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Encyclopedia > National Physical Laboratory, UK

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park in Teddington in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It is the largest applied physics organisation in the UK, and has a role similar to that of NIST in the United States. Bushy Park Bushy Park is the second-largest of the Royal Parks of London. ... Teddington is a place in Middlesex, England in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. ... The London Borough of Richmond upon Thames is a London borough in southwest London. ... The National Institute of Standards and Technology (or NIST) formerly known as The National Bureau of Standards is a non regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration. ...


NPL is an internationally respected centre of excellence in measurement and materials science. Since 1900, it has developed and maintained the primary national measurement standards. Today it provides the scientific resources for the National Measurement System financed by the Department of Trade and Industry. The NPL also offers a range of commercial services, applying scientific skills to industrial measurement problems, and broadcasts the MSF time signal. 1900 (MCM) is a common year starting on Monday. ... The Department of Trade and Industry is a United Kingdom government department. ... The MSF time signal is a broadcast from the VLF transmitter Rugby near Rugby, Warwickshire based on time standards maintained by the British National Physical Laboratory. ...


NPL cooperates with professional networks such as those of the IEE to support scientists and engineers concerned with areas of work in which it has expertise. Not to be confused with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE, I-triple-E). ...


Researchers who have worked at the NPL include Paul Baran and Donald Davies, who invented packet switching in the early 1960s, Louis Essen, who invented a more accurate atomic clock than those first built in America, Harry Huskey, a computer pioneer, Alan Turing, one of the fathers of modern digital computing who worked in the design of the early Pilot ACE computer, Robert Watson-Watt, generally considered the inventor of radar, Oswald Kubaschewski, the father of computational materials thermodynamics and the numerical analyst James Wilkinson. Paul Baran (born 1926) was one of the developers of packet-switched networks along with Donald Davies and Leonard Kleinrock. ... Donald Davies Donald Watts Davies CBE FRS (June 7, 1924 – May 28, 2000) was a British computer scientist who was a co-inventor of packet switching (and originator of the term), along with Paul Baran and Leonard Kleinrock in the US. Just prior to Davies death, he contested Kleinrocks... In computer networking and telecommunications, packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (messages or fragments of messages) are individually routed between nodes, with no previously established communication path. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Louis Essen (September 6, 1908 – August 24, 1997) was an English physicist whose most notable achievements were in the precise measurement of time and the determination of the speed of light. ... Atomic clock Chip-Scale Atomic Clock Unveiled by NIST An atomic clock is a type of clock that uses an atomic resonance frequency standard as its counter. ... Harry Huskey (born 1916) is an American computer designer pioneer. ... Alan Turing is often considered the father of modern computer science. ... The Pilot ACE was one of the first computers built in the United Kingdom, at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the late 1940s. ... Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, FRS, (April 13, 1892–December 5, 1973) is considered incorrectly by many to be the inventor of radar. (Radar development was first started in elsewhere - see History of radar). ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamis meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of temperature, pressure, and volume changes on physical systems at the macroscopic scale. ... Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms for the problems of continuous mathematics (as distinguished from discrete mathematics) using basic arithmetical operations like addition. ... James Hardy Wilkinson (27 September 1919–5 October 1986) was a prominent figure in the field of numerical analysis, a field at the boundary of applied mathematics and computer science particularly useful to physics and engineering. ...


A new privately-funded state-of-the-art laboratory for the NPL at Teddington is due to be completed during 2006.


External links

  • NPL home page
  • NMS home page

 
 

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