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Encyclopedia > National Geographic Magazine
National Geographic
January 2007 Cover of the National Geographic Magazine
Editor Chris Johns
Categories Geography, Science, History, Nature
Frequency Monthly
First issue October 1888[1]
Company National Geographic Society
Country Flag of the United States United States
Language English
Website www.ngm.com
ISSN 0027-9358

The National Geographic Magazine, later shortened to National Geographic, is the official journal of the National Geographic Society. It published its first issue in 1888, just nine months after the Society itself was founded. It has become one of the world's best-known magazines[citation needed] and is immediately identifiable by the characteristic yellow border running around the edge of its cover. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1023x1500, 453 KB) National Geographic Magazine. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... This article is about the study of time in human terms. ... “Natural” redirects here. ... This article is about the organization. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... This article is about the organization. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the magazine as a published medium. ...


There are 12 monthly issues of National Geographic per year, plus additional map supplements. On rare occasions, special editions are also issued. It contains articles about geography, popular science, history, culture, current events, and photography. The current Editor-in-Chief of National Geographic Magazine is the renowned photographer, Chris Johns. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


Society Executive Vice President John Q. Griffin, and President of the Magazine Group, has overall responsibility for the English language magazines at National Geographic. Terry B. Adamson, Executive Vice President of the Society who also is the Society's chief legal officer and heads governmental relations, has overall responsibility for the Society's international publications, including National Geographic Magazine.


With a worldwide circulation in thirty-two language editions of nearly nine million, more than fifty million people read the magazine every month. In May, 2007, National Geographic magazine won the American Society of Magazine Editors' prestigious General Excellence Award in the over two million circulation category and the best photography award for three issues of the magazine in 2006.

Contents

Articles

Cover of the January 1915 National Geographic
Cover of the January 1915 National Geographic

During the Cold War, the magazine committed itself to presenting a balanced view of the physical and human geography of nations beyond the Iron Curtain. The magazine printed articles on Berlin, de-occupied Austria, the Soviet Union, and Communist China that deliberately downplayed politics to focus on culture. In its coverage of the Space Race, National Geographic focused on the scientific achievement while largely avoiding reference to the race's connection to nuclear arms buildup. Cover of January, 1915 edition of National Geographic Magazine This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Cover of January, 1915 edition of National Geographic Magazine This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Occupation zones in Austria, 1945-1955 The Austrian Independence Treaty (complete form: Treaty for the re-establishment of an independent and democratic Austria, signed in Vienna on the 15 May 1955), more commonly referred to as the Austrian State Treaty (German Staatsvertrag), was signed on May 15, 1955 in Vienna... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ...


In later years the once-neutral articles became outspoken on issues such as environment, deforestation, chemical pollution, global warming, and endangered species - a scope expanded to topics well beyond exploration curiosities. Series of articles were included focusing on the history and varied uses of specific products such as a single metal, gem, food crop, or agricultural product, or an archeological discovery. Occasionally an entire month's issue would be devoted to a single country, past civilization, a natural resource whose future is endangered, or other theme. Also in recent decades, the National Geographic Society has unveiled other magazines with different focuses. This article is about the organization. ...


Photography

In addition to being well-known for articles about scenery, history, and the most distant corners of the world, the magazine has also long been recognized for its book-like quality and its standard of photography. This standard makes it the home to some of the highest-quality photojournalism in the world. The magazine began to feature color photography in the early 20th century, when this technology was still rare. During the 1930s, Luis Marden (1913-2003), a writer and photographer for National Geographic, convinced the magazine to allow its photographers to use small 35 mm cameras loaded with Kodachrome film over bulkier cameras with tripods and glass plates. In 1959, the magazine started publishing small photographs on its covers, later becoming larger photographs. National Geographic photography has quickly shifted to digital photography for both its magazine on paper and its award-winning Web site. In subsequent years, the magazine cover, while keeping its yellow border, shed its oak leaf trim and bare table of contents, for a large photograph taken from one of the month's articles inside. National Geographic, more than most other magazines, are often prized and kept by subscribers for years, and are often re-sold at thrift stores as collectible back-issues. In 2006, National Geographic began an international photography competition with over eighteen countries participating Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Assault landing One of the first waves at Omaha Beach as photographed by Robert F. Sargent. ... An undated color photograph from 1905 to 1915 by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii Color photography was explored throughout the 1800s. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Luis Marden (born Annibale Luigi Paragallo) (January 25, 1913—March 3, 2003) was an Italian-American photographer, explorer, writer, filmmaker, diver, navigator, and linguist who worked for National Geographic Magazine. ... Kodachrome is the trademarked name of a brand of color reversal film sold by Eastman Kodak. ... Look up tripod in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Photographic plates were one of the earliest forms of photographic film, in which a light-sensitive emulsion of silver salts was applied to a glass plate. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also: Red Shirt School of Photography An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...


Map supplements

Supplementing the articles, the magazine sometimes provides maps of the regions visited. The Society's map archives have been used by the United States government in instances where its own cartographic resources were limited.[citation needed] President Franklin Roosevelt's White House map room was filled with National Geographic maps. A National Geographic map of Europe is featured in the displays of the Winston Churchhill museum in London showing Churchhill's markings at the Yalta Conference where the Allied and Russian leaders divided post-war Europe. In 2001, National Geographic released an eight-CD-ROM set containing all its maps from 1888 to December 2000. For other uses, see Map (disambiguation). ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ...


Paul Salopek

Main article: Paul Salopek

A two-time Pulitzer prize winning writer on assignment for National Geographic Magazine for a feature article on the Sahel region, Paul Salopek, and two Chadian assistants were arrested and charged in August 2006 with espionage, entering Sudan without a visa, and other crimes by the Government of Sudan. After National Geographic and the Chicago Tribune, for whom Salopek also wrote, mounted a legal defense and led an international appeal to Sudan from such world figures as Jimmy Carter, Rev. Jesse Jackson, Bono, and many prominent journalists and press organizations, New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson was invited to Sudan by President Omar al-Bashir. In a meeting the night of Richardson's arrival, al-Bashir said he would release Salopek on humanitarian grounds. National Geographic Editor-in-Chief Chris Johns flew with Richardson and others to El Fashir in Northern Darfur where Salopek was jailed. Salopek was released and flew back home with his wife to New Mexico. His two assistants from Chad were also released and returned to their country. Paul Salopek (born February 9, 1962 in Barstow, California)[1] is a two-time Pulitzer Prize winning writer. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... // The Chicago Tribune is a major daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois and owned by the Tribune Company. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Jesse Jackson The Reverend Jesse Louis Jackson Sr. ... For other uses, see Bono (disambiguation). ... Field Marshal Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir (Arabic: عمر حسن احمد البشير, born January 1, 1944) is a Sudanese military leader, politician, and current president of Sudan. ...


Sharbat Gula

Sharbat Gula as seen in the photo used for the 1985 issue of National Geographic
Sharbat Gula as seen in the photo used for the 1985 issue of National Geographic
Main article: Sharbat Gula

The famous cover photo of the June 1985 issue was of an Afghan refugee, a beautiful young 13-year old girl with hauntingly green eyes. The photograph was taken in a small tented schoolroom by National Geographic photographer Steve McCurry in a Peshawar, Pakistan refugee camp. After the US-led invasion of Afghanistan a search was conducted for the (presumably grown) girl. Remarkably, a National Geographic television film crew found her, and she was identified in 2002 as Sharbat Gula, a Pashtun woman married and living with her family, and quite unaware of her fame as a photographic subject. Steve McCurry again photographed Sharbat Gula for the second time in her life. Her story was told in the April 2002 issue of National Geographic and in a National Geographic television documentary. She stated then that the two famous photos of her, the one from 1985 and the follow-up in 2002, were the only times she had ever been photographed. A fund named after Gula was created and initially funded by the Society and contributed to by thousands of readers which resulted in a partnership between National Geographic and the Asia Foundation in the creation of a girls' school in Afghanistan that taught hundreds of teenage girls with both a vocational and basic education, in addition to a hot meal and health care. The funds also contributed to the construction of a public school for girls in Kabul [1]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sharbat Gula (Pashto: شربت ګلهflower-juice girl) (Sharbat is pronounced ) (born ca. ... Sharbat Gula (Pashto: شربت ګلهflower-juice girl) (Sharbat is pronounced ) (born ca. ... This article is about the year. ... The Muhajir or Mohajir Afghans are the Afghan refugees that fled Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion in 1979. ... Brown eyes redirects here. ... Steve McCurry (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1950) is an American photojournalist best known for his photograph, Afghan Girl that originally appeared in National Geographic magazine. ... Combatants Taliban al-Qaeda IMU Hezbi Islami United States ISAF Afghanistan Northern Alliance Commanders Mohammed Omar Obaidullah Akhund # Mullah Dadullah  Jalaluddin Haqqani Osama bin Laden Ayman al-Zawahiri Mohammad Atef  Juma Namangani  Tohir Yo‘ldosh Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Bismillah Khan Mohammed Fahim Abdul Rashid Dostum Dan McNeill Guy Laroche Ton van... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Sharbat Gula (Pashto: شربت ګلهflower-juice girl) (Sharbat is pronounced ) (born ca. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...


Greenberg v. National Geographic

An electronic edition "The Complete National Geographic on CD-ROM and DVD," consisting of over 108 years of an exact image-based reproduction of each and every page of each monthly paper issue of National Geographic magazine, has been tied up in copyright litigation for nearly ten years by a handful of prior photographers and contributors since shortly after the product was issued in late 1997. National Geographic withdrew this product from the market in 2004 until the litigation was resolved. Two federal appellate courts have ruled in the various cases. One case in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit ruled against National Geographic in 2001 (Greenberg v. National Geographic) prior to the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in a similar case later that same year involving the same statute of the U.S. Copyright law (Tasini v. The New York Times et al). The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit said that "Greenberg" was inconsistent with the Supreme Court ruling in "Tasini," and ruled in favor of National Geographic in cases involving the same Complete National Geographic product. These New York cases were decided after the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in the Tasini case. In a decision announced June 13, 2007, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit reversed its prior decision in Greenberg I and ruled that the "Complete National Geographic" was an appropriate reproduction under the Copyright Act since it maintained the context of its prior collective works. The appeals court said that the Second Circuit was correct in holding that Greenberg I was inconsistent with the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in the Tasini case. On August 30, 2007, the Eleventh Circuit issued an order vacating the panel decision in Greenberg 2 and said the Court would hear the appeal en banc, or by all the judges on the Court, which will be heard during the week of February 25, 2008. Since National Geographic's victory in the Second Circuit, several publications, the New Yorker, Playboy "Atlantic Monthly," and "Rolling Stone," have either produced or announced plans to produce complete reproductions of their prior paper magazines on DVD or a restricted website for subscribers.


Language editions

In 1995, National Geographic began publishing in Japanese, its first local language edition. The magazine is now published in thirty-two (32) different language editions around the world, including: English on a worldwide basis, Bulgarian, traditional and simplified character Chinese, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew and an Orthodox Hebrew edition, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, two Portuguese language editions, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovenian, two Spanish language editions, Swedish, Thai, and Turkish. Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Portuguese (  or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain) and northern Portugal from the Latin spoken by romanized Celtiberians about 1000 years ago. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...


In April 2005, an Indonesian edition launched, published by Gramedia Majalah - Jakarta. A Bulgarian edition of the magazine published by a Sanoma Publishing joint venture launched in November, 2005 and a Slovenian edition published by Rokus launched in May, 2006. In association with Trends Publications in Beijing and IDG Asia, National Geographic has been authorized for "copyright cooperation" in China to publish the yellow border magazine, which recently launched with the July 2007 issue of the magazine with an event in Beijing on July 10, 2007. A Serbian edition of National Geographic was launched with the November 2006 issue in partnership with a joint venture of Sanoma and Gruner + Jahr. An Orthodox Hebrew edition has recently launched in Israel.


In contrast to the United States, where membership in the National Geographic Society was until recently the only way to receive the magazine, the worldwide editions are sold on newsstands in addition to regular subscriptions. In several countries, such as Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, and Turkey, National Geographic paved the way for a subscription model in addition to traditional newsstand sales.


References and footnotes

External links


 
 

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