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Encyclopedia > National Rifle Association
National Rifle Association


National Rifle Association logo This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ...

Formation 1871
Headquarters Fairfax, Virginia
Membership 4.3 million members
Website

The National Rifle Association, or NRA, is a non-profit group for the promotion of marksmanship, firearm safety, and the protection of hunting and personal protection firearm rights in the United States, established in New York in 1871 as the American Rifle Association. It sponsors firearm safety training courses, as well as marksmanship events featuring shooting skills and sports. The NRA is sometimes said to be the single most powerful non-profit organization in the United States. It predicates its political activity on gun ownership being a civil liberty protected by the Second Amendment of the Bill of Rights, and is the oldest continuously operating civil liberties organization in the United States. According to its website, the NRA has 4.3 million members.[1] The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... Headquarters (HQ) denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are concentrated. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Founded 1805 Mayor Robert Lederer Area    - City 16. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... A website (or Web site) is a collection of web pages, images, videos and other digital assets and hosted on a particular domain or subdomain on the World Wide Web. ... The National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom (NRA) is the governing body of full bore rifle and pistol shooting in the United Kingdom. ... 501(c) is a provision of the United States Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. Â§ 501(c)), listing twenty-eight types of non-profit organizations exempt from some Federal income taxes. ... NY redirects here. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Civil liberties are protections from the power of governments. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment II (the Second Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, declares the necessity for a well regulated militia, and prohibits infringement of the right of the people to keep and bear arms. ... Image of the United States Bill of Rights from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ...

Contents

Sport and safety programs

NRA firearms safety programs

The NRA sponsors a range of safety programs to educate and encourage the safe use of firearms.


NRA hunting safety courses are offered all across the U.S. for both children and adults. In recent years gun safety classes oriented more towards firearm safety, particularly for women, have become popular. Intended for school-age children, the NRA's "Eddie Eagle" program encourages the viewer to "Stop! Don't touch! Leave the area! Tell an adult!" if the child ever sees a firearm lying around. The NRA has claimed that studies prove the "Eddie Eagle" program reduces the likelihood of firearms accidents in the home, and the program is used in many elementary schools nationwide. The Eddie Eagle program was developed by the National Rifle Association for children who are generally considered too young to be allowed to handle firearms. ...


Shooting sports

Historically, the NRA has governed and advanced the shooting sports in the United States. In recent years, however, its role in the shooting sports has become somewhat less direct.


In 1992 the NRA ceased to be the National Governing Body for Olympic shooting (USA Shooting is now the NGB), and in 2000 the NRA chose not to be a member of the National Three-Position Air Rifle Council. The NRA is not directly involved in the practical pistol competitions conducted by the International Practical Shooting Confederation and International Defensive Pistol Association, or in cowboy action shooting; both of these types of events have grown dramatically in recent years. 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Prior to 1979, a year-round U.S. Shooting Team did not exist. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An IPSC shooter using a modified . ... The International Defensive Pistol Association promotes defensive pistol shooting as a sport, using equipment including full-charge service ammunition to solve simulated real world self-defense scenarios. ... Cowboy Action Shooting (CAS), also known as Western Action Shooting or Single Action Shooting, is a competitive shooting sport that originated in California, USA, in the early 1980s. ...


However, the National Rifle and Pistol Matches at Camp Perry are sponsored by the NRA, which most consider the "World Series of competitive shooting". Commonly known as Bullseye or Conventional Pistol, shooters from the military as well as many top-ranked civilians gather annually in July and August for this well-attended competition. The NRA also sponsors its National Muzzleloading Championship at the National Muzzle Loading Rifle Association's Friendship, Indiana facility. Camp Perry is a National Guard training facility located on the shore of Lake Erie in northern Ohio near Port Clinton. ... Bullseye, also known as Conventional Pistol, is a sport in which participants shoot handguns at paper targets at fixed distances and time limits. ... The NMLRA Logo. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


The NRA functions as a general promoter of the shooting sports. The NRA house magazine, American Rifleman, covers major shooting competitions and related topics, and the NRA offers a publication dedicated to competitive shooting, Shooting Sports USA. Most competitive shooters are NRA members.


The current NRA competitions division publishes its own rulebooks, maintains a registry of marksmanship classifications, and sanctions matches.


Grass Roots shooting support

Through the NRA Foundation and Friends of the NRA, the NRA also raises funds and distributes grants to local clubs. In addition to competitive marksmanship and gun safety, local programs supported by the NRA include instructor/coach training, gun collector programs, programs for law enforcement officers, disabled shooting services, youth programs, and wildlife conservation and management.


NRA history

The NRA was founded on November 17, 1871 by two Union Army officers, Col. William C. Church and Gen. George Wingate, who were upset with the poor marksmanship of their troops. In a magazine editorial written by Church, he stated their primary goal was "providing firearms training and encouraging interest in the shooting sports".[1] From 1873 to 1892, the NRA operated a rifle range at Creedmoor in Queens Village, New York, where National Guardsmen were trained and international competitions were held. Civil War Gen. Ambrose Burnside, also a former Rhode Island governor and U.S. Senator, was the first NRA president.[1] Former President Ulysses S. Grant was elected eighth president of the National Rifle Association in 1883.[2] Other Union generals, including Phillip H. Sheridan and Winfield Scott Hancock also served as president at various times. 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... William Conant Church (1836-1917) was an American editor, born in Rochester, New York. ... George Wood Wingate (1840-1928) was an American lawyer and organizer of rifle practice. ... Creedmoor Psychiatric Center in Queens Village, Queens, New York, provides inpatient, outpatient and residential services for severely mentally ill patients. ... Queens Village, Queens is a middle-income neighborhood that is becoming more racially mixed as immigrants from the West Indies settle here. ... The United States National Guard is a component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was a railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Philip Sheridan Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888), a military man and one of the great generals in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Winfield S. Hancock during the Civil War Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 – February 9, 1886) was a career U.S. Army officer who served with distinction as a general in the American Civil War and ran unsuccessfully for President of the United States in 1880. ...


In 1934 the NRA formed its "Legislative Affairs Division". While it did not directly lobby until the formation of the Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA) in 1975, it did mail out legislative analyses and facts to its members, so they could take action themselves. During World War II, the NRA reloaded ammunition used for guarding factories involved in wartime production, and sought to help arm Britain against potential invasion with the collection of over 7,000 firearms for that country's defense.[1] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In May 1977 the NRA began a rightward shift after controversy erupted within the organization over the possibility of banning "Saturday night specials." In the so-called "Cincinnati Revolt", more than 2,000 NRA members met in the Cincinnati Convention-Exposition Center until nearly 4 AM.[3] Harlon Carter, a member of the NRA's Executive Council who had been fired as political action director, was elected the new leader of the NRA. He announced: Saturday night special is a pejorative or slang term used in the United States for any inexpensive handgun. ...

Beginning in this place and at this hour, this period in NRA history is finished. There will be no more civil war in the National Rifle Association.[4]

Since this change the NRA has consistently opposed any proposed legislation that purports to limit access to guns by law-abiding citizens. However, it strongly supports some laws restricting access to guns by criminals (notably Project Exile in Richmond, Virginia). The shift also resulted in the ouster of at least one board member who "was told this is a single-purpose organization" after he expressed support for strong wilderness preservation.[5] Project Exile was a federal program started in Richmond, Virginia in 1997. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ...


The NRA publishes several magazines. The organization's official journal is American Rifleman. American Hunter was added in 1973, detailing hunting tactics, locations, and gear. American Guardian, created in 1997, originally focused on self-defense and recreational issues; in 2000, it was renamed America's 1st Freedom and now covers legislative and political topics. Women's Outlook addresses home security, personal protection, and programs like "Women on Target" and "Refuse to Be A Victim"[6] (Women's Outlook ceased publication in the Summer of 2006. Its editorial content was merged into America's 1st Freedom).


In 1990 the NRA Foundation, a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization, was established to fund gun safety and educational projects. 501(c)(3) is a provision of the US tax code that provides exempt status, for Federal income tax purposes, for some non-profit organizations in the United States (see 26 U.S.C. Â§ 501(c)(3)). The term refers to: Section 501. ...


The NRA has served in a variety of roles over its existence. Besides its political functions, it has been — at various times and in various degrees — an organizer of shooting competitions; a general promoter of marksmanship and firearms safety; an advocate for gun owners, collectors and sportsmen; and an umbrella body for the many local and regional clubs involved in the various firearms-related hobbies.


NRA museum

The NRA operates the National Firearms Museum at its headquarters in Fairfax, Virginia. The museum is free of charge, and houses a collection of firearms and miscellaneous items. The museum is self-guided and operates like a timeline, showing some of the first arms and armor and progressing to firearms of today. The NRA also has a library for research purposes. Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Founded 1805 Mayor Robert Lederer Area    - City 16. ...


Political lobbying

Gun interest groups in the U.S.
Pro-gun rights

National Rifle Association
Gun Owners of America
JPFO
Pink Pistols
Second Amendment Foundation
Second Amendment Sisters
Citizens Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms
Liberty Belles
Law Enforcement Alliance of America Gun Politics, the political aspects of gun control and firearms rights, has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues in American politics. ... Gun Owners of America is the second largest gun rights organization in America. ... The first Granpa Jack Freedom Booklet published by the JPFO. Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership or JPFO is a group dedicated to the preservation of gun rights in the United States. ... The Pink Pistols are a gay gun rights organization in the United States. ... The Second Amendment Foundation or SAF is an educational and legal defense organization which describes its mission as ...promoting a better understanding about our Constitutional heritage to privately own and possess firearms. ... Second Amendment Sisters, Inc. ... Citizens Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, or CCRKBA, is a gun rights organization in the United States, headquartered in Bellevue, Washington. ... Liberty Belles is a 501(c)(4) non-profit organization in the United States dedicated to dispelling many of the myths and misinformation about the nature of firearms and firearm ownership. With a primary focus on women and gun rights. ... Law Enforcement Alliance of America, or LEAA, is a gun rights organization in the United States, headquartered in Springfield, Virginia. ...

Pro-gun control

Americans for Democratic Action
Brady Campaign
Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence
Coalition to Stop Gun Violence
League of Women Voters Americans For Democratic Action (ADA) was formed in January 1947, when Eleanor Roosevelt, John Kenneth Galbraith, Reinhold Niebuhr, Hubert Humphrey and 200 other activists. ... The Brady Campaign or The Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence or The Brady Campaign united with the Million Mom March was founded in 1974 as The National Council to Control Handguns (NCCH) by Dr. Mark Borinsky, a victim of gun violence. ... The Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence was founded in 1974 as The National Council to Control Handguns (NCCH) by Dr. Mark Borinsky, a victim of gun violence. ... The Coalition to Stop Gun Violence or CSGV is a non-partisan group of 45 organizations and 100,000 individual members founded in 1974 that seeks to ban handguns and assault weapons in the United States. ... The League of Women Voters is a United States non-partisan political organization founded in 1920 by Carrie Chapman Catt during a meeting of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. ...

Pro-rights and pro-control

American Hunters and Shooters Association
Americans for Gun Safety Foundation // Stated Purpose We invite you to join us today in fighting to protect our sport and our community! AHSA presents itself as a force of moderation in the gun control debate in the same vein as Americans for Gun Safety, although its true intent and purpose are in question. ... The Americans for Gun Safety Foundation is an organization which claims to 1) promote gun safety training and 2) advocate responsible gun laws.[1] The Americans for Gun Safety Foundation is a project of the Tides Center, and a Section 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. ...

Many consider the NRA to be one of the most influential political lobbies in the U.S. because of its ability to consistently deliver large numbers of votes in elections, as well as its record of campaign contributions and activities in lobbying for gun and hunting rights. Members of congress have ranked the NRA as the most powerful lobbying organization in the country several years in a row. Political lobbying is an activity permitted under its 501(c)(4) tax status. Lobbying is the practice of private advocacy with the goal of influencing a governing body, in order to ensure that an individuals or organizations point of view is represented in the government. ... Campaign finance refers to the means by which money is raised for election campaigns. ... It has been suggested that Interest representation: Academic overview be merged into this article or section. ...


Second Amendment

In its lobbying for gun rights, the NRA asserts that the Second Amendment guarantees the right of individuals to own and use guns. This interpretation emphasizes that "the right of the People to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed", and purports to clarify the intent of "A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State" portion, which itself is predicated on the Founders definition of "militia" as the body of citizenry at large. The phrase Gun politics refers to the views of different people within a particular country as to what degree of control (increased gun rights vs. ... The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, part of the Bill of Rights, prevents the federal government from infringing on the right to keep and bear firearms. ...


The NRA typically opposes measures which it asserts would conflict with the Second Amendment and/or the right to privacy enjoyed by law-abiding gun owners. It asserts that any attempt to regulate arms conflicts with the second clause of the amendment; the "right to keep and bear arms." The NRA has supported gun rights on other grounds as well—they opposed the Brady Bill in the courts on Tenth Amendment grounds, not Second Amendment. The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, also known as the Brady Bill, was passed by Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton on November 30, 1993. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment X (the Tenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15, 1791. ...


Past elections

1994

In the 1994 election the NRA is often credited with defeating Congressmen Jack Brooks and Tom Foley (the first Speaker of the House to lose a reelection since 1860). Bill Clinton wrote: 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Jack Bascom Brooks (born December 22, 1922) is a Texas politician. ... Thomas Stephen Foley (born March 26, 1929 in Spokane, Washington) is an American politician of the Democratic Party, having served as the most recent Democratic speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives and ambassador to Japan. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...

The NRA had a great night. They beat both Speaker Tom Foley and Jack Brooks, two of the ablest members of Congress, who had warned me this would happen. Foley was the first Speaker to be defeated in more than a century. Jack Brooks had supported the NRA for years and had led the fight against the assault weapons ban in the House, but as chairman of the Judiciary Committee he had voted for the overall crime bill even after the ban was put into it. The NRA was an unforgiving master: one strike and you're out. The gun lobby claimed to have defeated nineteen of the twenty-four members on its hit list. They did at least that much damage and could rightly claim to have made Gingrich the House Speaker.

—Bill Clinton, My Life pp 629-30

2000 presidential election

Kayne Robinson, NRA First Vice President, said in 2000, regarding the forthcoming election of George W. Bush: "If we win, we'll have a Supreme Court that will back us to the hilt. If we win, we'll have a President, with at least one of the people that's running, a President where we work out of their office. Unbelievably friendly relations."


Some people credit the NRA's heavy campaigning in Arkansas and Tennessee in the weeks before the 2000 Presidential Election with swaying voters from Al Gore and causing him to lose both states. Had Gore won either state, he would have won the presidency. Bill Clinton won both states in 1992 and 1996, and Clinton has even remarked in interviews since 2000 that the only reason Arkansas voted for George W. Bush was because of the NRA's extremely heavy campaigning on the theme that Gore would "take their guns". Bush won Arkansas 51%-46% and Tennessee 51%-47% vs. Gore. Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... (Redirected from 2000 Presidential Election) Map The U.S. presidential election of 2000 took place on Election Day, Tuesday, November 7. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Past campaigns

Many gun-control laws that the NRA and its supporters fought vigorously have been passed throughout the country. These laws range from the near-total ban on gun ownership in Washington, D.C., to the outlawing of entire classes of firearms in many states as well as at the federal level, to the licensing of firearms owners in some jurisdictions. Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D...


Because of a belief that laws should focus on criminals not hardware, the NRA opposes most new gun-control legislation, calling instead for stricter enforcement of existing laws such as prohibiting convicted felons and violent criminals from possessing firearms and increased sentencing for gun-related crimes. The NRA also lobbies for "shall issue" right-to-carry laws for concealed carry licenses in many states. The NRA also takes positions on non-firearm hunting issues, such as supporting wildlife management programs that allow hunting and opposing restrictions on devices like crossbows and leg hold traps. For a shall-issue gun law, authorities (usually the local police) are required to issue a concealed carry permit to any individual who request it if he meets the states issuance criteria, often a background check and a safety class. ... In the United States, concealed carry is the right to carry a handgun or other weapon in public in a concealed manner. ... Wildlife management is the process of keeping certain wildlife populations at desirable levels determined by wildlife managers. ... A crossbow is a type of weapon that fires projectiles called quarrels. ... Leg hold traps are animal traps that are designed to clamp onto and hold an animals leg without instantly killing the animal. ...


One example of the NRA's legislative effectiveness is that, while 7 US states and the District of Columbia still generally restrict the issuance of concealed carry permits ("may issue" or "no-issue"), 38 states have mandatory shall-issue issuance of such permits upon the applicant demonstrating completion of a training requirement or other basic criteria, 3 states have may-issue permits that are liberally issued by local law enforcement, and 2 states (Alaska and Vermont) have unrestricted universal concealed carry without any permit requirements. In the United States of America, for a may-issue gun law, authorities (usually the local police) have broad discretion as whether to issue a concealed carry (often a background check and safety class) permit to a given individual. ... In the United States, a no-issue gun law is one that prohibits concealed carry to the general public. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... For an unrestricted gun law, no permit is required for concealed carry. ...


The NRA is officially nonpartisan and has endorsed both Democrats and Republicans; however, Republicans tend to share its views more often than Democrats, and this is reflected in the large preponderance of endorsements. The NRA's policy is that it will endorse any incumbent who supports its positions, even if the challenger supports them as well. This was evident in the 2006 Congressional Elections when the NRA endorsed Rick Santorum over Bob Casey, Jr. even though they both had an "A" rating from the NRA Political Victory Fund. The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The incumbent, in politics, is the current holder of a political office. ... “Santorum” redirects here. ... Robert Patrick Casey, Jr. ...


Current campaigns

Lawsuit protection

As of September 2003, the NRA's focus at the federal level is on a bill to protect manufacturers from certain types of lawsuits. The "Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act" (S.659/S.1806) is also supported by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the National Association of Manufacturers, and the National Association of Wholesaler-Distributors, and opposed by many gun-control groups. The Senate amended the bill to extend the assault weapons ban and close the so-called "gun-show loophole", whereupon the NRA withdrew its support; the bill was defeated on March 2, 2004. 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... It has been suggested that civil trial be merged into this article or section. ... The Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act was passed by the U.S. Senate on July 29, 2005 by a vote of 65-31. ... Chambers of commerce are business advocacy groups which are usually not associated with government. ... The National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), one of industrys most powerful lobbies, was founded in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1895. ... The Federal Assault Weapons Ban (AWB) was a provision of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, a federal law of the United States that included a prohibition on the sale of semi-automatic assault weapons manufactured after the date of the bans enactment. ... A gun show is a form of exhibition or gathering where guns, gun parts and literature, as well as knives and miscellaneous collectibles are displayed, bought, sold (subject to regulations) and discussed. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A new "Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act" (S.397) passed the Senate (65–31) in late July 2005, passed the House (283–144) on October 20, and was signed by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2005. The bill carried two amendments: requiring the purchase of a trigger lock with any handgun purchase; and authorizing the Department of Justice to study the penetration characteristics of ammunition and make a determination if the ammunition fits the category of "armor piercing". These amendments were rejected by other pro-gun organizations that think these concessions will lead to more restrictions and impetus for lawsuits for those that do not use trigger locks.


"Assault weapons"

In 2004 the NRA successfully opposed renewal of the federal assault weapons ban of 1994, which banned many features of certain semiautomatic rifles and certain types of removable magazines, against a campaign to make the ban permanent and expand it. The ban expired at midnight, September 13, 2004, thus allowing more Americans to own so called "assault weapons". The term assault weapon has more to do with what a weapon looks like rather than how it functions. The Federal Assault Weapons Ban (AWB) was a provision of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, a federal law of the United States that included a prohibition on the sale of semi-automatic assault weapons manufactured after the date of the bans enactment. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... A semi-automatic rifle is a type of rifle that, when the trigger is pulled, fires a bullet and loads another cartridge from a magazine, without the need to operate a bolt or other loading mechanism. ... A 30-round STANAG magazine. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Confiscations in New Orleans

In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, multiple reports of confiscations of civilian weapons by law enforcement began coming out of New Orleans. Warrantless weapon searches of evacuees were carried out prior to allowing them into evacuation centers,[7] unconstitutional house-to-house weapon confiscations were reported,[8][9] and the superintendent of police was quoted as saying "Only law enforcement are allowed to have weapons" and "We are going to take all of the weapons".[10] Lowest pressure 902 mbar (hPa; 26. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


On September 12, 2005 National Rifle Association executive vice-president Wayne LaPierre spoke out against these confiscations. "What we’ve seen in Louisiana — the breakdown of law and order in the aftermath of disaster — is exactly the kind of situation where the Second Amendment was intended to allow citizens to protect themselves," LaPierre said. The NRA filed suit in the United States District Court for the Eastern District in Louisiana. September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wayne LaPierre (born November 8, 1948) has been Executive Vice President and Chief Executive Officer of the National Rifle Association, the United States largest gun rights organization with over 4 million members, since 1991. ...


On September 23, two weeks after seizures began, NRA and SAF filed for a temporary restraining order. On September 24, 2005 U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana issued a temporary restraining order barring any further gun confiscations and ordering the return of lawfully owned firearms to their owners. On March 1, 2006, the NRA filed a motion for contempt against the city of New Orleans, its mayor, and the chief of police for failure to comply with the restraining order. On March 15, 2006, lawyers from both sides reached an agreement in the case of NRA v. Mayor Ray Nagin, which is pending before a federal court. The city of New Orleans admitted that it holds a number of confiscated firearms, and the Property and Evidence Division of the New Orleans Police Department is to return the firearms to their owners on request and proof of ownership or affidavit. In the chaos and destruction following Katrina many homeowners have, however, lost everything including the paperwork that would prove ownership. At this time (2006) the majority of the seized firearms have not been returned to the rightful owners. (See Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution.) September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... The Second Amendment Foundation or SAF is an educational and legal defense organization which describes its mission as ...promoting a better understanding about our Constitutional heritage to privately own and possess firearms. ... Contempt of court is a court ruling which, in the context of a court trial or hearing, deems an individual as holding contempt for the court, its process, and its invested powers. ... An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that either prohibits or compels (enjoins or restrains) a party from continuing a particular activity. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment IV (the Fourth amendment) to the United States Constitution is one of the provisions included in the Bill of Rights. ...


In June 2006 Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco signed the NRA-backed Act 275, forbidding the confiscation of firearms from lawful citizens during declared emergencies. Similar legislation had already been adopted in nine other states.


On October 4, 2006 President George W. Bush signed into law the NRA-backed Disaster Recovery Personal Protection Act of 2006 (incorporated into the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations bill). This legislation prohibits the confiscation of otherwise legal firearms from law-abiding citizens during states of emergency by any agent of the Federal Government or anyone receiving Federal funds (effectively, any Federal, state, or local governmental entity). Introduced in Congress by Rep. Bobby Jindal and Sen. David Vitter, both of Louisiana, this bill enjoyed broad bipartisan support, passing the House of Representatives with a margin of 322-99 and the Senate by 84-16. The Disaster Recovery Personal Protection Act of 2006 was a bill introduced in the United States Congress intended to prohibit the confiscation of legally-possessed firearms during a disaster. ... Piyush Bobby Jindal (born June 10, 1971 in Baton Rouge, Louisiana) is a Louisiana politician. ...


Also see Civil disturbances and military action in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina and GiveThemBack.com In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, looting, violence, and criminal activity became serious problems in the evacuated city of New Orleans. ...


San Francisco's Proposition H

In November 2005, 58% of voters in San Francisco, California, approved "Proposition H" banning the sale, manufacture and distribution of firearms and ammunition, as well as possession of handguns, within city limits effective January 1, 2006. (The last gun dealer in the city had closed several years earlier because of a special tax.) San Francisco thereby became the third major city in the United States with a handgun ban, after Chicago and Washington, D.C. Nickname: Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco Government  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area  - City  47 sq mi (122 km²)  - Land  46. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D...


The day after the election, the National Rifle Association and other gun advocates filed a lawsuit challenging the ban, saying it oversteps local government authority and intrudes into an area regulated by the state. (A previous handgun ban, adopted in 1984, was successfully challenged on similar grounds.) On June 12, 2006 Superior Court Judge agreed with the NRA position, saying that California law "implicitly prohibits a city or county from banning gun possession by law-abiding adults."[11] The city is expected to appeal the decision.


Current leadership and policies

The NRA organization is governed by a large (typically 75 member) board of directors. The directors choose the president, the leading spokesman for the organization, from among their members. Although traditionally this position changed annually, for several years it was consecutively held by Charlton Heston, who was a compelling promoter of the NRA agenda. Heston became afflicted with Alzheimer's disease and stepped down in April 2003. Sandra Froman is currently president. Marion P. Hammer was the first female president, serving from 1995 to 1998. Charlton Heston (born John Charles Carter on October 4, 1924) is an iconic Academy Award-winning American film actor, best known for playing larger-than-life heroic roles such as Moses in The Ten Commandments and Judah Ben-Hur in Ben-Hur. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sandra Froman is the current President of the National Rifle Association (NRA) after Kayne Robinson after Charlton Heston resigned in 2003 due to his debilitating Alzheimers disease. ... Marion P. Hammer was the first female President of the National Rifle Association ([1]), an American gun-owners rights lobby organization. ...

Charlton Heston accepting a presentation rifle at 2000 NRA convention: "From my cold, dead hands!"
Charlton Heston accepting a presentation rifle at 2000 NRA convention: "From my cold, dead hands!"

The organization also has an Executive Vice President, who is not a director but functions as Chief Executive Officer, appointed at the pleasure of the directors. Wayne LaPierre has held this position since 1991.[12] Image File history File links Colddead-fp. ... Image File history File links Colddead-fp. ... Charlton Heston (born John Charles Carter on October 4, 1924) is an iconic Academy Award-winning American film actor, best known for playing larger-than-life heroic roles such as Moses in The Ten Commandments and Judah Ben-Hur in Ben-Hur. ... Wayne LaPierre (born November 8, 1948) has been Executive Vice President and Chief Executive Officer of the National Rifle Association, the United States largest gun rights organization with over 4 million members, since 1991. ...


Criticism

From gun control advocates

The NRA is criticized by gun control groups such as the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence, Brady Campaign, Million Mom March, and Americans for Gun Safety. A variety of newspaper editorial boards, including the New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, and USA Today, disagree with the NRA's policies, such as in September of 2004, when they called for the extension of the assault weapons ban.[citation needed]. [13] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gun politics. ... The Coalition to Stop Gun Violence or CSGV is a non-partisan group of 45 organizations and 100,000 individual members founded in 1974 that seeks to ban handguns and assault weapons in the United States. ... The Brady Campaign or The Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence or The Brady Campaign united with the Million Mom March was founded in 1974 as The National Council to Control Handguns (NCCH) by Dr. Mark Borinsky, a victim of gun violence. ... The Million Mom March was a gun violence awareness group founded in 2000. ... The Americans for Gun Safety Foundation is an organization which ostensibly promotes gun safety but is considered by some to be a front organization for gun banners. ... The editorial board is a group of people, usually at a print publication, who dictate the tone and direction the publications editorials will take. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... ... The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... The Federal Assault Weapons Ban (AWB) was a provision of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, a federal law of the United States that included a prohibition on the sale of semi-automatic assault weapons manufactured after the date of the bans enactment. ...


From other gun rights organizations

The NRA has been criticized by other gun rights groups for doing too little to get existing restrictions repealed, and sometimes helping to draft restrictive legislation. This critique is most often voiced by gun rights organizations and libertarians who take a more comprehensive view of the Second Amendment and Bill of Rights, and are viewed as being less amenable to compromise on these issues, e.g. Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership, and Gun Owners of America. The GOA has castigated the NRA in the past for what it perceives as its willingness to compromise on legislative restrictions concerning access to firearms [1]. The first Granpa Jack Freedom Booklet published by the JPFO. Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership or JPFO is a group dedicated to the preservation of gun rights in the United States. ... Gun Owners of America is the second largest gun rights organization in America. ...


JPFO and its leadership has also criticized the NRA's political strategy on several occasions, lambasting what it views as their counterproductive focus on Capitol Hill lobbying, as well as taking the NRA and its leadership to task for not explicitly making a connection between gun control measures introduced in the United States and those implemented by the Weimar Republic and subsequently the Nazi regime in pre-war Germany, as well as other totalitarian, anarchic, or ineffectual regimes that were eventually overthrown [2]. To a certain extent, this criticism has been addressed in recent years by Wayne LaPierre, who has attempted to convince the public that the atrocities committed in Bosnia-Herzegovina during the Yugoslavian Civil War, as well as the Rwandan genocide of 1994, can be traced to a lack of institutional, individual gun rights in those countries. Capitol Hill is the name of a district in the following cities: Capitol Hill, Denver, Colorado Capitol Hill, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Capitol Hill, Seattle, Washington Capitol Hill, Washington, DC It is also a common nickname for the United States Congress and the politicians who serve it (e. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann Historical era Interwar period  - Established August 11... National Socialism redirects here. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass extermination of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutu sympathizers in Rwanda and was the largest atrocity during the Rwandan Civil War. ...


The NRA has also seen internal dissent from its membership, including a prolonged series of verbal attacks and campaigns initiated by Neal Knox, a former vice-president of the organization who attempted to depose both Wayne LaPierre and Tanya Metaksa, the former executive director of the NRA's Institute For Legislative Action, in leadership elections during the late Nineties.[3] Neal Knox (b. ...


In addition to the generic criticism voiced by other more absolutist gun-rights organizations and public figures, Knox and his supporters allege that the NRA has failed to protect the rights of gun-owners during debates over proposed federal gun laws. They cite the NRA's involvement in the passage of the Firearm Owners Protection Act, otherwise known as the McClure-Volkmer Act, which amended the Gun Control Act of 1968 to allow purchases from licensed gun dealers at gun shows within the same state, and allowed unlicensed individuals to purchase guns at the same shows for very specific purposes[4] The Firearm Owners Protection Act (FOPA) is a United States federal law that revised many statutes in the Gun Control Act of 1968. ... The Gun Control Act of 1968 (also known as GCA, and codified as Chapter 44 of Title 18, United States Code) is a federal law in the United States that broadly regulates the firearms industry and firearms owners. ...


Although this represented a significant liberalization of the 1968 Gun Control Act, the fact that the NRA did not seek its outright repeal led some critics, such as Knox, to assert that it had abandoned its members.


Among the broader conservative community, the NRA has recently garnered extensive criticism for endorsing and supporting candidates who are generally perceived as being liberal on several or many other issues, e.g. Senator Arlen Specter,[5] or who have a distinctly liberal position on a hot-button political subject such as amnesty, or whose support for gun rights has been called into question, e.g. Congressman Chris Cannon.[6] Arlen Specter (born February 12, 1930) is a United States Senator from Pennsylvania. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The phrase Gun politics refers to the views of different people within a particular country as to what degree of control (increased gun rights vs. ... Christopher Black Cannon (born October 20, 1950) is a member of the United States House of Representatives, for the Republican Party, representing the third district of Utah (map), since 1997. ...


See also

The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ... Conservationists are those people who tend to more highly rank the wise use of the Earths resources and ecosystems. ... Gun politics in the United States Constitutional issues The private ownership of guns is an especially contentious political topic in the United States, where the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution states: The meaning of this text remains fiercely debated, with some saying that the amendment only refers to... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment II (the Second Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, declares the necessity for a well regulated militia, and prohibits infringement of the right of the people to keep and bear arms. ... In the United States, concealed carry is the right to carry a handgun or other weapon in public in a concealed manner. ... (For discussions on politics concerning firearms and gun safety, see Gun Politics. ... Hunter and Huntress redirect here. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... The National Gun Association is a parody of the National Rifle Association appearing in many television shows. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d http://www.nraila.org/Issues/FAQs/Default.aspx?Section=27
  2. ^ Labor Law Talk Library
  3. ^ http://www.vpc.org/nrainfo/chapter2.html Revolt at Cincinnati, Violence Policy Center
  4. ^ "Concerned NRA Members Redirect Their Association," American Rifleman, (July 1977) p. 16
  5. ^ http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?i=20060904&s=blanding090406
  6. ^ http://www.nrahq.org/women/ NRA Women's Programs, www.nrahq.org
  7. ^ http://www.khou.com/news/local/houstonmetro/stories/khou050902_mh_domelatest.1aad400d.html
  8. ^ http://www.columbiatribune.com/2005/Sep/20050909News015.asp
  9. ^ http://www.fortwayne.com/mld/journalgazette/12600933.htm
  10. ^ http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/0909katrina09.html
  11. ^ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/06/13/BAGJSJCVF01.DTL
  12. ^ http://nramemberscouncils.com/wayne/bio.shtml
  13. ^ "On Guard, America," New York Times, 11 September 2004: A14.
  • Anderson, Jack. Inside the NRA: Armed and Dangerous. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Dove, 1996. ISBN 0787106771.
  • Brennan, Pauline Gasdow, Alan J. Lizotte, and David McDowall. "Guns, Southernness, and Gun Control". Journal of Quantitative Criminology 9, no. 3 (1993): 289–307.
  • Bruce, John M., and Clyde Wilcox, eds. The Changing Politics of Gun Control. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998. ISBN 0847686140, ISBN 0847686159.
  • Davidson, Osha Gray. Under Fire: The NRA and the Battle for Gun Control, 2nd ed. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1998. ISBN 0877456461.
  • Edel, Wilbur. Gun Control: Threat to Liberty or Defense against Anarchy? Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 1995. ISBN 0275951456.
  • Langbein, Laura I., and Mark A. Lotwis, "Political Efficacy of Lobbying and Money: Gun Control in the U.S. House, 1986". Legislative Studies Quarterly 15 (August 1990): 413–40.
  • LaPierre, Wayne R. Guns, Crime, and Freedom. Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1994. ISBN 0895264773.
  • McGarrity, Joseph P., and Daniel Sutter. "A Test of the Structure of PAC Contracts: An Analysis of House Gun Control Votes in the 1980s". Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 67 (2000).
  • Spitzer, Robert J. The Politics of Gun Control, 2nd ed. New York: Chatham House Publishers, 1998. ISBN 1566430720.
  • Sugarmann, Josh. National Rifle Association: Money, Firepower, and Fear. Washington, D.C.: National Press Books, 1992. ISBN 0915765888.
  • Trefethen, James B., and James E. Serven. Americans and Their Guns: The National Rifle Association Story Through Nearly a Century of Service to the Nation. Harrisburg, Penn.: Stackpole Books, 1967.
  • Utter, Glenn H., ed. Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press, 2000. ISBN 157356172X.

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