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Encyclopedia > National Reorganization Process
Jorge Rafael Videla, first president of the Proceso
Jorge Rafael Videla, first president of the Proceso

Proceso de Reorganización Nacional (Spanish, "National Reorganization Process", often simply Proceso) was the name given by its leaders to the dictatorial regime that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983. Jorge Rafael Videla - Argentine dictator File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Jorge Rafael Videla - Argentine dictator File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo (born August 2, 1925 in Mercedes) was the de facto President of Argentina from 1976 to 1981. ... Dictatorship, in contemporary usage, refers to absolute rule by a leadership (usually a single dictator) unrestricted by law, constitutions, or other social and political factors within the state. ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1983 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The military were already highly influential during the democratic rule of Juan Domingo Perón started in 1973 and cut short by his death on the following year. The vice-president, his wife Isabel Martínez de Perón, had to take office in his stead, but she was a weak, ineffectual ruler. Widespread violence (including kidnappings and bombings) by insurgents, and the repressive and retaliative actions of the military, the police and the paramilitary, escalated until Martínez was overthrown and replaced by a military junta, on 24 March 1976. Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine military officer and the President of Argentina from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... President Perón giving a speech María Estela Martínez de Perón (born on February 4, 1931, in La Rioja, Argentina) better known as Isabel Martínez de Perón would become the third wife of Argentine President Juan Perón and serve as President of Argentina in... An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ... Augusto Pinochet (sitting) was an army general who led a military coup in Chile in 1973. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The expression "national reorganization process" was used to imply orderliness and control of the critical sociopolitical situation of Argentina at the time, but the dictatorial regime soon showed its true colours. Forced disappearances on ideological grounds, and illegal arrests often based on unsubstantiated accusations, became common. It is calculated that thirty thousand people were desaparecidos ("disappeared"), including pregnant mothers whose babies were then illegally adopted by military families. A forced disappearance occurs when an organization (usually a ruling government, and usually one that is a police state or dictatorship) forces a person to disappear from public view. ... The Chicago Police Department arrests a man An arrest is the action of police or other authority, or even in some circumstances a private civilian, to apprehend and take under guard a person who is suspected of committing a crime. ... Desaparecidos means literally the disappeared in Spanish, and is a reference to people who were arrested by various South American military governments and then vanished without a trace. ...


The regime shut down the legislative branch and abolished freedom of the press and freedom of speech, adopting a severe media censorship. The Football World Cup 1978, which Argentina hosted and won, was used as a means of propaganda and to appease the citizens, who (mostly) remained blissfully indifferent towards the repressive measures taken by the government. Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public speech for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... A public demonstration Freedom of speech is the liberty to say what one pleases, as well as the related liberty to hear what others have stated. ... Censorship is the use of governmental power to control speech and other forms of human expression. ... The 1978 Football World Cup was held in Argentina. ...


Corruption, a failing economy, and most importantly the military defeat in the Falklands war of 1982, eroded the public image of the regime. The last de facto president, Reynaldo Bignone, had to call for elections. On October 1983 democracy was restored, with the assumption of President Raúl Alfonsín. The Falklands War or the Malvinas War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas), was an armed conflict between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands, also known in Spanish as the Islas Malvinas, between March and June of 1982. ... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reynaldo Benito Antonio Bignone Ramayón (born 1928) is a former Argentine general and dictator. ... Raúl Alfonsín, in 2003 Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Foulkes (born 13 March 1927) was president of Argentina from 10 December 1983 to 9 July 1989. ...


The top military leaders of the Proceso were judged and convicted in 1985 (Juicio a las Juntas), but they were pardoned by President Carlos Menem in 1989. 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

This article is about the history of Argentina. ... This article is about the political institutions and political parties of Argentina. ... The doctrine of the two demons (known in its original Spanish language formulation as teoría de los dos demonios) is a historical thesis about the morality of the Dirty War, the violent persecution of dissidents and politically subversive people in Argentina during the dictatorial, self-appointed National Reorganization Process...

External links

  • Nunca Más ("Never Again") - Report of CONADEP (National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons) - 1984
  • Inter-American Commission on Human Rights report on Argentina
  • Search on Google for "national reorganization process"

 
 

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