirects here. ... The Air National Guard (ANG) is part of the United States National Guard and a reserve component of the United States Air Force (USAF). ...

Notable cryptanalysts

Lambros Demetrios Callimahos (December 16, 1910 – October 28, 1977) was a US Army cryptologist. ... Agnes Meyer Driscoll (1889-1971) was a United States cryptanalyst. ... William Friedman. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Frank Rowlett. ... Dr. Abraham Sinkov (1907-1998) was a US cryptanalyst. ... Dr. Louis W. Tordella (May 1, 1911–January 10, 1996) was the longest serving deputy director of the NSA. Dr. Tordella was born in Garrett, Indiana, on May 1, 1911 and grew up in the Chicago environs. ... Herbert O. Yardley Herbert Osborne Yardley (13 April 1889-7 August 1958) was an American cryptologist most known for his book The American Black Chamber (1931). ...

NSA encryption systems

STU-III secure telephones on display at the National Cryptologic Museum
STU-III secure telephones on display at the National Cryptologic Museum

NSA is responsible for the encryption-related components in these systems: The National Security Agency took over responsibility for all U.S. Government encryption systems when it was formed in 1952. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1767x745, 508 KB) Summary w:STU-III secure telephones on display at the w:National Cryptologic Museum in 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1767x745, 508 KB) Summary w:STU-III secure telephones on display at the w:National Cryptologic Museum in 2005. ... A STU-III secure telephone; this model AT&T STU-III is a family of secure telephones introduced in 1987 by the NSA for use by the United States government, its contractors, and its allies . ... The United States National Cryptologic Museum is museum of cryptography history, affiliated with the National Security Agency (NSA). ...

  • EKMS Electronic Key Management System
  • FNBDT Future Narrow Band Digital Terminal
  • Fortezza encryption based on portable crypto token in PC Card format
  • KL-7 ADONIS off-line rotor encryption machine (post-WW II to 1980s)
  • KW-26 ROMULUS electronic in-line teletype encryptor (1960s–1980s)
  • KW-37 JASON fleet broadcast encryptor (1960s–1990s)
  • KY-57 VINSON tactical radio voice encryptor
  • KG-84 Dedicated Data Encryption/Decryption
  • SINCGARS tactical radio with cryptographically controlled frequency hopping
  • STE secure telephone equipment
  • STU-III secure telephone unit, currently being phased out by the STE
  • TACLANE product line by General Dynamics

The Electronic Key Management System (EKMS) system is an National Security Agency led program responsible for Communications Security (COMSEC) key management, accounting and distribution. ... FNBDT is the U.S. Governments new standard for secure voice communication. ... Fortezza is also a town in Italy, see: Franzensfeste-Fortezza A Fortezza card made by Mykotronx Corp. ... The PCMCIA is the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, an industry trade association that creates standards for notebook computer peripheral devices. ... KL-7 on display at USAF Communications Agency museum. ... An array of KW-26s The TSEC/KW-26, code named ROMULUS, was an encryption system used by the U.S. Government and, later, by NATO countries. ... The KW-37, code named JASON, was an encryption system developed In the 1950s by the U.S. National Security Agency to protect fleet broadcasts of the U.S. Navy. ... The Speech Security Equipment (VINSON), TSEC/KY-57, is a portable, tactical cryptographic device in the VINSON family, designed to provide voice encryption for a range of military communication devices such as radio or telephone. ... KG-84A and KG-84C. US Navy photo. ... SINCGARS stands for Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A STU-III secure telephone; this model AT&T STU-III is a family of secure telephones introduced in 1987 by the NSA for use by the United States government, its contractors, and its allies . ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... General Dynamics Corporation (NYSE: GD) is a defense conglomerate formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2006 it is the sixth largest defense contractor in the world[2]. The company has changed markedly in the post-Cold War era of defense consolidation. ...

Some past NSA SIGINT activities

The Venona project was a long-running and highly secret collaboration between intelligence agencies of the United States and United Kingdom that involved the cryptanalysis of messages sent by several intelligence agencies of the Soviet Union. ... Chart showing the U.S. Navys interpretation of the events of the first part of the Gulf of Tonkin incident The Gulf of Tonkin Incident was an alleged pair of attacks by naval forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (commonly referred to as North Vietnam) against two American... Help arrives after the Israeli attack on USS Liberty. ... USS Pueblo (AGER-2) is a Banner-class technical research ship which was boarded and captured by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea on 23 January 1968 in what is known as the Pueblo incident or alternatively as the Pueblo crisis. ... Operation Ivy Bells, was a US Navy and NSA mission whose objective was to place wire taps on Soviet underwater communication lines during the Cold War. ... Korean Air Lines Flight 007, also known as KAL 007 or KE007, was a Korean Air Lines civilian airliner shot down by Soviet jet interceptors on September 1, 1983 just west of Sakhalin island. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Ellen Nakashima. "Bush Order Expands Network Monitoring: Intelligence Agencies to Track Intrusions", The Washington Post, 2008-01-26. Retrieved on 2008-02-09. 
  2. ^ NSA Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
  3. ^ Gorman, Siobhan. "NSA's Domestic Spying Grows As Agency Sweeps Up Data", The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones, March 10, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
  4. ^ The National Security Agency Frequently Asked Questions. National Security Agency. Retrieved on 2007-10-30.
  5. ^ Introduction to NSA/CSS, NSA. Retrieved 15 May 2006.
  6. ^ Computer Development and Supercomputers, NSA. Retrieved 7 Jan 2008.
  7. ^ NSA Public and Media Affairs. "National Security Agency and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Form New Partnership to Increase National Focus on Cyber Security Education". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
  8. ^ Gorman, Siobhan. NSA risking electrical overload. Retrieved on 2006-08-06.
  9. ^ Memorandum on Communications Intelligence Activities — The document which created the NSA. President Harry S Truman. October 24, 1952. Retrieved 11 April 2008.
  10. ^ The National Security Agency Insignia. National Security Agency. Retrieved on 2006-12-26.
  11. ^ Davies, D.W.; W.L. Price (1989). Security for computer networks, 2nd ed.. John Wiley & Sons. 
  12. ^ Robert Sugarman (editor) (July 1979). "On foiling computer crime". IEEE Spectrum. IEEE. 
  13. ^ Bruce Schneier. "Did NSA Put a Secret Backdoor in New Encryption Standard?", Wired News, 2007-11-15. Retrieved on 2007-11-17. 
  14. ^ Schneier, Bruce (1996). Applied Cryptography, Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 609-610. ISBN 0-471-11709-9. 
  15. ^ United States Patent 6,947,978 - Method for geolocating logical network addresses.. United States Patent and Trademark Office (2005-09-20). Retrieved on 2008-02-06.
  16. ^ Richelson, Jeffrey T.; Ball, Desmond (1985). The Ties That Bind: Intelligence Cooperation Between the UKUSA Countries. London: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-327092-1
  17. ^ James Risen and Eric Lichtblau (December 16, 2005). Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-04-26.
  18. ^ National Security Agency. United States Signals Intelligence Directive 18. National Security Agency July 27, 1993. Last access date March 23, 2007
  19. ^ European Parliament Report on ECHELON (July 2001). Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  20. ^ Nicky Hager Appearance before the European Parliament ECHELON Committee (April 2001). Retrieved on 2006-07-02.
  21. ^ Die Zeit: 40/1999 "Verrat unter Freunden" ("Treachery among friends", German), available at archiv.zeit.de
  22. ^ Report A5-0264/2001 of the European Parliament (English), available at European Parliament website
  23. ^ BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-08-27.
  24. ^ Interception capabilities 2000. Retrieved on 2006-08-27.
  25. ^ a b David Alan Jordan. Decrypting the Fourth Amendment: Warrantless NSA Surveillance and the Enhanced Expectation of Privacy Provided by Encrypted Voice over Internet Protocol. Boston College Law Review. May, 2006. Last access date January 23, 2007
  26. ^ Gorman, Siobhan. "NSA killed system that sifted phone data legally", Baltimore Sun, Tribune Company (Chicago, IL), 2006-05-17. Retrieved on 2008-03-07. "The privacy protections offered by ThinThread were also abandoned in the post-Sept. 11 push by the president for a faster response to terrorism." 
  27. ^ James Risen & Eric Lichtblau (December 16, 2005), Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts, New York Times
  28. ^ 6th Circuit Court of Appeals Decision
  29. ^ "For Your Eyes Only?" (February 16 2007). NOW.  on PBS
  30. ^ Gorman, Siobahn. "NSA's Domestic Spying Grows As Agency Sweeps Up Data", The Wall Street Journal Online, 2008-03-10. Retrieved on 2008-03-17. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the victim of Mt. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Risen is a reporter for the New York Times and previously the Los Angeles Times, and author/co-author of two books about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ... Eric Lichtblau is an American journalist and Washington bureau reporter for The New York Times. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Baltimore Sun is the major newspaper in Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of about 430,000 copies, and a Sunday run of 540,000 copies. ... The Tribune Company (NYSE: TRB) is a large American multimedia corporation based in Chicago, Illinois. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Risen is a reporter for the New York Times and previously the Los Angeles Times, and author/co-author of two books about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ... Eric Lichtblau is an American journalist and Washington bureau reporter for The New York Times. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Look up now in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

James Bamford is a bestselling author and journalist who writes about the world of United States intelligence agencies. ... Biometric Consortium logo The Biometric Consortium is a US government sponsored consortia created by the National Security Agency (NSA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ... The Bureau of Intelligence and Research (or INR) is a small bureau in the U.S. State Department tasked with analyzing information for the State Department. ... CIA redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Counterintelligence Field Activity (CIFA) is a US Department of Defense (DoD) agency whose size and budget are classified. ... The Defence Signals Directorate (DSD) is Australias signals intelligence (SIGINT) collection agency. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a Cabinet department of the federal government of the United States that is concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ... See also the Bureau of Diplomatic Security // The Diplomatic Security Service is the law enforcement arm of the U.S. State Department. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is a British intelligence agency responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is an agency of the United States Government with the primary mission of collection, analysis, and distribution of geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security. ... The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is one of the 16 intelligence agencies in the U.S. It designs, builds and operates the reconnaissance satellites of the United States government. ... The National Security Whistleblowers Coallition (NSWBC), founded in 2004 by former FBI translator Sibel Edmonds in league with over 50 former and current United States government officials from more than a dozen agencies, is an independent, nonpartisan alliance of whistleblowers who have come forward to address weaknesses of US security... Ronald Pelton was a NSA spy who was arrested in the 1980s for selling secrets to the Russians. ... John Anthony Walker, Jr. ... Project SHAMROCK, considered to be the sister project for Project MINARET, was an espionage exercise that involved the accumulation of all telegraphic data entering into or exiting from the United States. ... Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a version of the Linux kernel and utilities, which contains support for mandatory access controls based on the principle of least privilege. ... For other uses, see Sigint (disambiguation). ... In cryptography, Skipjack is a block cipher — an algorithm for encryption — developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA). ... í For other uses, see Tempest. ... In cryptography, a Type 1 product is a device or system certified by the National Security Agency (NSA) for use in cryptographically securing classified U.S. Government information. ...

NSA computers

FROSTBURG on display at the National Cryptologic Museum. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Further reading

  • Bamford, James, Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency, Doubleday, 2001, ISBN 0-385-49907-8.
  • Bamford, James, The Puzzle Palace, Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-006748-5.
  • Levy, Steven, Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government Saving Privacy in the Digital Age — discussion of the development of non-government cryptography, including many accounts of tussles with the NSA.
  • Radden Keefe, Patrick, Chatter: Dispatches from the Secret World of Global Eavesdropping, Random House, ISBN 1-4000-6034-6.
  • Liston, Robert A., The Pueblo Surrender: a Covert Action by the National Security Agency, ISBN 0-87131-554-8.
  • Kahn, David, The Codebreakers, 1181 pp., ISBN 0-684-83130-9. Look for the 1967 rather than the 1996 edition.
  • Tully, Andrew, The Super Spies: More Secret, More Powerful than the CIA, 1969, LC 71080912.
  • Bamford, James, New York Times, December 25, 2005; The Agency That Could Be Big Brother.
  • Sam Adams, War of numbers Steerforth; New Ed edition (June 1, 1998)
  • John Prados, The Soviet estimate: U.S. intelligence analysis & Russian military strength, hardcover, 367 pages, ISBN 0-385-27211-1, Dial Press (1982).
  • Walter Laqueur, A World of secrets
  • Sherman Kent, Strategic Intelligence for American Public Policy

James Bamford is a bestselling author and journalist who writes about the world of United States intelligence agencies. ... James Bamford is a bestselling author and journalist who writes about the world of United States intelligence agencies. ... Steven Levy Steven Levy (born 1951) is an American journalist who has written several books on computers, technology, cryptography, the Internet, cybersecurity, and privacy. ... Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government Saving Privacy in the Digital Age (ISBN 0140244328) is a book written by Steven Levy about cryptography, and was published in 2001. ... David Kahn is a US historian, journalist and writer. ... The Codebreakers - The Story of Secret Writing (ISBN 0684831309) is a book written by David Kahn in 1967 chronicling the history of cryptology from ancient Egypt to the time of its writing. ... James Bamford is a bestselling author and journalist who writes about the world of United States intelligence agencies. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Samuel Adams is: An American revolutionary; see Samuel Adams. ... Walter Laqueur (born 1921) is an American historian and political commentator. ... Born in 1903, Sherman Kent was a Yale University history professor who, during World War II, pioneered many of the methods of intelligence analysis. ...

External links

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The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River from Laughlin Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona The Colorado River is... This is a list of the extreme points of the United States, the points that are farther north, south, east, or west than any other location in the country. ... The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... Water supply and sanitation in the United States is provided by towns and cities, public utilities that span several jurisdictions and rural cooperatives. ... USD redirects here. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... The Fed redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... For information on household income, see Household income in the United States. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... This graph shows the household income of the given percentiles from 1967 to 2003, in 2003 dollars. ... Single family homes such as this are indicative of the American middle class. ... The primary regulator of communications in the United States is the Federal Communications Commission. ... This article adopts the US Department of Transportation definition of passenger vehicle The United States is home to the largest passenger vehicle market of any country,[1] which is a consequence of the fact that it has the largest Gross Domestic Product of any country in the world. ... Current U.S. Route shield Current U.S. Route shield in California The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated system of roads and highways in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid. ... There arergwertwertert[1] Kyle Railroad (KYLE) [2] Missouri and Northern Arkansas Railroad (MNA) [3] Montana Rail Link (MRL) [4] Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway (MMA) [5] Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado RailNet (NKCR) New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway (NYSW) [6] Northern Plains Railroad Paducah and Louisville Railway (PAL) [7] Palouse... The United States of America has a large and lucrative tourism industry serving millions of international and domestic tourists. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... The first U.S. census, in 1790, recorded four million Americans. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens of thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... For other uses, see American Dream (disambiguation). ... The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... Violent conforntation between working class union members and law enforecement such as the one between teamsters and Minneapolis police above were commonly frowned upon by professional middle class. ... Strictly speaking, the United States does not have national holidays (i. ... Prisons in the United States are operated by both the federal and state governments as incarceration is a concurrent power under the Constitution of the United States. ... Health care in the United States is provided by many separate legal entities. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ... American folk music, also known as Americana, is a broad category of music including Native American music, Bluegrass, country music, gospel, old time music, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Tejano and Cajun. ... The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster Even before the birth of recorded music, American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... This article is about television in the United States, specifically its history, art, business and government regulation. ... Hollywood redirects here. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The folklore of the United States, or American folklore, is one of the folk traditions which has evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925. ... Beats redirects here. ... The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak, 1863 by Albert Bierstadt, one of the Hudson River School painters Visual arts of the United States refers to the history of painting and visual art in the United States. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. ... Main articles: Adolescent sexuality and Adolescent sexual behavior Adolescent sexuality in the United States relates to the sexuality of American adolescents and its place in American society, both in terms of their feelings, behaviors and development and in terms of the response of the government, educators and interested groups. ... Affirmative action is a policy or a program of giving preferential treatment to certain designated groups allegedly seeking to redress discrimination or bias through active measures, as in education and employment. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... Capital punishment is the legal process which ends the life of a felon. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... 1970s US postage stamp block In the United States today, the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs. ... Gun Politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of gun politics, and firearms rights, has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues in American politics. ... The human rights record of the United States of America has featured an avowed commitment to the protection of specific personal political, religious and other freedoms. ... - Fence barrier on the international bridge near McAllen, TX . ... Pornography may use any of a variety of media — written and spoken text, photos, movies, etc. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Racism in the United States has been a major issue in America since the colonial era. ... International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage, also called gay... For other uses, see Sigint (disambiguation). ... The Defence Signals Directorate (DSD) is Australias signals intelligence (SIGINT) collection agency. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A Fokker F27 used by Viestikoelaitos for airborne ESM / ELINT duties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Logo of Francess Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (DGSE) / General Directorate for External Security. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Waihopai Valley Government Communications Security Bureau base. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... For other uses, see GRU (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... The National Communications Centre (NCC) is a South African intelligence agency, and is responsible for electronic surveillance and eavesdropping (otherwise known as SIGINT). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... The Swedish National Defence Radio Establishment, or Försvarets Radioanstalt (FRA) is a Swedish signals intelligence (SIGINT) agency working closely together with the S1 regiment. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is a British intelligence agency responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

 
 

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