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Encyclopedia > National Congress of the Communist Party of China
People's Republic of China

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the People's Republic of China
Image File history File links National_emblem_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Government of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Constitution
Past constitutions: 1954 1975 1978
Guiding Political Ideologies

Mao Zedong: Mao Zedong Thought
Deng Xiaoping: Deng Xiaoping Theory
Jiang Zemin: Three Represents
Hu Jintao: Harmonious society The 1954 Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China was promulgated by the National Peoples Congress meeting in Beijing on September 20, 1954, apparently unanimously in favour. ... The 1975 Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China was promulgated in the midst of the unrest of the Cultural Revolution. ... The 1978 Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China was promulgated in 1978. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... Deng Xiaoping Theory (邓小平理论) is the series of political and economic ideologies first developed by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. ... Jiāng Zémín (Traditional Chinese: 江澤民, Simplified Chinese: 江泽民, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiāng Zémín, Wade-Giles: Chiang Tse-min, Cantonese (Jyutping): gong1 zaak6 man4) (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist... The Three Represents (Simplified Chinese: 三个代表; Traditional Chinese: 三個代表; pinyin: sān gè dài biÇŽo) is a policy developed by Jiang Zemin for the Communist Party of China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Hu Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; born December 21, 1942) is currently the Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002, President of the... Harmonius Society (和谐社会) is a concept raised by the Chinese government (Hu-Wen Administration) during the 10th Annual meeting of the Chinese National Peoples Congress in March of 2005. ...

President: Hu Jintao
National People's Congress
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Premier: Wen Jiabao
State Council
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Central Military Commission
Law of the PRC
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Political Parties
CPPCC
Communist Party of China
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      Standing Committee
Elections
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See also
   Politics of Hong Kong
   Politics of Macau
   Politics of the Republic of China

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The National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党全国代表大会; Pinyin: Zhōnguó Gòngchǎndǎng Quánguó Dàibiǎo Dàhuì) is a party congress that is held about once every five years. The National Congress is theoretically the highest body within the Communist Party of China, but in practice important decisions are made before the meeting. Since 1987 the National Party Congress has always been held in the months of October or November. The venue for the event, beginning in 1956, has always been the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. In the past two decades the National Congress of the CPC has been pivotal at least as a symbolic part of leadership changes in the People's Republic of China, and therefore has gained international media attention. The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Hu Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; born December 21, 1942) is currently the Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002, President of the... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest... The Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress (NPCSC; Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会, pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín DàibiÇŽo Dàhuì Chángwù WÄ›iyuánhuì) is a committee of about 150 members of the National Peoples Congress (NPC) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which... The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn), which is largely synonymous with the Central Peoples Government (中央人民政府), is the chief administrative authority of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Central Military Commission (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China, either to the Central Military Commission of the Peoples Republic of China, a state organ, or the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party, a party organ. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Supreme Peoples Court (最高人民法院; pinyin: Zuìgāo Rénmín FÇŽyuàn) is the highest court in the judicial system of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Supreme Peoples Procuratorate (simplified Chinese: 最高人民检察院; pinyin: Zuìgāo Rénmín FÇŽyuàn Jiānchá Yùan) is the highest agency at the national level responsible for prosecution in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Peoples Republic of China is in many regards a single-party state. ... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会总书记 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ZÇ’ngshÅ«jì) is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. ... The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会; pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì) is the highest authority within the Communist Party of China between Party Congresses. ... The Secretariat of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会书记处 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ShÅ«jìchù) is the permanent bureaucracy of the Communist Party of China and forms a parallel structure to state organizations in the Peoples Republic... The Politburo of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú) is a group of 19 to 25 people who oversee the Communist Party... The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù WÄ›iyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. ... Elections in the Peoples Republic of China take two forms: elections for selected local government positions in selected rural villages, and elections by Communist Party peoples congresses for the national legislature: the National Peoples Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui). ... Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have always consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The foreign relations of the Peoples Republic of China draws upon traditions extending back to China in the Qing Dynasty and the Opium Wars, despite China having undergone many radical upheavals over the past two and a half centuries. ... Foreign aid to the Peoples Republic of China takes the form of both bilateral and multilateral official development assistance and official aid to individual recipients. ... Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - Geography - History Hong Kong Portal Politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by China, an own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... In accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China, Macau has Special Administrative Region status, which provides constitutional guarantees for implementing the policy of one country, two systems and the constitutional basis for enacting the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region. ... The Republic of China (ROC) currently has jurisdiction over Taiwan, Kinmen, Matsu, and the Pescadores Islands (Penghu) and several smaller islands. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... A Party Congress is a general conference of a political party. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Great Hall of the People by day. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; Wade-Giles: Peiching or Pei-ching; IPA: ; literally Northern capital;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...

Contents

Overview

The National CPC Congress should not be confused with the National People's Congress which is the legislature of the People's Republic of China. In contrast with the NPC which has become more assertive since the 1990s, the National Congress of the Communist Party has shown no signs of having any real power. In addition the National Congress should not be confused with the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. While leadership changes in the government usually occur at the National People's Congress sessions, now held every March, leadership changes in the party occur at the Party's National Congress. The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In addition to making leadership changes, the Congress also reviews and changes, if necessary, the Party's Constitution, and selects the Central Committee, a powerful decision making body. Each five-year cycle of the National People's Congress also has a series of plenums of the Central Committee held on an irregular basis. Although in recent years these plenary meetings have been held more or less regularly once every year. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会; pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Wěiyuánhuì) is the highest authority within the Communist Party of China between Party Congresses. ... Plenum may refer to: the antithesis of a vacuum; in other words, completely filled space. ... Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ...


Since the establishment of PRC, the Conferences have occurred approximately every five years and since 1956, they have always taken place in the capital, Beijing. Each Conference lasted for five to ten days. At every Congress the direction of the Communist Party for the next five years is determined, usually associated with certain political theories or ideologies. There have been several congresses which modified the party's general direction. The 11th Party Congress, specifically its third plenum, began Chinese economic reform in 1978. The 16th Party Congress saw Jiang Zemin's Three Represents entrenched into the party's Constitution as one of its guiding ideologies. Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; Wade-Giles: Peiching or Pei-ching; IPA: ; literally Northern capital;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Economic reforms have triggered internal migrations within China. ... Jiāng Zémín (Traditional Chinese: 江澤民, Simplified Chinese: 江泽民, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiāng Zémín, Wade-Giles: Chiang Tse-min, Cantonese (Jyutping): gong1 zaak6 man4) (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist... The Three Represents (Simplified Chinese: 三个代表; Traditional Chinese: 三個代表; pinyin: sān gè dài biÇŽo) is a policy developed by Jiang Zemin for the Communist Party of China. ...


Each Congress's name is abbreviated in Chinese as the number of the Conference, followed by character da (大), short for dahui (大会 "conference"). For example, the sixteenth Conference, Zhōnguó Gòngchǎndǎng Dìshíliùcì Quánguó Dàibiǎo Dàhuì (中国共产党第十六次全国代表大会), is shortened to Shíliù Dà (十六大 "sixteenth da").


Similar to the practice of the NPC, the delegates to the Congress are in theory indirectly selected from grassroot party organizations.


List of Congresses

Before PRC

  1. 1st Congress (Yi da) (一大)
    • Delegates: 12
    • Party members: 50
    • Significance: The first platform (綱領) of the Party passed; Mao Zedong attends (as Hunan representative); Chen Duxiu becomes first leader of CPC "Secretariat"; attended by two Comintern representatives (during Shanghai meetings)
  2. 2nd Congress (Er Da) (二大)
    • Delegates: 12
    • Represented party members: 195
    • Significance: Mao Zedong absent from Congress; Party continues purging anarchists, tries to maintain an independent stance from Sun Yat-Sen's Kuomintang (KMT)
  3. 3rd Congress (San Da) (三大)
    • Delegates: ~30
    • Represented party members: 420
    • Significance: CPC formally ratifies the "bloc within" strategy of cooperation with the KMT as demanded by the Comintern
  4. 4th Congress (Si Da) (四大)
    • Delegates: 20
    • Represented party members: 994
    • Significance: CPC Party Center continues efforts to bring semi-independent regional Party branches under its control
  5. 5th Congress (Wu Da) (五大)
    • Delegates: ~80
    • Represented party members: 579
    • Significance: Congress followed Chiang Kai-shek's crackdown on Communists in Shanghai and elsewhere; CPC continues to "support the KMT Left and oppose the KMT Right"
  6. 6th Congress (Liu Da) (六大)
    • Delegates: 84
    • Alternate delegates: 34
    • Represented party members: ?
    • Significance: First and only Party Congress held outside China (due to Chiang's anti-CPC crackdown ); sanctioned creating armed forces controlled by CPC but still to be used "under the KMT flag."; Mao Zedong absent, stays in China at Jinggangshan
  7. 7th Congress (Qi Da) (七大)
    • Delegates: 544
    • Alternate delegates: 208
    • Represented party members: 121
    • Significance: Party constitution (黨章) is passed; National flag designed (?). CPC "Chairman" Mao Zedong is named undisputed leader of CPC; Mao's "thought" enshrined in CPC Party Constitution for first time.

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For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... This boat, floating in South Lake, Jiaxing, is a replica of the one in which the Chinese Communist party was founded in 1921. ... Jiaxing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles:Chia-hsing; Postal map spelling: Kashing) is a prefecture-level city in northern Zhejiang province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the brand of cymbal, see Wuhan cymbals. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Yanan (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yen-an), is a city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... The Constitution of the Communist Party of China (CPC) has 53 Articles and includes contents of General Program, Membership, Organization System, Central Organizations, Local Organizations, Primary Organizations, Party Cadres, Party Discipline, Party Organs for Discipline Inspection, Leading Party Members Groups, Relationship Between the Party and the Communist Youth League, Party... This is a list of current and historical flags used in the geographic area of China, including both the Peoples Republic of China (Mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau) and the Republic of China (Taiwan). ...

After 1949

  1. 8th Congress (Ba Da) (八大)
    • Delegates: 1,026
    • Alternate delegates: 107
    • Represented party members: 10,730,000
  2. 9th Congress (Jiu Da) (九大)
    • Delegates: 1,512
    • Represented party members: 22,000,000
    • Significance: Held at the culmination of the "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution," Mao's Party is decimated from infighting; People's Liberation Army (PLA) influence on Party administration pronounced; few members appointed to power during the previous Party Congress survive the 9th Congress politically; former State Chairman and second-ranking Liu Shaoqi (arrested 1966) and former CPC General Secretary Deng Xiaoping labelled "traitorous scabs and renegades"; Defence Minister Lin Biao becomes CPC Vice Chairman and Mao's "closest comrade-in-arms", and is designated constitutionally as Mao's successor; Mao's "thought" reinserted into CPC Party Constitution
  3. 10th Congress (Shi Da) (十大)
    • Delegates: 1,249
    • Represented party members: 28,000,000
    • Significance: "Gang of Four" led by Mao's wife Jiang Qing reach paramount power; first CPC Congress after US President Richard Nixon's visit to PRC.
  4. 11th Congress (Shiyi Da) (十一大)
    • Delegates: 1,510
    • Represented party members: 35,000,000
    • Significance: 1st Party Congress following Mao's death and after the fall of the Gang of Four; Deng Xiaoping reinstated to all of his previous posts
  5. 12th Congress (Shi'er Da) (十二大)
    • Delegates: 1,600
    • Alternate delegates: 149
    • Represented party members: 39,650,000
    • Significance: Central Committee (中央委员会), CAC, and Central Regulation and Inspection Committee (中央紀律檢查委員會) were created; CPC Party Chair position abolished, CPC General Secretary position becomes (on paper) paramount position; former CPC leader Hua Guofeng loses formal power (except his Central Committee membership) as Hu Yaobang, not Hua, gives keynote Party address
  6. 13th Congress (Shisan Da) (十三大)
    • Full delegates: 1,936
    • Specially invited delegates: 61
    • Represented party members: 46,000,000
    • Significance: Deng Xiaoping and all other "Second Generation" CPC leaders retire from active positions in the Party (again, on paper); "Third Generation" members (led by Zhao Ziyang) dominate the CPC Politburo Standing Committee
  7. 14th Congress (Shisi Da) (十四大)
    • Full delegates: 1,989
    • Specially invited delegates: 46
    • Represented party members: 51,000,000
    • Significance: 1st Party Congress after the Tiananmen Square protests of April-June 1989 and the Beijing Massacre of 3-4 June 1989; Jiang Zemin's position as CPC General Secretary, Chairman of the (CPC) Central Military Commission ratified; Hu Jintao makes first appearance on Politburo Standing Committee
  8. 15th Congress (Shiwu Da) (十五大)
    • Full delegates: 2,074
    • Specially invited delegates: 60
    • Represented party members: 59,900,000
    • Significance: 1st Party Congress following death of Deng Xiaoping and the reversion of Hong Kogn to China on 1 July 1997; Jiang Zemin forces party rival Qiao Shi to retire; Inclusion of Deng Xiaoping's philosophy into Party constitution.; Jiang Zemin announced plans to sell, merge, or close the vast majority of SOEs in a program which included some privatization
  9. 16th Congress (Shiliu Da) (十六大)
    • Full delegates: 2,114
    • Specially invited delegates: 40
    • Represented party members: 66,000,000
    • Significance: Hu Jintao elected General Secretary; "Fourth Generation" of CPC leadership assumes control of the Party and the country; Jiang Zemin packs the CPC Politburo Standing Committee with supporters, holds on to CPC CMC Chair; Jiang's "Three Represents" theory enshrined in CPC Constitution
  10. 17th Congress (Shiqi Da) (十七大)
    • Date: Scheduled for October 15, 2007 [1]
    • Location: Beijing
    • Participants
    • Full delegates: 2,217
    • Specially invited delegates:
    • Represented party members: 68,000,000
    • Significance: It will mark almost certain leadership changes. Speculated are the resignation of Wu Guanzheng, and the promotion of Li Keqiang and Bo Xilai, as Hu Jintao consolidates his power base. The official status of Jiang Zemin's Three Represents theory may be further confirmed at the Congress.

 
 

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