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Encyclopedia > National Gallery, London
The National Gallery
Established 1824
Location Trafalgar Square, WC2, England
Collection size 2,300 paintings
Museum area 46,396 m²[1]
Visitor figures 4,600,000 (2006)[2]
Director Martin Wyld (acting)
Nearest tube station(s) Charing Cross, Embankment, Leicester Square
Website www.nationalgallery.org.uk

London's National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900[a] in its home on Trafalgar Square. The collection belongs to the British public and entry to the main collection is free, although there are charges for entry to special exhibitions. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 538 KB) National Gallery - London 22-08-2004 Author: Yorick Petey (Yoti) File links The following pages link to this file: National Gallery, London ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ... Map of central postal districts The WC (Western Central) postcode area, also known as the London WC postcode area,[1] is a group of postcode districts in central London, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Charing Cross London Underground station serves both the Northern and Bakerloo lines and provides an interchange with the National Rail network at Charing Cross station. ... Embankment station, April 2002 Embankment tube station is a London Underground station in the City of Westminster. ... Leicester Square tube station Leicester Square Tube Station is a station on the London Underground, located on Charing Cross Road, a short distance to the east of Leicester Square itself. ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ...


The National Gallery's beginnings crapoto basta were modest; unlike comparable galleries such as the Louvre in Paris or the Museo del Prado in Madrid, it was not formed by nationalising an existing royal or princely art collection. It is a crapoto basta into being when the British government bought 36 paintings from the banker John Julius Angerstein in 1824. After that initial purchase the Gallery has been shaped mainly by its early directors, notably Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, and by private donations, which comprise two thirds of the collection.[3] The resulting collection is small compared with the national galleries of continental Europe, but has a high concentration of important works across a broad art-historical scope, from the Early Renaissance to Post-impressionism, with relatively few weak areas. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bold text The Museo del Prado is a famous museum and art gallery located in Madrid; the capital of Spain. ... Her Majestys Government, or when the Sovereign is male, His Majestys Government, abbreviated HMG or HM Government, is the formal title used by the Government of the United Kingdom. ... John Julius Angerstein (1735-1822), London merchant, Lloyds under-writer, and patron of the fine arts, was born in St Petersburg, Russia (it has - wrongly - been suggested that he was an illegitimate son of Catherine the Great!) and settled in London about 1749. ... Born in Plymouth, Devon, Sir Charles Lock Eastlake ( 17 November 1793 – 24 December 1865) was an English painter, gallery director, collector and writer of the early 19th century. ... Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife by Jan van Eyck (1434). ... Self-Portrait with sister, by Victor Borisov-Musatov 1898 Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1914, to describe the development of European art since Monet (Impressionism). ...


The present building, on the northern side of Trafalgar Square, is the third to house the Gallery, and like its predecessors it has often been deemed inadequate. The façade by William Wilkins is the only part of his original building of 1832–8 that remains essentially unchanged, as the structure as a whole has been altered and expanded in a piecemeal manner throughout its history. Notable additions have been made by E. M. Barry and Robert Venturi. The last director of the National Gallery was Charles Saumarez Smith; as of July 2007 his successor has not yet been appointed. William Wilkins (31 August 1778 — 31 August 1839) was an English architect, classicist and archaeologist. ... Edward Middleton Barry (1830 - 27 January 1880) was an English architect of the 19th century. ... Robert Charles Venturi (June 25, 1925 -) is an award winning American architect. ... Dr. Charles Robert Saumarez Smith (born 1954) is an art historian and museum director. ...

Contents

History

The call for a National Gallery

Great Britain, compared with most European nation states, was a late starter in establishing a national art collection open to the public. This was not for lack of opportunities to do so, as the British government had been in a position to buy a private collection of international stature in the late 18th century, but had not acted on it. The collection in question was that of Sir Robert Walpole, which his descendants were considering putting up for sale in 1777. The radical MP John Wilkes, speaking to the House of Commons, called for "a noble gallery... to be built in the spacious garden of the British Museum for the reception of that invaluable treasure".[4] The government paid no heed to Wilkes's appeal and 20 years later the collection was bought in its entirety by Catherine the Great; it is now to be found in the State Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg. Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (commonly known as Robert Walpole, or Sir Robert Walpole) KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745) was a British statesman who is generally regarded as having been the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... The Winter Palace overlooks the Neva River. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


Following the Walpole sale artists including James Barry and John Flaxman made renewed calls for the establishment of a National Gallery, arguing that a British school of painting could only flourish if it had access to the canon of European painting. The British Institution (founded in 1805) attempted to address this situation with its exhibitions of Old Master paintings lent by private collections but became mired in controversy, partly due to the poor quality of the works displayed.[5] Later, in 1811, London became home to a collection intended for a never-realised national gallery of Poland when it was bequeathed in the will of one of the men who had assembled it, Sir Francis Bourgeois, to Dulwich College. (It now resides in the Dulwich Picture Gallery.) But with the college being a private institution in a South London suburb, the British capital remained without a state-owned national gallery in a central location until after the Napoleonic Wars. James Barry (1741-1806), Irish-English painter, best remembered for his six part series of paintings entitled The Progress of Human Culture. ... John Flaxman (July 6, 1755 - December 7, 1826), was an English sculptor and draughtsman. ... Sir Peter Francis Bourgeois (1756 - 1811) was a lanscape painter and court painter to George III. When he died he left his collection to Dulwich College, and £10,000 to build a gallery for them. ... Dulwich New College buildings. ... Dulwich Picture Gallery is an art gallery in Dulwich, London. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von...


Foundation and early history

The Raising of Lazarus by Sebastiano del Piombo, part of Angerstein's collection and officially the first painting to enter the National Gallery.
The Raising of Lazarus by Sebastiano del Piombo, part of Angerstein's collection and officially the first painting to enter the National Gallery.

The unexpected repayment of a war debt by Austria finally moved the hitherto reluctant British government to establish a National Gallery, just as the art collection of John Julius Angerstein, a Russian émigré banker who had died the previous year, appeared on the market. On April 2, 1824, the House of Commons voted to purchase 38 of Angerstein's paintings, including works by Raphael and Hogarth's Marriage à-la-Mode series, for £57,000. The National Gallery opened to the public on May 10, 1824, housed in Angerstein's former townhouse on No. 100 Pall Mall. Angerstein's paintings were joined in 1826 by those from the collection of Sir George Beaumont, which he had offered to give to the nation three years previously on the condition that a suitable building would be found to house them, and in 1828 by the Reverend William Holwell Carr's bequest of 34 paintings. Initially the Keeper of Paintings, William Seguier, bore the burden of managing the Gallery, but in July 1824 some of this responsibility fell to the newly-formed board of trustees. Image File history File links The Raising of Lazarus by Sebastiano del Piombo in the National Gallery, London Note that the National Gallery claims copyright over digtizations of art work that they own, though their claim probably could not be enforced in the US. File history Legend: (cur) = this is... Image File history File links The Raising of Lazarus by Sebastiano del Piombo in the National Gallery, London Note that the National Gallery claims copyright over digtizations of art work that they own, though their claim probably could not be enforced in the US. File history Legend: (cur) = this is... The Raising of Lazarus is a painting by the Italian High Renaissance painter Sebastiano del Piombo. ... Sebastiano del Piombo (1485 – June 21, 1547), Italian painter, was born at Venice. ... John Julius Angerstein (1735-1822), London merchant, Lloyds under-writer, and patron of the fine arts, was born in St Petersburg, Russia (it has - wrongly - been suggested that he was an illegitimate son of Catherine the Great!) and settled in London about 1749. ... John Julius Angerstein (1735-1822), London merchant, Lloyds under-writer, and patron of the fine arts, was born in St Petersburg, Russia (it has - wrongly - been suggested that he was an illegitimate son of Catherine the Great!) and settled in London about 1749. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... Marriage à-la-mode, scene two of six. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Pall Mall is a street in the City of Westminster, London. ... Sir George Howland Beaumont, 7th baronet (6 November 1753–7 February 1827), was a British art patron and amateur painter. ... William Seguier (pronounced [siːgÉ™]; (9 November 1772 – 5 November 1843) was a British art dealer, painter, and official functionary in the art world. ...

100 Pall Mall, the home of the National Gallery from 1824 to 1834.
100 Pall Mall, the home of the National Gallery from 1824 to 1834.

The National Gallery at Pall Mall was frequently overcrowded and hot and its diminutive size in comparison with the Louvre in Paris was the cause of national embarrassment. Subsidence in No. 100 caused the Gallery to move briefly to No. 105 Pall Mall, which the novelist Anthony Trollope called a "dingy, dull, narrow house, ill-adapted for the exhibition of the treasures it held".[6] In 1832 construction began on a new building by William Wilkins on the site of the King's Mews in Charing Cross, in an area that had been transformed over the 1820s into Trafalgar Square. The location was a significant one, described by the trustee Sir Robert Peel as being "in the very gangway of London" and thus equally accessible by people of all social classes. Later, in the 1850s, there were calls for a change of location, due in part to the pollution of central London and partly because of the failings of Wilkins's building, but it was felt that moving the National Gallery from Trafalgar Square would undermine public access. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pall Mall is a street in the City of Westminster, London. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anthony Trollope (April 24, 1815 – December 6, 1882) became one of the most successful, prolific and respected English novelists of the Victorian era. ... William Wilkins (31 August 1778 — 31 August 1839) was an English architect, classicist and archaeologist. ... The Royal Mews is the mews (stables and in recent times also the garage) of the British Royal Family in London. ... The Victorian Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross The name Charing Cross, now given to a district of central London in the City of Westminster, comes from the original hamlet of Charing, where King Edward I placed a memorial to his wife, Eleanor of Castile. ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Growth under Eastlake and his successors

15th- and 16th century Italian paintings were at the core of the National Gallery and for the first 30 years of its existence the Trustees' independent acquisitions were mainly limited to works by High Renaissance masters. Their conservative tastes resulted in several missed opportunities and the management of the Gallery later fell into complete disarray, with no acquisitions being made between 1847 and 1850.[7] A critical House of Commons Report in 1851 called for the appointment of a director, whose authority would surpass that of the trustees. Many thought the position would go to the German art historian Gustav Friedrich Waagen, whom the Gallery had consulted on previous occasions about the lighting and display of the collections. However, the man preferred for the job by Queen Victoria, Prince Albert and the Prime Minister, Lord Russell, was the Keeper of Paintings at the Gallery, Sir Charles Lock Eastlake. Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... Art history usually refers to the history of the visual arts. ... Gustav Friedrich Waagen (February 11, 1794–July 15, 1868) was a German art historian. ... “Queen Victoria” redirects here. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (in full Francis Charles Augustus Albert Emmanuel) (26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was an English Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... Born in Plymouth, Devon, Sir Charles Lock Eastlake ( 17 November 1793 – 24 December 1865) was an English painter, gallery director, collector and writer of the early 19th century. ...


The new director's taste was for the Northern and Early Italian Renaissance masters or "primitives", who had been neglected by the Gallery's acquisitions policy but were slowly gaining recognition from connoisseurs. Eastlake made annual tours to the continent and to Italy in particular, seeking out appropriate paintings to buy for the Gallery. In all, he bought 148 pictures abroad and 46 in Britain,[8] among the former such seminal works as Paolo Uccello's Battle of San Romano. Eastlake also amassed a private art collection during this period, consisting of paintings that he knew did not interest the trustees. His ultimate aim, however, was for them to enter the National Gallery; this was duly arranged upon his death by his friend and successor as director, William Boxall, and his widow Lady Eastlake. Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife by Jan van Eyck (1434). ... Paolo Uccello (born Paolo di Dono, 1397 – December 10, 1475) was an Italian painter who was notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective in art. ... Sir William Boxall (29 June 1800 – 6 December 1879) was a British painter and museum director. ... Elizabeth Rigby, the future Lady Eastlake, photographed about 1847 by Hill and Adamson Elizabeth, Lady Eastlake, born Elizabeth Rigby, (17 November 1809 - 2 October 1893) was a British author, art critic and art historian who was the first woman to write regularly for the Quarterly Review. ...


The third director, Sir Frederick William Burton, laid the foundations of the collection of 18th century art and made several outstanding purchases from English private collections, including The Ambassadors by Hans Holbein the Younger. The last decisive influence in the shaping of the Gallery was the founding of the National Gallery of British Art, or the Tate Gallery as it was already being called, in 1897. The stipulation that paintings by British artists born after 1790 should be given to the Tate allowed the National Gallery to shed many of the superfluous works in its collection, while keeping those by Hogarth, Turner and Constable. As the building at the time was still comprised of only 15 rooms, this de-cluttering exercise proved to be a boon to the Gallery, allowing it to display its paintings by the British School with better focus than was previously possible. Frederick William Burton (April 8, 1816-March 16, 1900), Irish painter and art connoisseur, the third son of Samuel Burton of Mungret, County Limerick, was born in Corofin, County Clare, Ireland. ... The Ambassadors (1533) is a painting by Hans Holbein the Younger in the National Gallery, London. ... A 1543 portrait miniature of Hans Holbein the Younger by Lucas Horenbout Holbeins 1533 painting The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... The Tate Gallery in the United Kingdom is a network of four galleries: Tate Britain (opened 1897), Tate Liverpool (1988), Tate St Ives (1993), Tate Modern (2000), with a complementary website Tate Online (1998). ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (April 23, 1775 (exact date disputed) – December 19, 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ...


The early twentieth century

In 1906 Velázquez's Rokeby Venus, the first high-profile acquisition by the National Art Collections Fund, was the first of many artworks bought by the Fund for the National Gallery. In a rare example of the political protest for which Trafalgar Square is famous occurring in the National Gallery, the canvas was damaged on May 10, 1914 by Mary Richardson, a campaigner for women's suffrage, in protest against the arrest of Emmeline Pankhurst the previous day. Later that month another suffragette attacked five Bellinis, causing the Gallery to close until the start of the First World War, when the Women's Social and Political Union called for an end to violent acts drawing attention to their plight.[9] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (950x651, 98 KB)Rokeby Venus by Diego Velázquez Non-creative mechanical reproduction of pre-copyright image from [1] via [2] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (950x651, 98 KB)Rokeby Venus by Diego Velázquez Non-creative mechanical reproduction of pre-copyright image from [1] via [2] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and... La Venus del espejo, also known as The Rokeby Venus, is a painting by Diego Velázquez in the National Gallery, London. ... Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (June 6, 1599 – August 6, 1660), commonly referred to as Diego Velázquez, was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary baroque period, important as a portrait artist. ... Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (June 6, 1599 – August 6, 1660), commonly referred to as Diego Velázquez, was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary baroque period, important as a portrait artist. ... La Venus del espejo, also known as The Rokeby Venus, is a painting by Diego Velázquez in the National Gallery, London. ... The National Art Collections Fund (the Art Fund for short) is an independent membership-based British charity. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Mary Richardson (1889–1961) was a Canadian suffragette active in the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Statue of Emmeline Pankhurst in Victoria Tower Gardens next to the Houses of Parliament, Westminster. ... Giovanni Bellini painted his first female nude when he was about 85 years old. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


The bequest of 42 paintings given by the chemist Dr Ludwig Mond in 1909 was one of the largest ever received by the gallery and strengthened its holdings in the Italian old masters.[10] During the 19th century the National Gallery contained no works by a contemporary artist, but this situation was belatedly amended by Sir Hugh Lane's bequest of Impressionist paintings in 1917. A fund for the purchase of modern paintings established by Samuel Courtauld in 1924 bought Seurat's Bathers at Asnières and other notable modern works for the nation; in 1934 these transferred to the National Gallery from the Tate. Dr Ludwig Mond (born March 7, 1839, Kassel; died December 11, 1909, London) was an important German-born British chemist and industrialist. ... Sir Hugh Lane by Antonio Mancini - Oil on canvas (1913) Sir Hugh Percy Lane ( November 9, 1875-May 7, 1915 ) Born in County Cork on 9 November 1875, he is best known for for establishing Dublins Municipal Gallery of Modern Art (the first known public gallery of modern art... This article is about the art movement. ... Samuel Courtauld (1876–1947) was an English industrialist (great-nephew of textile magnate Samuel Courtauld) who is best remembered as an art collector. ... Le Chahut was painted by Seurat from 1889 to 1890. ...


The Gallery in World War II

At the outbreak of World War II the paintings were exiled to safety in various locations in Wales and then to Manod Quarry, near the town of Ffestiniog in North Wales. Originally the director Kenneth Clark hoped to ship the paintings from Wales to Canada, but he received a telegram from Winston Churchill exhorting him to “bury them in caves or in cellars, but not a picture shall leave these islands”.[11] In the meantime the pianist Myra Hess gave daily recitals in the empty building to raise public morale at a time when every concert hall in London was closed. In 1941 a request from an artist to see Rembrandt's Portrait of Margaretha de Geer resulted in the "Picture of the Month" scheme, in which a single painting was removed from Manod and exhibited to the general public in the National Gallery each month. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Llan Ffestiniog, also known as Ffestiniog or Llan is a small town in Gwynedd, traditional county of Merionethshire, north Wales, lying south of Blaenau Ffestiniog. ... This article is about the country. ... Kenneth Clark presenting the BBC TV series Civilisation. ... “Churchill” redirects here. ... Myra Hess Dame Myra Hess (February 25, 1890 – November 25, 1965) was a British pianist. ... Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606 – October 4, 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. ...


Post-war developments

In the post-war years acquisitions have become increasingly difficult for the National Gallery as the prices for Old Masters – and even more so for the Impressionists and Post-impressionists – have risen beyond its means. Some of the Gallery's most remarkable purchases in this period would have been impossible without the major public appeals backing them, including The Virgin and Child with St. Anne and St. John the Baptist by Leonardo da Vinci (bought in 1962), Titian’s Death of Actaeon (1972) and Raphael’s Madonna of the Pinks (2004). Private individuals have continued to give their support, the most generous of whom was the late Sir Paul Getty, who in 1985 gave the Gallery £50 million towards acquisitions.[12] Ironically, the institution that posed the biggest threat to the Gallery's acquisitions policy was (and remains) the extremely well-endowed J. Paul Getty Museum in California, established by Getty's estranged father. Also in 1985 Lord Sainsbury of Preston Candover and his brothers, the Hon. Simon Sainsbury and Sir Timothy Sainsbury, made a donation that enabled the construction of the Sainsbury Wing. However, the decline in government funding for the Gallery has been a cause of frustration for the outgoing director Charles Saumarez Smith and the institution is considered, as of 2007, to be facing its 'worst acquisition crisis in over a century'.[13] Self-Portrait with sister, by Victor Borisov-Musatov 1898 Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1914, to describe the development of European art since Monet (Impressionism). ... The Virgin and Child with St. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... The Madonna of the Pinks (circa 1506-1507, Italian: La Madonna dei garofani) is an early devotional painting by Raphael. ... Sir John Paul Getty KBE (September 7, 1932 – April 17, 2003) was a wealthy American-born British philanthropist and book-collector. ... View of a building at the Getty Center, from the Central Garden. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The Right Honourable John Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Preston Candover, KG (b. ... The Right Honourable Sir Timothy Alan Davan Sainsbury (born June 11, 1932) is a politician and businessman in the United Kingdom. ... Dr. Charles Robert Saumarez Smith (born 1954) is an art historian and museum director. ...


In 1996 it was decided that 1900 would be the cut-off date for paintings in the National Gallery and the following year more than 60 post-1900 paintings from the National Gallery collection were given to the Tate on a long-term loan, in return for works by Gauguin and others. The agreement was remarkable for marking an end to a century of cool relations between the two galleries. Future expansion of the National Gallery may see the return of twentieth-century paintings to its walls.[14] Another gap in the collection was addressed by a bequest from Sir Denis Mahon in 1999, an art historian and collector of Italian Baroque paintings at a time when they were considered beyond the pale by most in the profession. This prejudice extended to the National Gallery trustees, who declined the offer to buy a Guercino from his collection for £200 in 1945 (in 2003 it was evaluated at £4m).[15] Mahon left the National Gallery 26 of his paintings, including works by Guido Reni and Correggio, on the condition that it will never deaccession any of its paintings or charge for admission.[16] Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a leading Post-Impressionist painter. ... Sir Denis Mahon is a collector and historian of Italian art born in London, England, on November 8, 1910. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The Italian painter Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (1591—1666) known as Guercino, was born at Cento, a village not far from Bologna. ... Autoportrait Abduction of Deianira, 1620-21 Guido Reni (November 4, 1575, Calvenzano di Vergato, near Bologna - August 18, 1642, Bologna) was a prominent Italian painter of high-Baroque style. ... Antonio Allegri da Correggio. ...


The building

First floor plan of the National Gallery, showing the piecemeal way in which galleries have been added

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

William Wilkins's building

The first suggestion for a National Gallery on Trafalgar Square came from John Nash, who envisaged it on the site of the King's Mews, while a Parthenon-like building for the Royal Academy would occupy the centre of the square. A competition for the Mews site was eventually held in 1832, for which Nash submitted a design with C. R. Cockerell as his co-architect. Nash's popularity was waning by this time, however, and the commission was awarded to William Wilkins, who was involved in the selection of the site and submitted some drawings at the last moment.[17] Wilkins had hoped to build a "Temple of the Arts, nurturing contemporary art through historical example",[18] but the commission was blighted by parsimony and compromise, and the resulting building was deemed a failure on almost all counts. John Nash For other people of the same name, see John Nash. ... The Royal Mews is the mews (stables and in recent times also the garage) of the British Royal Family in London. ... The Parthenon east façade The Parthenon from the south. ... The Royal Academy of Arts is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly, London, England. ... The main entrance to the Fitzwilliam Museum. ... William Wilkins (31 August 1778 — 31 August 1839) was an English architect, classicist and archaeologist. ...

Wilkins's façade, illuminated at night

The site only allowed for the building to be one room deep, as a workhouse and a barracks lay immediately behind.[b] To exacerbate matters, there was a public right of way through the site to these buildings, which accounts for the access porticoes on the eastern and western sides of the façade. They incorporate columns from the demolished Carlton House (the reuse of which was yet another stipulation of the commission) and their relative shortness result in an elevation that was deemed excessively low, and a far cry from the commanding focal point that was desired for the northern end of the Square. Also recycled are the sculptures on the façade, originally intended for Nash's Marble Arch but abandoned due to his financial problems.[c] According to a famous 20th century critique, the fussy arrangement on the roofline, comprising a dome and two diminutive turrets, is "like the clock and vases on a mantelpiece, only less useful".[19] Even the space given to the National Gallery inside the building was ungenerous as the eastern half was occupied by the Royal Academy until 1868, when it moved to its present home in Burlington House. National Gallery in London, from Trafalgar Square. ... National Gallery in London, from Trafalgar Square. ... The entrance front of Carlton House. ... Marble Arch was originally erected on The Mall, as a gateway to the newly rebuilt Buckingham Palace. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Corbelled corner turrets at Newark Castle, Port Glasgow. ... Burlington House is a courtyard building off Picadilly in London. ...


The building was the object of public ridicule before it had even been completed, as a version of the design had been leaked to the Literary Gazette in 1833.[20] Two years before completion, its infamous "pepperpot" elevation appeared on the frontispiece of Contrasts (1836), an influential tract by the Gothicist A. W. N. Pugin, as an example of the degeneracy of the classical style.[21] Even William IV thought the building a "nasty little pokey hole".[22] Opinion on Wilkins's façade has, however, mellowed considerably since the 19th century. The extent of this acceptance can be seen in the remarks of another royal commentator, the current Prince of Wales, who referred to it in a well-known speech of 1984 as a "much-loved and elegant friend". (See below) Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (March 1, 1812–September 14, 1852) was an English-born architect, designer and theorist of design now best remembered for his work on churches and on the Houses of Parliament. ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George[2]; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ...


Alteration and expansion (Pennethorne, Barry and Taylor)

The first significant alteration made to the building was the single, long gallery added by Sir James Pennethorne in 1860-1.[d] Ornately decorated in comparison with the rooms by Wilkins, it nonetheless worsened the cramped conditions inside the building as it was built over the original entrance hall.[23] Unsurprisingly, several attempts were made either to completely remodel the National Gallery (as suggested by Sir Charles Barry in 1853), or to move it to more capacious premises in Kensington, where the air was also cleaner. In 1867 Barry’s son Edward Middleton Barry proposed to replace the Wilkins building with a massive classical building with four domes. The scheme was a failure and contemporary critics denounced the exterior as "a strong plagiarism upon St Paul's Cathedral".[24] Sir James Pennethorne (June 4, 1801 – 1871) was a notable 19th century English architect and planner, particularly associated with buildings and parks in central London. ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster, Barrys most famous building. ... , A wealthy area in Kensington, that is just south of Kensington High Street. ... Edward Middleton Barry (1830 - 27 January 1880) was an English architect of the 19th century. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ...

The Barry Rooms, designed by E.M.Barry (1872-76).
The Barry Rooms, designed by E.M.Barry (1872-76).

With the demolition of the workhouse, however, Barry was able to build the Gallery's first sequence of grand architectural spaces, from 1872 to 1876. Built to a polychrome Neo-Renaissance design, the Barry Rooms were arranged on a Greek cross-plan around a huge central octagon. Though it compensated for the underwhelming architecture of the Wilkins building, Barry's new wing was disliked by Gallery staff, who considered its monumental aspect to be in conflict with its function as exhibition space. Also, the decorative programme of the rooms did not take their intended contents into account; the ceiling of the 15th- and 16th century Italian gallery, for instance, was inscribed with the names of British artists of the 19th century.[25] But despite these failures, the Barry Rooms provided the Gallery with a strong axial groundplan. This was to be followed by all subsequent additions to the Gallery for a century, resulting in a building of clear symmetry. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2176 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2176 pixel, file size: 1. ... Edward Middleton Barry (1830 - 27 January 1880) was an English architect of the 19th century. ... Château de Ferrières 1855 Mentmore Towers English Neo-Renaissance of the 1850s. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

The Staircase Hall, designed by Sir John Taylor.
The Staircase Hall, designed by Sir John Taylor.

Pennethorne's gallery was demolished for the next phase of building, a scheme by Sir John Taylor extending northwards of the main entrance. Its glass-domed entrance vestibule had painted ceiling decorations by the Crace family firm, who had also worked on the Barry Rooms.[e] A fresco intended for the south wall was never realised, and that space is now taken up by Frederic, Lord Leighton’s painting of Cimabue's Celebrated Madonna carried in Procession through the Streets of Florence (1853–5), lent by the Royal Collection in the 1990s.[26] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Sir John Taylor KCB FRIBA (15 November 1833 – 30 April 1912) was a British architect. ... John Dibblee Crace (1838 – 18 November 1919) was a distinguished British interior designer, who provided decorative schemes for the British Museum, the National Gallery,[1] the Royal Academy and Longleat among many other notable buildings. ... Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton Flaming June Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton (3 December 1830–25 January 1896) was an English painter and sculptor. ... Crucifix (1287-88) Panel, 448 x 390 cm Basilica di Santa Croce, Florence. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...


From 1928 to 1952 the landing floors of this vestibule were relaid with a new series of mosaics by Boris Anrep. The scheme can be read as a satire of Victorian conventions for the decoration of public buildings – unsurprisingly, as Anrep was close to the Bloomsbury Group and shared its distaste for 19th century sentiments.[27] In place of the 'pantheons' of historical figures typified by the Albert Memorial's sculptural programme, Anrep's "philosophical cycle" is full of recognisable contemporary faces, each in an appropriate allegorical guise. Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Boris Anrep (27 September 1883 – 7 June 1969) was a Russian artist and mosaicist, active in Britain. ... The Bloomsbury Group or Bloomsbury Set or just Bloomsbury, as its adherents would generally refer to it, was an English group of artists and scholars that existed from around 1905 until around World War II. // History The group began as an informal socialwe have been great to society assembly of... The Albert Memorial is situated in Kensington Gardens, London, England, directly to the north of the Royal Albert Hall. ...


Extensions to the West and North

Later additions to the west came more steadily but maintained the coherence of the building by mirroring Barry’s cross-axis plan to the east. The use of dark marble for doorcases and skirting-boards was also continued, giving the extensions a degree of internal consistency with the older rooms. The classical style was still in use at the Gallery as late as 1929, when the Duveen gallery with its coffered, barrel-vaulted ceiling was built. The symmetry of the building was broken by the North Galleries, an unloved modernist extension which opened in 1975. "Ill proportioned [sic], poorly lit, and lack[ing] a positive architectural character" according to the 1997 National Gallery Report,[28] these galleries were refitted in the 1990s in a style closely mimicking that of their 19th- and early 20th century neighbours. This was part of a larger programme of refurbishing the principal floor that had begun in 1985-6 with the restoration of the Barry Rooms. Joseph Duveen (1869 – 1939), later made Baron Duveen of Millbank, was one of the most influential art dealers of all time. ... Coffering on the ceiling of the Pantheon, Rome In architecture, a coffer is (plural: coffering) is a sunken panel in the shape of a square or octagon that serves as a decorative device, usually in a ceiling. ... Barrel vault In architecture, a barrel vault is an extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ...


The Sainsbury Wing and later additions

The Sainsbury Wing as seen from Trafalgar Square
The Sainsbury Wing as seen from Trafalgar Square

The most important addition to the building in recent years has been the Sainsbury Wing, designed by the leading postmodernist architects Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown to house the collection of Renaissance paintings and built in 1991. Building on the site had been delayed after Prince Charles infamously denounced a still evolving design for a modernist extension to the gallery by the architects Ahrends, Burton and Koralek as "a monstrous carbuncle on the face of a much-loved and elegant friend".[f] The proposed extension then under consideration would have included a block of offices under the galleries. This proposal went as far as the display of a scale model at the Royal Academy in 1983. Only after the 1985 donation by John Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Preston Candover and his brothers did a building exclusively for use by the National Gallery become financially feasible. Given the sensitivity of the site it is unsurprising that the Sainsbury Wing is subdued by Venturi's standards, superficially blending in with the Wilkins façade whilst offering a quirky comment on classical architectural idiom. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Robert Charles Venturi (June 25, 1925 -) is an award winning American architect. ... Denise Scott Brown, (born October 3, 1931) is an architect, urban designer, planner and principal of the Philadelphia firm Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates. ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George[2]; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Royal Academy of Arts is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly, London, England. ... The Right Honourable John Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Preston Candover, KG (b. ...


In contrast with the rich ornamentation of the rooms that either date from or emulate the 19th century, the galleries in the Sainsbury Wing are deliberately pared-down and intimate, to suit the smaller scale of many of the paintings. Sir John Soane's toplit galleries for the Dulwich Picture Gallery are the main inspiration for these rooms, and the white walls with grey pietra serena stone details (for door surrounds etc.) are a nod to the Florentine Renaissance architect Filippo Brunelleschi. The northernmost galleries align with Barry's central axis, so that there is a single continuous vista down the whole length of the Gallery. Looking towards the Sainsbury Wing from the main building, this prospect is given added drama by the use of false perspective as the paired columns flanking each opening gradually diminish in size until the visitor reaches the focal point of the vista (as of 2006), an altarpiece by Cima of The Incredulity of St Thomas. Venturi's postmodernist approach to architecture is in full evidence at the Sainsbury Wing, with its stylistic quotations from buildings as disparate as the clubhouses on Pall Mall, the Scala Regia in the Vatican, Victorian warehouses and Ancient Egyptian temples. Sir John Soane (10 September 1753 - 20 January 1837) was a British architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical tradition. ... Dulwich Picture Gallery is an art gallery in Dulwich, London. ... Sculpture of Brunelleschi looking at the dome in Florence Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was an Italian architect, engineer and one of the first architects to be associated with the Italian Renaissance in Florence. ... A diorama is a partially three dimensional model of a landscape typically showing historical events, nature scenes, cityscapes, etc. ... The Presentation of the Virgin Annunciation (1495). ... The Scala Regia (Royal Staircase) is a flight of steps in the Vatican City and is part of the formal entrance to the Vatican. ...


Following the pedestrianisation of Trafalgar Square, the Gallery is currently engaged in a masterplan to convert the vacated office space on the ground floor into public space. The plan will also fill in disused courtyards and make use of land acquired from the adjoining National Portrait Gallery in St Martin's Place, which it gave to the National Gallery in exchange for land for its 2000 extension. The first phase, the East Wing Project designed by Jeremy Dixon and Edward Jones, opened to the public in 2004. This provided a new ground level entrance from Trafalgar Square. The main entrance was also refurbished, and reopened in September 2005. Possible future projects include a "West Wing Project" roughly symmetrical with the East Wing Project, which would provide a future ground level entrance, and the public opening of some small rooms at the far eastern end of the building acquired as part of the swap with the National Portrait Gallery. This might include a new public staircase in the bow on the eastern façade. No timetable has been announced for these additional projects. The National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery in St Martins Place, London, England, which opened to the public in 1856. ...


Controversies

The restoration of Titian's Bacchus and Ariadne from 1967 to 1968 was one of the most controversial ever undertaken at the National Gallery, due to fears that the painting's tonality had been thrown out of balance.
The restoration of Titian's Bacchus and Ariadne from 1967 to 1968 was one of the most controversial ever undertaken at the National Gallery, due to fears that the painting's tonality had been thrown out of balance.[29]

One of the most persistent criticisms of the National Gallery, alongside the perceived inadequacies of the building, has been of its policy regarding the conservation of paintings. The Gallery's detractors accuse it of having an over-zealous approach to restoration and of turning a deaf ear to criticism. The first cleaning operation at the National Gallery began in 1844 after Eastlake's appointment as Keeper, and was the subject of attacks in the press after the first three paintings to receive the treatment – a Rubens, a Cuyp and a Velázquez – were unveiled to the public in 1846.[30] The Gallery's most virulent critic was J. Morris Moore, who wrote a series of letters to The Times under the pseudonym "Verax" savaging the institution's recent cleanings. While an 1853 Parliamentary Select Committee set up to investigate the matter cleared the Gallery of any wrongdoing, criticism of its methods has been erupting sporadically ever since from some in the art establishment. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (781x707, 95 KB) Summary Bacchus and Ariadne by Titian National Gallery, London Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Ariadne National Gallery, London Bacchus and Ariadne ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (781x707, 95 KB) Summary Bacchus and Ariadne by Titian National Gallery, London Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Ariadne National Gallery, London Bacchus and Ariadne ... Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. ... Bacchus and Ariadne (1520-3) is an oil painting by Titian. ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... The Negro Page Aelbert Jacobsz Cuyp (Dordrecht October 20, 1620 - Dordrecht November 15, 1691) was one of the leading Dutch landscape painters of the 17th century. ... Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (June 6, 1599 – August 6, 1660), commonly referred to as Diego Velázquez, was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary baroque period, important as a portrait artist. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ... A Select Committee is a committee made up of a small number of parliamentary members appointed to deal with particular areas or issues originating in the Westminster System of parliamentary democracy. ...


The last major outcry against the use of radical conservation techniques at the National Gallery was in the immediate post-war years, following a restoration campaign by Chief Restorer Helmut Ruhemann while the paintings were in Manod Quarry. When the cleaned pictures were exhibited to the public in 1946 there followed a furore with parallels to that of a century earlier. The principal criticism was that the extensive removal of varnish, which was used in the 19th century to protect the surface of paintings but which darkened and discoloured them with time, may have resulted in the loss of "harmonising" glazes added to the paintings by the artists themselves. The opposition to Ruhemann's techniques was led by Ernst Gombrich, a professor at the Warburg Institute who in later correspondence with a restorer described being treated with "offensive superciliousness" by the National Gallery.[31] A 1947 commission concluded that no damage had been done in the recent cleanings, but some in conservation circles remain unhappy that the Gallery's attitude towards restoration has changed little since Ruhemann's time. Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials. ... Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich (30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) CBE, was an art historian, who spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom. ... The Warburg Institute is a research institution associated with the University of London. ...


The National Gallery has also come under fire for misattributing paintings. Kenneth Clark's decision in 1939 to relabel a group of paintings by anonymous artists of the Venetian school as works by Giorgione, (a crowd-pulling artist due to the rarity of his paintings), caused outrage and made him deeply unpopular with his own staff, who locked him out of the library. More recently, the attribution of a 17th century painting of Samson and Delilah (bought in 1980) to Rubens has been contested by a group of art historians, who believe that the National Gallery has not admitted the mistake to avoid embarrassing those who were involved in the purchase, many of whom still work for the Gallery.[32] For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... A purported self-portrait of Giorgione, represented in the guise of David. ...


Collection highlights

English or French Medieval
The Wilton Diptych
Paolo Uccello
The Battle of San Romano
Piero della Francesca
The Baptism of Christ
Jan van Eyck
The Arnolfini Portrait
Sandro Botticelli
Venus and Mars
Leonardo da Vinci
The Virgin of the Rocks, The Burlington House Cartoon
Michelangelo
The Entombment, The Manchester Madonna
Raphael
Portrait of Pope Julius II, The Madonna of the Pinks, The Mond Crucifixion
Titian
Bacchus and Ariadne, The Death of Actaeon
Hans Holbein the Younger
The Ambassadors
Agnolo Bronzino
Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time
Michaelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
Boy Bitten by a Lizard, Supper at Emmaus, Salome with the Head of John the Baptist
Peter Paul Rubens
Le Chapeau de Paille, The Judgement of Paris (two versions), Landscape with Het Steen
Nicolas Poussin
A Bacchanalian Revel Before a Term, Landscape with a Man Killed by a Snake
Diego Velázquez
The Rokeby Venus
Anthony van Dyck
Equestrian Portrait of Charles I
Rembrandt
Belshazzar's Feast, two self-portraits
Johannes Vermeer
Lady Standing at a Virginal, Lady Seated at a Virginal
Canaletto
A Regatta on the Grand Canal, The Stonemason's Yard
William Hogarth
Marriage à-la-Mode
George Stubbs
Whistlejacket
Thomas Gainsborough
Mr and Mrs Andrews
Joseph Wright of Derby
An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump
J. M. W. Turner
The Fighting Temeraire, Rain, Steam and Speed
John Constable
The Hay Wain
Paul Cézanne
Les Grandes Baigneuses
Claude Monet
The Water-Lily Pond, The Thames Below Westminster
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
The Umbrellas, Boating on the Seine
Georges Seurat
Bathers at Asnières
Vincent van Gogh
Sunflowers, Van Gogh's Chair, A Wheatfield, with Cypresses

Salvator ROSA : Self Portrait , Landscape with Mercury and the Dishonest Woodman,Witches at their Incantations,Landscape with Tobias and the Angel. The Wilton Diptych (c. ... Paolo Uccello (born Paolo di Dono, 1397 – December 10, 1475) was an Italian painter who was notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective in art. ... The Battle of San Romano is a set of three paintings by the painter Paolo Uccello depicting events that took place at the battle of San Romano in 1432. ... The Baptism of Christ, 1450 (National Gallery, London). ... The Baptism of Christ is a painting by the Italian Renaissance master Piero della Francesca, finished around 1448-1450. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Arnolfini Portrait (full title: Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife) is a 1434 painting by Jan van Eyck. ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (little barrel) (March 1, 1445 – May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... Venus and Mars is a painting by the Italian Renaissance master Sandro Botticelli, 1483. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... The Virgin of the Rocks and Madonna of the Rocks are terms used to describe two different paintings with almost identical compositions. ... The Virgin and Child with St Anne and St John the Baptist, sometimes called The Burlington House Cartoon, is a full-size drawing by Giotto. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... The Entombment is an unfinished painting attributed to the Italian Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarroti (c. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... The Portrait of Pope Julius II is a painting attributed to the Italian High Renaissance painter Raphael. ... The Madonna of the Pinks (circa 1506-1507, Italian: La Madonna dei garofani) is an early devotional painting by Raphael. ... The Mond Crucifixion is a painting by the Italian renaissance artist Raphael. ... Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. ... Bacchus and Ariadne (1520-3) is an oil painting by Titian. ... A 1543 portrait miniature of Hans Holbein the Younger by Lucas Horenbout Holbeins 1533 painting The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... The Ambassadors (1533) is a painting by Hans Holbein the Younger in the National Gallery, London. ... Andrea Doria as Neptune Agnolo di Cosimo (1503, Firenze – 1572, Firenze) (also known as Agnolo Bronzino and Agnolo Tori). ... Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time is an allegorical painting by the Florentine artist Agnolo Bronzino. ... For other uses, see Caravaggio (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Supper at Emmaus by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio is a masterpiece painted in 1601, and now in the National Gallery in London. ... Salome with the Head of John the Baptist (London), c. ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... Les Bergers d’Arcadie, set in Ancient Greece. ... Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (June 6, 1599 – August 6, 1660), commonly referred to as Diego Velázquez, was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary baroque period, important as a portrait artist. ... La Venus del espejo, also known as The Rokeby Venus, is a painting by Diego Velázquez in the National Gallery, London. ... Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ... Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606 – October 4, 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. ... Rembrandt. ... “Vermeer” redirects here. ... The Stonemasons Yard, painted 1726-30. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... Marriage à-la-mode, scene two of six. ... A self portrait by George Stubbs George Stubbs (born in Liverpool on August 25, 1724 – died in London July 10, 1806) was a British painter, best known for his paintings of horses. ... Thomas Gainsborough (14 May 1727 (baptised) – 2 August 1788) was one of the most famous portrait and landscape painters of 18th century Britain. ... Mr and Mrs Andrews (1750) is an oil painting by Thomas Gainsborough. ... An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump (1768). ... An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump is a 1768 oil-on-canvas painting by Joseph Wright of Derby, part of a series of candlelit scenes that Wright painted during the 1760s. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (April 23, 1775 (exact date disputed) – December 19, 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... J.M.W. Turner. ... Rain, Steam, and Speed – The Great Western Railway is an oil painting by the 19th century British painter J.M.W. Turner. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... The Hay Wain is an oil on canvas painting by John Constable. ... “Cezanne” redirects here. ... Claude Monet also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (November 14, 1840 – December 5, 1926)[1] was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movements philosophy of expressing ones perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein... Pierre-Auguste Renoir (February 25, 1841–December 3, 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. ... Le Chahut was painted by Seurat from 1889 to 1890. ... “van Gogh” redirects here. ... Sunflowers or Vase with Twelve Sunflowers (August 1888) is one of two sunflower paintings with twelve sunflowers. ...

Directors

Directors of the National Gallery
Sir Charles Lock Eastlake 1855–1865
Sir William Boxall 1866–1874
Sir Frederick William Burton 1874–1894
Sir Edward Poynter 1894–1904
Sir Charles Holroyd 1906–1916
Sir Charles Holmes 1916–1928
Sir Augustus Daniel 1929–1933
Sir Kenneth Clark 1934–1945
Sir Philip Hendy 1946–1967
Sir Martin Davies 1968–1973
Sir Michael Levey 1973–1986
Neil MacGregor 1987–2002
Dr Charles Saumarez Smith 2002–2007

Associate artists

Since 1989, the gallery has run a scheme that gives a studio to contemporary artists to create work based on the permanent collection. They usually hold the position of associate artist for two years and are given an exhibition in the National Gallery at the end of their tenure. The list of associate artists so far is as follows: Born in Plymouth, Devon, Sir Charles Lock Eastlake ( 17 November 1793 – 24 December 1865) was an English painter, gallery director, collector and writer of the early 19th century. ... Sir William Boxall (29 June 1800 – 6 December 1879) was a British painter and museum director. ... Frederick William Burton (April 8, 1816-March 16, 1900), Irish painter and art connoisseur, the third son of Samuel Burton of Mungret, County Limerick, was born in Corofin, County Clare, Ireland. ... Edward Poynter: Cave of the Storm Nymphs Sir Edward John Poynter (March 20, 1836 - July 26, 1919) was a British painter. ... Sir Charles Holroyd (April 9, 1861 - 1917), British artist, was born in Leeds. ... Sir Charles John Holmes KCVO (1868-1936) was a British painter, art critic and museum director. ... Sir Augustus Moore Daniel (1866-1950) was the Director of the National Gallery in London, England, for five years from January 1929 to December 1933. ... Kenneth Clark presenting the BBC TV series Civilisation. ... Sir Philip Anstiss Hendy (27 September 1900 – 6 September 1980) was a British art curator who worked both in Britain and overseas, notably the United States. ... Sir Martin Davies CBE DLitt FBA FSA (22 March 1908 – 7 March 1978) was a British museum director and civil servant. ... Sir Michael Vincent Levey MVO (born 1927) is a British art historian and former director of the National Gallery, London. ... Robert Neil MacGregor (born 1946) is an art historian and museum director. ... Dr. Charles Robert Saumarez Smith (born 1954) is an art historian and museum director. ...

Artist Tenure
Paula Rego 1989 – 1990
Ken Kiff 1991 – 1993
Peter Blake 1994 – 1996
Ana Maria Pacheco 1997 – 1999
Ron Mueck 2000 – 2002
John Virtue 2003 – 2005
Alison Watt 2006 – 2008

Notes

a. ^  Sculptures and applied art are in the Victoria and Albert Museum, the British Museum houses earlier art, non-Western art, prints and drawings, and art of a later date is at Tate Modern. Some British art is in the National Gallery, but the National Collection of British Art is mainly in Tate Britain. Paula Figueiroa Rego, GCSE, pron. ... Blakes album cover Sir Peter Thomas Blake (born June 25, 1932, in Dartford, Kent) is an English pop artist, best known for his design of the sleeve for The Beatles album Sgt. ... Ana Maria Pacheco (born 1943 as a war baby) is a Brazilian artist who works in the United Kingdom. ... Pregnant Woman Boy (Venice Biennale, 2001) Ron Mueck (born 1958) is an Australian hyper-realist sculptor working in Great Britain. ... John Virtue (born Accrington, Lancashire in 1947) is an English artist. ... The cover of the exhibition catalogue from Fold Alison Watt is a Scottish painter, born in Greenock in 1965. ... The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Tate Modern from the Millennium Bridge Tate Modern from St Pauls Cathedral. ... Tate Britain is a part of the Tate Gallery in Britain, along with Tate Modern, Tate Liverpool and Tate St Ives. ...


b. ^  St Martin's Workhouse (to the east) was cleared for the construction of E. M. Barry's extension, whereas St George's Barracks stayed until 1911, supposedly because of the need for troops to be at hand to quell disturbances in Trafalgar Square.[33] Wilkins hoped for more land to the south, but was denied it as building there would have obscured the view of St Martin-in-the-Fields. St Martin-in-the-Fields, London Interior of St Martin-in-the-Fields St Martin-in-the-Fields and Charing Cross, circa 1562 The ceiling of the café in the crypt St. ...


c. ^  They are as follows: above the main entrance, a blank roundel (originally to feature the Duke of Wellington's face) flanked by two female figures (personifications of Europe and Asia/India, sites of his campaigns) and high up on the eastern façade, Minerva by John Flaxman, originally Britannia. Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Head of Minerva by Elihu Vedder, 1896 For other uses, see Minerva (disambiguation). ... John Flaxman (July 6, 1755 - December 7, 1826), was an English sculptor and draughtsman. ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ...


d. ^  External image here


e. ^  The decorative scheme fell foul of director Charles Holmes's taste and was obliterated in the 1920s,[34] but was recreated during restoration in 2005. Sir Charles John Holmes KCVO (1868-1936) was a British painter, art critic and museum director. ...


f. ^  External image here


  1. ^ Frequently Asked Questions: Facts and Figures (Official NG website)
  2. ^ [jean-françois sergenthttp://www.alva.org.uk/visitor_statistics/ Visitor Statistics: ALVA - Association of Leading Visitor Attractions, England, Wales, Scotland, UK]
  3. ^ Gentili et al, p. 7
  4. ^ Sir Robert Walpole's pictures in Russia (Magazine Antiques, October 1996)
  5. ^ Fullerton, p. 37
  6. ^ Taylor, p. 37
  7. ^ David Robertson, "Eastlake, Sir Charles Lock (1793–1865), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004.
  8. ^ Grove Dictionary of Art, Vol. 9, p. 683
  9. ^ Spalding, p. 39
  10. ^ The Mond Bequest (Official NG website)
  11. ^ MacGregor, p.43
  12. ^ Fisher, p. 789
  13. ^ National Gallery faces worst acquisition crisis in over a century (The Art Newspaper, 2 July 2007)
  14. ^ National Gallery may start acquiring 20th century art (The Art Newspaper, 2 November 2005)
  15. ^ Cronaca: Sir Denis Mahon
  16. ^ Gaskell, p. 179
  17. ^ Summerson, p. 208
  18. ^ Grove Dictionary of Art, Vol. 33, p. 192
  19. ^ Summerson, p. 209
  20. ^ Conlin, p. 60
  21. ^ Conlin, p. 367
  22. ^ Tyack, p. 120
  23. ^ Conlin, pp. 384-5
  24. ^ Barker & Hyde, pp. 116-7
  25. ^ Conlin, p. 396
  26. ^ Conlin, p. 399
  27. ^ Conlin, pp. 404–5
  28. ^ Quoted in Gaskell, p. 182
  29. ^ Bomford, p. 72
  30. ^ Bomford, p. 7
  31. ^ Walden, p. 176
  32. ^ AfterRubens.org: The Strange Story of the Samson and Delilah
  33. ^ Conlin, p. 401
  34. ^ A Victorian masterpiece emerges from beneath the whitewash (The Independent, 14 June 2004)

References

  • Barker, Felix & Hyde, Ralph (1982). London as it might have been. London: John Murray
  • Bomford, David (1997). Conservation of Paintings. London: National Gallery Company
  • Bradley, Simon & Pevsner, Nikolaus (2003). The Buildings of England – London 6: Westminster. London & New Haven: Yale University Press
  • Conlin, Jonathan (2006). The Nation's Mantelpiece: A history of the National Gallery. London: Pallas Athene
  • Fisher, Mark (2004). Britain's Best Museums and Galleries. London: Penguin
  • Fullerton, Peter (1979). Some aspects of the early years of the British Institution for Promoting the Fine Arts in the United Kingdom 1805–1825. MA dissertation, Courtauld Institute of Art.
  • Gaskell, Ivan (2000). Vermeer's Wager: Speculations on Art History, Theory and Art Museums. London: Reaktion
  • Gentili, Augusto; Barcham, William & Whiteley, Linda (2000). Paintings in the National Gallery. London: Little, Brown & Co.
  • MacGregor, Neil (2004). "A Pentecost in Trafalgar Square", pp. 27–49 in Cuno, James (ed.). Whose Muse? Art Museums and the Public Trust. Princeton: Princeton University Press and Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums
  • Spalding, Frances (1998). The Tate: A History. London: Tate Gallery Publishing
  • Summerson, John (1962). Georgian London. London: Penguin
  • Taylor, Brandon (1999). Art for the Nation: Exhibitions and the London Public, 1747-2001. Manchester: Manchester University Press
  • Tyack, Geoffrey (1990). "A Gallery Worthy of the British People': James Pennethorne's Designs for the National Gallery, 1845-1867", pp. 120–134 in Architectural History, Vol. 33, 1990
  • Walden, Sarah (2004). The Ravished Image: An Introduction to the Art of Picture Restoration & Its Risks. London: Gibson Square

External links

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