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Encyclopedia > National Council of La Raza
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The National Council of La Raza (NCLR) is a non-profit, and non-partisan, ethno-centric, political advocacy group in the United States. Its stated focus is on reducing poverty and discrimination, and improving opportunities for Hispanics. According to the organization's website, it is "the largest constituency-based national Hispanic organization, serving all Hispanic nationality groups in all regions". To this end, the NCLR does research, disseminates information through reports, press releases, and its website, provides expert testimony, and lobbies for causes important to Hispanics. To fund programs, the NCLR partners with philanthropic organizations, such as the Ford Foundation, and corporations, such as Citigroup and Wal-Mart. The NCLR serves its constituency by means of affiliations with almost 300 community organizations. The NCLR is headquartered in Washington, D.C. and maintains eight regional offices. The current president is Janet Murguia.[1] The four-letter abbreviation may refer to: National Center for Lesbian Rights National Council of La Raza National Conference of Law Reviews National Council for Learning Resources North Carolina Law Review North Carolina Literary Review Category: ... Latino refers to people living in the US of Latin American nationality and their US-born descendants. ... Hispanic, as used in the United States, is one of several terms used to categorize US citizens, permanent residents and temporary immigrants, whose background hail either from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America or relating to a Spanish-speaking culture. ... Argentine Americans are raised and educated citizens of the United States although not all U.S born, from the southeast South American nation of Argentina. ... // Bolivia, the only landlocked country in the Western Hemisphere, is home to almost eight million people. ... The first Brazilians to establish in North America arrived in New Amsterdam in , coming from Recife, fleeing religious persecution for being jews. ... Chilean Americans are a group of 68,849 people who emigrated from Chile and their descendants. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Cuban-American is an immigrant to the United States from Cuba. ... A Dominican American or Dominican-York [1] is an immigrant or descendant of immigrants from the Dominican Republic to the United States. ... An Ecuadorian American is someone who is of Ecuadorian descent or was born in Ecuador and achieved American citizenship. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ... Languages Spanish, English Religions Roman Catholic, Protestantism Nicaraguan American (Spanish: Nicaragüense Americano) are Americans of Nicaraguan ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to the United States. ... A Peruvian American is an immigrant or descendant of immigrants from Peru that arrived in the United States. ... Languages Spanish, English Religions Roman Catholic, Protestantism Salvadoran Americans are residents of the United States of Salvadoran descent. ... ... Venezuelan Americans are raised and educated citizens of the United States although not all U.S born, from the South American nation of Venezuela. ... // Latinos and Hispanics has a long history in the United States. ... The history of Mexican-Americans is wide-ranging, spanning more than four hundred years and varying from region to region within the United States. ... The struggle for independence after 1810 among the Latin American nations evoked a sense of unity, especially in South America where, under Simón Bolívar in the north and José de San Martín in the south, there were cooperative efforts. ... Latinos and Hispanics are predominantly Christian in the United States. ... Latino Jews are Latinos whose religion is Judaism. ... Latino Muslims are Latinos whose religion is Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Chicano Movement, also called the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement, and El Movimiento, is the part of the American Civil Rights Movement that searched for social liberation and power for Mexican Americans. ... There are three main components to AHA’s programming and services: Advocacy: Latino arts and culture is an essential and vibrant part of the nation’s identity. ... // About the CHC The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC) is comprised of 21 Members of Congress of Hispanic descent. ... LULAC is an organization which strives for rights for Hispanic Americans. ... The National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations (NALFO) is an umbrella council for 23 Latino Greek Letter Organizations established in 1998. ... The SHPE Logo The Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers (SHPE) was founded in Los Angeles, California, in 1974 by a group of engineers employed by the city of Los Angeles. ... National Association of Latino Elected Officials aka NALEO External links http://www. ... For the fictional robot, see Mecha. ... The United Farm Workers of America (UFW) is a labor union that evolved from unions founded in 1962 by César Chávez, Philip Vera Cruz, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong. ... Latino/a Studies is an academic discipline which studies the experience of people of Hispanic ancestory in America. ... Latin music has long influenced American popular music, jazz, rhythm and blues, rock and even country music. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... It has been suggested that Hispanicisms_in_English be merged into this article or section. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... The following is a partial list of United States cities, towns, and census-designated places in which a majority (over 50%) of the population is Hispanic or Latino, according to data from the 2000 Census. ... . ... Famous Hispanic Americans // Silvana Arias, actress Adrian Bellani, actor Jessica Alba, actress Nadine Velazquez, actress Desi Arnaz, actor Alexis Bledel, actress Benjamin Bratt, actor Julissa Bermudez, actress and VJ Lynda Carter, actress Ricardo Chavira, actor from Desperate Housewives Sammy Davis, Jr. ... La Raza is a Spanish-language term (literally meaning the race, but also connoting el pueblo or la gente, both of which mean the people), which refers generally to the people of Latin America who share the cultural and political legacies of Spanish colonialism, including the Spanish language and culture... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ... Non-partisan democracy (also no-party democracy) is a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic elections (by secret ballot) take place without reference to political parties or even the speeches, campaigns, nominations, or other apparatus commonly associated with democracy. ... Advocacy is the act of arguing on behalf of a particular issue, idea or person. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... This article is about discrimination in the social science context. ... Hispanic flag, not widely used. ... Philanthropy is the act of donating money, goods, time, or effort to support a charitable cause, usually over an extended period of time and in regard to a defined objective. ... The Ford Foundation is a charitable foundation based in New York City created to fund programs that promote democracy, reduce poverty, promote international understanding, and advance human achievement. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... Citigroup Inc. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... Community organizations are nonprofits that operate within a single local community. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Janet Murguia has served as the President and Chief Executive Officer of the National Council of La Raza (NCLR) since January 1, 2005. ...

Contents

History

The NCLR grew out of efforts to form a national civil rights organization that would advocate for Mexican Americans. In the early 1960s, the National Organization for Mexican American Services (NOMAS), persuaded the Ford Foundation to fund a study of Mexican Americans. The Foundation went further, hiring consultants such as Ernesto Galarza to draw conclusions from the data and make recommendations on ways to improve conditions for Mexican American communities.[2] Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...


The Southwest Council of La Raza formed in Phoenix, Arizona, in 1968, after meetings between regional organizers. Financial support from the Ford Foundation, the National Council of Churches, and the United Auto Workers allowed the SWCLR to get off the ground, and the organization received 501(c)(3) status later that year.[3] Nickname: Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: , Country United States State Arizona Counties Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area  - City  515. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... The National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA (usually identified as National Council of Churches, or NCC) is an association of 35 Christian faith groups in the United States with 100,000 local congregations and more than 45,000,000 adherents. ... The United Auto Workers (UAW), headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, officially the United Automobile, Aerospace & Agricultural Implement Workers of America International Union, is one of the largest labor unions in North America, with more than 500,000 members in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico organized into approximately 950 union... 501(c) is a provision of the United States Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. Â§ 501(c)), listing twenty-eight types of non-profit organizations exempt from some Federal income taxes. ...


In 1972, the SWCLR lost federal funding for refusing to endorse Richard Nixon during his reelection campaign.[2] Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


In 1973, the SWCLR became a national organization, changed its name to the National Council of La Raza, and moved its headquarters to Washington, D.C. Early disagreements among the leadership led the Ford Foundation to threaten to withhold funding, resulting in President Henry Santiestevan's resignation and the election of Raul Yzaguirre.[4] Raul Humberto Yzaguirre (sometimes spelled Izaguirre. ...


In 1973, the NCLR bylaws were amended to require equal representation of women on the board of directors.[5]


Beginning in about 1975, the NCLR began expanding its focus to include the issues of non-Mexican American Latinos. This policy was officialized in 1979. By 1980, the NCLR was funded almost entirely by the federal government. When the Reagan Administration slashed social funding, the NCLR was forced to cut back the scale of its operations. As a result, the organization began focusing on national policy and concentrating its efforts in Washington, D.C. After the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act, state governments exerted more control over the disbursement of welfare funds, which led to the development of the NCLR's Field Advocacy Project to influence decisions at the state and local levels. The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ... // The term Latino is a linguistic identity that refers to an individual that has significant ancestry from a nation-state where a Latin derived language is spoken or is the offical language of the government. ... President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981) Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ... The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA, Pub. ... Welfare is financial assistance paid by taxpayers to groups of people who are unable to support themselves, and determined to be able to function more effectively with financial assistance. ...

In 2004, United States President George W. Bush proposed a guest worker program to absorb migrant laborers who would otherwise come to the U.S. as illegal aliens. ... Illegal immigration to the United States refers to the act of foreign nationals voluntarily resettling in the United States in violation of U.S. immigration and nationality law. ... The trafficking of human beings is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people for the purpose of exploitation. ... A Labor shortage is an economic condition in which there are insufficient qualified candidates (employees) to fill the market-place demands for employment at any price. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... The border between Mexico and the United States spans four U.S. states, six Mexican states, and has over twenty commercial crossings. ... THIS IS FALSE INFORMATION The Economic impact of illegal immigrants in the United States depends on whether taxes paid by illegal immigrants and their contributions to the economy make up for the government services which they use. ... Immigration reduction refers to movements active within the United States that advocate a reduction in the amount of immigration allowed into the United States or other countries. ... Legalization is the process of removing a legal prohibition against something which is currently illegal. ... The Guest worker program is a program that has been proposed many times in the past and now also by U.S. President George W. Bush as a way to permit U.S. employers to sponsor non-U.S. citizens as laborers for approximately three years, to be deported afterwards... Image File history File links US_Department_of_Homeland_Security_Seal. ... The Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act (also called The DREAM Act) is a bill that has been introduced several times in the United States Congress that would provide a path to citizenship for illegal immigrant students. ... Radio Station advertisement in Spanish in East Los Angeles against the H.R.4437. ... In 2004, United States President George W. Bush proposed a guest worker program to absorb migrant laborers who would otherwise come to the U.S. as illegal aliens. ... Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act (S. 1033) or the McCain-Kennedy Bill is a comprehensive immigration reform bill discussed in the United States Senate during the Summer of 2005, which was first of its kind since the early 2000s in incorporating legalization, guest worker programs, border enforcement components. ... S. 2691/ H. R. 5744, also known as the “Securing Knowledge Innovation and Leadership Act of 2006”, or the “SKIL Bill” from its acronym and rhyme, is targeted at increasing legal immigration of scientific, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workers into the United States by increasing the quotas on the... For the 2007 act, see Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007. ... The Security Through Regularized Immigration and a Vibrant Economy Act of 2007 or STRIVE Act of 2007 is proposed United States legislation designed to address the problem of illegal immigration. ... The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, or, in its full name, the Secure Borders, Economic Opportunity and Immigration Reform Act of 2007 (S. 1348) was a bill discussed in the 110th United States Congress that would have provided legal status and a path to legal citizenship for the approximately... The REAL ID Act of 2005 is Division B of an act of the United States Congress titled Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Tsunami Relief, 2005, Pub. ... President George W. Bush signs the Secure Fence Act of 2006, in the Roosevelt Room on October 26, 2006. ... In 2006, millions of people were involved in protests over a proposed reform to existing United States immigration laws. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles (CHIRLA) is an American political advocacy organization. ... NAOC Logo The Coalition for Comprehensive Immigration Reform (CCIR), also known as CCIR/NAOC or New American Opportunity Campaign is a non-profit immigrant rights advocacy organization based in Washington, DC, established in 2003 to pass comprehensive immigration reform. ... The National Immigration Forum was established in 1982, dedicated to increasing public support for admitting larger numbers of immigrants and refugees into the United States. ... CCC Logo The Center for Community Change (CCC) is one of the larger community building organizations in the United States. ... The We Are Americe Alliance (WAAA) is a national alliance of immigrant rights organizations and allies in the United States that work towards social justice, including comprehensive immigration reform and immigrants civic participation. ... The Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) is a non-partisan, non-profit 501(c)(3) educational organization in the United States that advocates for reforms of U.S. immigration policies that would result in significant immigration reduction. ... The Minuteman Project is an activist organization started in April 2005 by a group of private United States individuals to monitor the United States–Mexico borders flow of illegal immigrants, although it has expanded to include the United States-Canada border as well. ... The Minuteman Civil Defense Corps, often confused with The Minuteman Project, Inc. ... California Coalition for Immigration Reform (CCIR) is a political advocacy group devoted to immigration reduction, based in Huntington Beach, California. ... Save Our State logo “Save Our State” redirects here. ... The Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) is a nonpartisan immigration reduction-oriented, non-profit research organization and was founded in 1985. ... NumbersUSA is an immigration reduction organization whose intent is to reduce United States annual immigration to pre-1965 levels, but without the country of origin quotas that were in place during this period. ... The Migration Policy Institute is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank established in 2001 by Kathleen Newland and Demetrios G. Papademetriou. ... The first naturalization law in the United States was the 1795 Naturalization Act which restricted citizenship to free white persons who had resided in the country for five years. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... The first page of the Chinese Exclusion Act. ... The Gentlemens Agreement of 1907 ) was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan regarding immigration and racial segregation. ... In the United States, the Emergency Quota Act (ch. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... The Bracero Program, (after the Spanish word for unskilled laborer), was a temporary contract labor program initiated by an August 1942 exchange of diplomatic notes between the United States and Mexico. ... The Immigration and Nationality Act amendments of 1965 (Hart-Celler Act, INS Act of 1965, Pub. ... The Immigration Reform and Control Act (Simpson-Mazzoli Act (IRCA), Pub. ... The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. ...

Criticism

The NCLR is often criticized by commentators for allegedly espousing separatist or irredentist sentiments.[6] “Separatists” redirects here. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ...


Anti-illegal immigration websites, such as American Patrol Report and The American Resistance, accuse the NCLR of encouraging illegal immigration to the United States, and the latter hosts an exhaustive list of companies and organizations that donate to the NCLR.[7] For the 1983 Genesis song, see Illegal Alien (song) Illegal immigration refers to immigration across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country. ... The American Patrol is an organization that claims to advocate soverignty, law, order, and the removal of illegal aliens that are criminals and/or terrorists. ...


Some critics, including conservative talk radio host George Putnam, consider the NCLR exclusionary in its approach to civil rights, citing a comment made by Janet Murguía at an award ceremony for U.S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales: "We are going to put our [Latino] people first".[8] Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Talk radio is a radio format which features discussion of topical issues. ... George Putnam (born July 14, 1914 in Breckenridge, Minnesota) is an American television news reporter and talk show host. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Alberto Gonzales (born August 4, 1955), is the 80th and current Attorney General of the United States. ...


The most powerful person to criticize the NCLR was Republican congressman Charlie Norwood of Georgia's ninth district. In a December 2005 edition of the conservative publication Human Events, Representative Norwood criticized congressional earmarking of four million dollars for NCLR housing initiatives. He said that "we ought not to send taxpayer's money to people who absolutely advocate perhaps using that money for the country not to follow the law of the land and not to secure our country's borders."[9] Charles Whitlow Norwood Jr. ... Human Events is a weekly conservative magazine founded in 1944. ...


On September 20, 2006, Representative Norwood issued a press release calling the NCLR a "radical [...] pro-illegal immigration lobbying organization that supports racist groups calling for the secession of the western United States as a Hispanic-only homeland" and accusing the organization of undermining "the ability of state and local police to fight criminal illegal aliens."


The NCLR immediately issued a press release to refute Norwood's claims and to demand an apology. He offered to extend an apology on seven conditions:

  1. Denounce and sever all ties with MEChA and any other organizations with which they are now or have ever been associated or funded which held to the racist doctrines published by MEChA.
  2. Denounce the statement "For La Raza to do [sic]. Fuera de La Raza nada" [“For the community everything, outside the community nothing”] as repugnant, racist, and totally incompatible with American society or citizenship.
  3. Repudiate all claims that any current American territory rightfully belongs to Mexico.
  4. Acknowledge the right of all Americans to live wherever they choose in the United States, and that no section or region of this country should be segregated by race or ethnic heritage.
  5. Commit to sponsorship of nationwide educational programs to combat racism and anti-Semitism in the Hispanic community.
  6. Seek neutral, third party supervision to ensure that all community and individual assistance programs offered by La Raza and groups supported by La Raza are accessible to all Americans, regardless of race or ethnicity, and that participation in those programs is fully compliant with Equal Opportunity laws.
  7. Acknowledge the internationally recognized borders of the United States, the right of the citizens of the United States to determine immigration policy through the democratic process, and the right of the United States to undertake any and all necessary steps including military action to effectively enforce immigration law and defend its borders against unauthorized entry.

The NCLR responded to Norwood's conditions apology in a point-by-point press release defending its policies, which it claims have never been racially or ethnically exclusionary, never supported and does not endorse the notion of a “Reconquista” or “Aztlán,” and has never used, and unequivocally rejects, the motto “Por La Raza todo, Fuera de La Raza nada.”[10] It also disputes the charge that it supports illegal immigration, constantly reiterating its support for effective and reasonable border security and immigration-law enforcement. In a speech in San Diego, NCLR CEO Janet Murguía stated: "First, as a sovereign nation, the United States has the right to determine who comes and who stays. . . [It also] has a right to consider enforcement at a variety of levels, including border enforcement, interior enforcement, and workplace enforcement. . . We support enforcement... [because] as Americans, we recognize it's the right thing to do."[11] For the fictional robot, see Mecha. ...


See also

Esteban Edward Torres (born January 27, 1930) is a politician from the state of California. ... John F. Kennedy School of Government The John F. Kennedy School of Government is a public policy school and one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.nclr.org/section/leadership_janet_murguia_bio
  2. ^ a b National Council of La Raza. "Detailed History"
  3. ^ http://www.philanthropy.com/free/articles/v17/i07/07003401.htm
  4. ^ National Council of La Raza. "Transition to a National Organization"
  5. ^ National Council of La Raza. "Formation of the Southwest Council of La Raza"
  6. ^ Hymowitz, Craig. "Birth of a Nation:At the Ford Foundation ethnicity is always job 1". Investigative Journalism Project of the Center for the Study of Popular Culture.
  7. ^ The American Resistance. "Contributors to The National Council of The Race"
  8. ^ Putnam, George. "One Reporter's Opinion – The Attorney General and La Raza", NewsMax, 2005-03-11. Retrieved on 2006-08-25. 
  9. ^ Carpenter, Amanda (2005-12-02), "GOP Congress Earmarks $4 Million for Leftist Pro-Illegal Alien Group", Human Events
  10. ^ National Council of La Raza (2007). The Truth About NCLR: NCLR Answers Critics. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  11. ^ Janet Murguía (2005-05-06). "REMARKS OF JANET MURGUÍA, NCLR PRESIDENT AND CEO AT THE CHICANO FEDERATION LUNCHEON MAY 6, 2005" (PDF). National Council of La Raza. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.

The Center for the Study of Popular Culture is an American Libertarian Conservative campaigning group. ... NewsMax. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A press release (sometimes known as a news release or press statement) is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Official site
  • NCLR Q&A
  • Video Documentary on the National Council of La Raza (Voices of Vision)

 
 

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