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Encyclopedia > National Park Service
National Park Service
National Park Service arrowhead symbol
National Park Service arrowhead symbol
Agency overview
Formed August 25, 1916
Headquarters Main Interior Building (MIB), Washington, D.C.
Employees 15,000 permanent, 5,000 seasonal
Annual Budget $2.256 billion (2006)
Agency Executive Mary A. Bomar, Director
Parent agency Department of the Interior
Website
www.nps.gov

The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.[1] It was created on August 25, 1916 by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act (16 United States Code, sections 1,2,3 and 4) in order to Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links US-NationalParkService-ShadedLogo. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Mary A. Bomar Mary A. Bomar is the 17th Director of the National Park Service of the United States. ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally owned land. ... The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... Navajo National Monument Devils Tower National Monument Statue of Liberty National Monument Fort Matanzas National Monument A National Monument is a protected area of the United States that is similar to a national park (specifically a U.S. National Park) except that the President of the United States can quickly... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...

...conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.

It is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior, which is in turn a Cabinet Office of the executive branch, overseen by a Secretary nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Most of the direct management of the NPS is delegated by the Secretary to the National Park Service Director, who must now also be confirmed by the Senate. An agency is a department of a local or national government responsible for the oversight and administration of a specific function, such as a customs agency or a space agency. ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally owned land. ... Cabinet meeting on May 16, 2001. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...


The NPS oversees 391 units, of which 58 are designated national parks. Among the other unit designations are: The Official Units of the National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada A national park is a reserve of land, usually, but not always (see National Parks of England and Wales), declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ...

Not all NPS properties are considered to be distinct units. For example, Ellis Island Immigration Museum is not an independent NPS unit; it is a dependent area of Statue of Liberty National Monument which is one of the 391 units. None of the cemeteries counts as a unit by itself. There is at least one National Park Service site in every state in the nation (and some territories), except Delaware. Navajo National Monument Devils Tower National Monument Statue of Liberty National Monument Fort Matanzas National Monument A National Monument is a protected area of the United States that is similar to a national park (specifically a U.S. National Park) except that the President of the United States can quickly... National Historical Park or National Historic Park is a designation for a protected area in the United States that has national historic significance and consists of more than single properties or buildings. ... In the United States, National Memorial is a designation for a protected area that is commemorative of an historic person or episode. ... National Historic Trail is a designation for a protected area in the United States containing historic trails and surrounding areas. ... U.S. National Heritage Areas are designated areas in the United States, authorized by the U.S. Congress to encourage the preservation of history in areas of distinctive human impact on the landscape. ... National Recreation Area is a designation for a protected area in the United States usually centered on large reservoirs and emphasizing water-based recreation for a large number of people. ... National Wild and Scenic River is a designation for certain protected areas in the United States. ... A National Lakeshore is a protected area of lakeshore in the United States. ... A National seashore, in the United States, is a seashore area federally designated as being of natural and recreational signifance as a preserved area. ... National Military Park, National Battlefield, National Battlefield Park, and National Battlefield Site are four designations for battle sites preserved by the United States federal government because of their national importance. ... A U.S. National Cemetery is a designation for nationally important cemeteries in the United States. ... Ellis Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor, was at one time the main entry facility for immigrants entering the United States from January 1, 1892 until November 12, 1954. ... Liberty Enlightening the World, commonly known as the Statue of Liberty, is a statue, given to the USA by France in the late 19th century, that stands at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor as a welcome to all: returning Americans, visitors, and immigrants alike. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ...

Contents

Special divisions

The U.S. Park Police is a distinct law enforcement division of the National Park Service, with jurisdiction in all NPS sites, but primarily utilized in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, New York City, and Golden Gate National Recreation Area in and around San Francisco. Law enforcement services in rural, wilderness, and even some urban units are provided by specially trained and certified National Park Rangers. Other special NPS divisions include the Historic American Buildings Survey, National Register of Historic Places, National Natural Landmarks Program, the National Historic Landmarks Program, the Rivers, Trails, and Conservation Assistance Program, Challenge Cost Share Program, Federal Lands to Parks, Hydropower Relicensing Program, Land and Water Conservation Fund, National Trails System, and the Partnership Wild and Scenic Rivers Program. The United States Park Police is the oldest uniformed federal law enforcement agency in the United States. ... For the band, see The Police. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Golden Gate National Recreation Area is a U.S. National Recreation Area, administered by the National Park Service, which surrounds the San Francisco Bay area. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... HABS photograph: First Bank of the United States, Philadelphia HABS drawing: James Madisons Montpelier HAER photograph: Tacoma Narrows Bridge HALS drawing: Hale O Pi Ilani Heiau, Maui This article is about the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS), a program of the U.S. National Park Service. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... Caverns of Sonora National Natural Landmark The National Natural Landmark (NNL) program recognizes and encourages the conservation of outstanding examples of the United States natural history. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... The National Trails System was created by an act of Congress in 1968. ...


Directors

Mary A. Bomar, current NPS Director
Mary A. Bomar, current NPS Director
  1. Stephen Tyng Mather (May 16, 1917 - January 8, 1929)
  2. Horace M. Albright (January 12, 1929 - August 9, 1933)
  3. Arno B. Cammerer (August 10, 1933 - August 9, 1940)
  4. Newton B. Drury (August 20, 1940 - March 31, 1951)
  5. Arthur E. Demaray (April 1, 1951 - December 8, 1951)
  6. Conrad L. Wirth (December 9, 1951 - January 7, 1964)
  7. George B. Hartzog, Jr. (January 9, 1964 - December 31, 1972)
  8. Ronald H. Walker (January 7, 1973 - January 3, 1975)
  9. Gary Everhardt (January 13, 1975 - May 27, 1977)
  10. William J. Whalen (July 5, 1977 - May 13, 1980)
  11. Russell E. Dickenson (May 15, 1980 - March 3, 1985)
  12. William Penn Mott, Jr. (May 17, 1985 - April 16, 1989)
  13. James M. Ridenour (April 17, 1989 - January 20, 1993)
  14. Roger G. Kennedy (June 1, 1993 - March 29, 1997)
  15. Robert Stanton (August 4, 1997 - January, 2001)
  16. Fran P. Mainella (July 18, 2001 - October, 2006)
  17. Mary A. Bomar (October 17, 2006 - )

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mary A. Bomar Mary A. Bomar is the 17th Director of the National Park Service of the United States. ... Stephen Tyng Mather (1867 - 1930) was a pioneering American industrialist and conservationist. ... Horace M. Albright Horace Marden Albright (January 6, 1890 – March 2, 1987) was an American conservationist. ... Conrad L. Wirth Conrad L. Wirth (1899 - 1993) was a U.S. administrator. ... Fran P. Mainella is the 16th Director of the US National Park Service and first woman hold that position. ... Mary A. Bomar Mary A. Bomar is the 17th Director of the National Park Service of the United States. ...

National Park System

Sample National Park Service pictographs
Sample National Park Service pictographs

The National Park System is a term that describes the collection of all units managed by the National Park Service, and it is not necessary for the title or designation of the unit to include the term "park" - indeed most do not. The system encompasses approximately 84.4 million acres (338,000 km²), of which more than 4.3 million acres (17,000 km²) remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres (53,000 km²) it is over 16 percent of the entire system. The smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre (80 m²). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pictogram for public toilets A pictogram or pictograph is a symbol which represents an object or a concept by illustration. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... Established in 1980 by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, Wrangell-St. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial is a unit of the National Park Service at 301 Pine Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... To help compare different areas this page lists areas starting at 10¹ m² (10 m²). This page describes objects in the size range 10-100 m² (108-1080 square feet). ...


In addition to "units", and other properties that the National Park Service either owns or administers, it also provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress. The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres (4711 km²). The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than one hundredth of an acre. New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (also known as Pinelands National Reserve) is an affiliated area of the National Park Service in southeastern New Jersey. ... The Franklin Institute is the memorial to Benjamin Franklin, that serves to perpetuate his legacy; the museum contains many of Franklins personal effects. ...


National Parks

Grand Canyon National Park, south rim of canyon.
Grand Canyon National Park, south rim of canyon.

Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service manages each of the United States' National Parks, which have grown in number over the years to 58. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 644 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Grand Canyon National Park Grand Canyon User:Digon3 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 644 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Grand Canyon National Park Grand Canyon User:Digon3 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Grand Canyon National Park is one of the United States oldest national parks and is located in Arizona. ...


Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the world — in 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park; the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the State of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was later returned to federal ownership. “Yellowstone” redirects here. ... Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada A national park is a reserve of land, usually, but not always (see National Parks of England and Wales), declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A state government is the government of a subnational entity in nation-states with federal forms of government, which shares political power with the federal government or national government. ... This article describes the government of the United States. ... Yosemite National Park (pronounced Yo-SEM-it-ee, IPA: ) is a national park located largely in Mariposa and Tuolumne Counties, California, United States. ... State park is a term used in the United States and in Mexico for an area of land preserved on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, recreation, or other reason, and under the administration of the government of a U.S. state or one of the states of Mexico. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


The National Park System (NPS) includes all properties mananged by the National Park Service (also, confusingly, "NPS"). The System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, and some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The idea of national treasure, like national epics and national anthems, is part of the language of Romantic nationalism, which arose in the late 18th century and 19th centuries. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U.S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Tyng Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane tasked him with creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments. Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them. An undated historical photo of Fort Yellowstone. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Stephen Tyng Mather (1867 - 1930) was a pioneering American industrialist and conservationist. ... Franklin Knight Lane (1864–1921) was a Canadian-American Democratic politician who served as United States Secretary of the Interior under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1920. ...


Although all units of the National Park System in the United States, including National Parks, are the responsibility of a single agency, they are all managed under individual pieces of authorizing legislation or, in the case of national monuments created under the Antiquities Act, presidential proclamation. For example, Congaree National Park is almost entirely wilderness area, yet Yosemite has the Badger Pass Ski Area and the O'Shaughnessy Dam within its boundaries. Death Valley National Park actually has an active mine within its boundaries. The Antiquities Act of 1906 is an act passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by Theodore Roosevelt giving the President of the United States authority to place certain lands under control of the federal government by executive order, bypassing Congressional oversight. ... The presidential seal was used by Rutherford B. Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Located in South Carolina, the 34 mi² (89 km²) Congaree National Park is the largest tract of old growth bottomland hardwood forest left in the United States but one of the smallest national parks. ... The Wilderness Act protects exceptional undisturbed natural areas and scenery, such as in the Ansel Adams Wilderness On federal lands in the United States, Congress may designate a wilderness area under the provisions of the Wilderness Act of 1964. ... Badger Pass Ski Area is an area designed for skiing located in Yosemite National Park. ... OShaughnessy Dam in Hetch Hetchy The OShaughnessy Dam is a dam on the Tuolumne River in the Hetch Hetchy Valley of Californias Sierra Nevada mountains. ... Death Valley National Park is a mostly arid United States National Park located east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in southern Inyo County and northern San Bernardino County in California with a small extension into southwestern Nye County and extreme southern Esmeralda County in Nevada. ...


Many parks, especially those with high visitation, charge an entrance fee ranging from US$1 to $25 per week. One can buy an annual pass, allowing unlimited entry to the National Park System for $80 per year (this annual pass covers most federal recreational lands, even those managed by other agencies). This pass applies to entry fees, only. Other applicable fees such as parking, camping, backcountry access, etc. still apply. The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


National Park Service holdings

Type Amount[1]
Buildings 21,000
Trails 17,000 mi (27,350 km)
Roads 10,000 mi (16,000 km)

Concessions

In an effort to increase visitation and allow for a larger audience to enjoy national park land, the National Park Service has numerous concessions agreements with private businesses to bring recreation, resorts, and other compatible amenities to their parks. One example of a relationship formed to adaptively reuse historic buildings on park land in the name of recreation activities is Aviator Sports and Recreation within Gateway National Recreation Area. Other resorts and accommodations also exist such as Wawona Hotel in Yosemite National Park and the Fort Baker Retreat and Conference Center (currently under renovation / construction, due to open in 2008) in Golden Gate National Recreation Area. These "adaptive reuses" have raised some controversy, however, from concerns about the historical integrity of these buildings after such extensive renovations, and whether such alterations fall within the spirit and/or the letter of the preservation laws they are protected by. A concession is a facility operated under a contract or license. ... Demolition of the former Penn Station concourse raised public awareness about preservation Historic preservation is the act of maintaining and repairing existing historic materials and the retention of a propertys form as it has evolved over time. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Gateway National Recreation Area is a 26,607 acre (105 km²) recreation area owned by the United States government in the New York City metropolitan area. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... Yosemite National Park (pronounced Yo-SEM-it-ee, IPA: ) is a national park located largely in Mariposa and Tuolumne Counties, California, United States. ... An aerial view of Fort Baker Fort Baker[1] is one of the most famous components of Californias Golden Gate National Recreation Area. ... The Golden Gate National Recreation Area is a U.S. National Recreation Area, administered by the National Park Service, which surrounds the San Francisco Bay area. ... Reusing old buildings for new purposes. ... The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is a piece of legislation in the United States of America concerned with sites of historic and archaeological interest. ...


At most Park Service sites, a bookstore is operated by a cooperating partner. The largest example is Eastern National, which runs bookstores in 30 states. Eastern National (also known as EN) is a non-profit organization based in Fort Washington, Pennsylvania that partners with the National Park Service in the United States. ...


See also

The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... The Official Units of the National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... Navajo National Monument Devils Tower National Monument Statue of Liberty National Monument Fort Matanzas National Monument A National Monument is a protected area of the United States that is similar to a national park (specifically a U.S. National Park) except that the President of the United States can quickly... In the United States, National Memorial is a designation for a protected area that is commemorative of an historic person or episode. ... U.S. National Heritage Areas are designated areas in the United States, authorized by the U.S. Congress to encourage the preservation of history in areas of distinctive human impact on the landscape. ... The National Park Foundation, was chartered Congress on December 18, 1967 in Pub. ... Example of a National Park Passport Stamp Passport book Yearly adhesive stamp set At nearly all of the 391 American National Park units (and many of the National Park Services affiliated areas), one or more National Park Passport Stamps (cancellation stamps) can be acquired at no cost at park... National Park Service Rustic is a style of architecture that arose in the United States National Park System to create buildings that harmonized with their natural environment. ... Ansel F. Hall Ansel F. Hall (May 6, 1894, Oakland, California – March 28, 1962) was an American naturalist. ... Stephen Tyng Mather (1867 - 1930) was a pioneering American industrialist and conservationist. ... Harry Yount,1837-1924, nicknamed Rocky Mountain Harry, is considered to be Yellowstone National Parks first ranger. ... NPS director Mary Bomar in her park ranger uniform A park ranger is a person charged with protecting and preserving protected parklands, forests (then called a forest ranger), wilderness areas, as well as other natural resources and protected cultural resources. ...

References

  1. ^ NPS Overview. National Park Service (20-04-2006).

External links


 
 

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