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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which was established in 1958, is the agency responsible for the public space program of the United States of America. It is also responsible for long-term civilian and military aerospace research. Download high resolution version (800x685, 100 KB)http://www. ... Download high resolution version (800x685, 100 KB)http://www. ... The NASA meatball logo is the offical NASA logo, created in 1959 when the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) metamorphosed into an agency that would advance both space and aeronautics: the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... Image File history File links En-NASA.ogg Summary This is a spoken word version of the article NASA. Listen to this article (audio help) Duration: 0:19:34 Created by: {{{user_name_link}}} Date recorded: 1 Sep 2005 Accent: American Sex: Artificial/Female Refer to: List of spoken articles at the... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Aerospace refers to the broad field of air and space travel and the associated research. ...


Asteroid 11365 NASA named after the organization.

Contents


Vision and mission

NASA's vision is "to improve life here, extend life to there, and to find life beyond." Its mission is "to understand and protect our home planet; to explore the Universe and search for life; and to inspire the next generation of explorers." Jump to: navigation, search Earth, also known as the Earth, Terra, and (mostly in the 19th century) Tellus, is the third-closest planet to the Sun. ... Jump to: navigation, search The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. ... Jump to: navigation, search The existence of extraterrestrial life remains hypothetical though human beings continue to search Extraterrestrial life is life that may exist and originate outside the planet Earth. ... Jump to: navigation, search Exploration is the act of searching or traveling for the purpose of discovery, e. ...


History

Space Race

For additional background, please see the Space Race article
May 5, 1961 launch of Redstone rocket and NASA's Mercury 3 capsule Freedom 7 with Alan Shepard Jr. on the United States' first human flight into sub-orbital space. (Atlas rockets were used to launch Mercury's orbital missions.)
May 5, 1961 launch of Redstone rocket and NASA's Mercury 3 capsule Freedom 7 with Alan Shepard Jr. on the United States' first human flight into sub-orbital space. (Atlas rockets were used to launch Mercury's orbital missions.)

Following the Soviet space program's launch of the world's first man-made satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The U.S. Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to U.S. security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower and his advisers counseled more deliberate measures. Several months of debate produced agreement that a new federal agency was needed to conduct all nonmilitary activity in space. Jump to: navigation, search Titan II rockets launched U.S. spacecraft from the 1960s through the 1980s. ... Download high resolution version (770x1000, 171 KB)Description: Launch of the Mercury-Redstone 3 spacecraft on May 5, 1961, 9:34 a. ... Download high resolution version (770x1000, 171 KB)Description: Launch of the Mercury-Redstone 3 spacecraft on May 5, 1961, 9:34 a. ... Jump to: navigation, search May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... // Crew Alan Shepard (flew on Mercury 3 & Apollo 14) Backup Crew John Glenn Mission parameters Mass: 1,295 kg (apogee) Maximum Altitude: 187. ... Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. ... Jump to: navigation, search Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sputnik 1 (Russian Спутник-1, Satellite 1) was the first artificial satellite to be put into orbit, on October 4, 1957. ... Jump to: navigation, search October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in Leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search Seal of the Congress. ... Jump to: navigation, search Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ...


On July 29, 1958, President Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 establishing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA consisted mainly of the four laboratories and some 8,000 employees of the government's 46-year-old research agency for aeronautics, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), though the probably most important contribution actually had its roots in the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, who is today regarded as the father of the United States space program. Jump to: navigation, search July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NACA official seal The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915 to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. ... Jump to: navigation, search Wernher von Braun stands at his desk in the Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama in May 1964, with models of rockets developed and in progress. ...


NASA's early programs were research into human spaceflight, and were conducted under the pressure of the competition between the USA and the USSR (the Space Race) that existed during the Cold War. The Mercury program, initiated in 1958, started NASA down the path of human space exploration with missions designed to discover simply if man could survive in space. Representatives from the U.S. Army (M.L. Raines, LTC, USA), Navy (P.L. Havenstein, CDR, USN) and Air Force (K.G. Lindell, COL, USAF) were selected/requested to provide assistance to the NASA Space Task Group through coordination with the existing U.S. military research and defense contracting infrastructure, and technical assistance resulting from experimental aircraft (and the associated military test pilot pool) development in the 1950s. On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr. became the first American in space when he piloted Freedom 7 on a 15-minute suborbital flight. John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth on February 20, 1962 during the 5-hour flight of Friendship 7. Jump to: navigation, search Titan II rockets launched U.S. spacecraft from the 1960s through the 1980s. ... Jump to: navigation, search For the generic term for a high-tension struggle between countries, see cold war (war). ... Description Role: Orbital spaceflight Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Height: 11. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Outer space (also called just space) as a name for a region, refers to the relatively empty parts of the Universe, outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... Jump to: navigation, search May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. ... Crew Alan Shepard Backup Crew John Glenn Mission parameters Mass: 1,295 kg (apogee) Maximum Altitude: 187. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the astronaut. ... Jump to: navigation, search February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Crew John Glenn Backup Crew M. Scott Carpenter Mission Parameters Mass: 1,352 kg Perigee: 159 km Apogee: 265 km Inclination: 32. ...


Once the Mercury project proved that human spaceflight was possible, project Gemini was launched to conduct experiments and work out issues relating to a moon mission. The first Gemini flight with astronauts on board, Gemini III, was flown by Virgil "Gus" Grissom and John W. Young on March 23, 1965. Nine other missions followed, showing that long-duration human space flight was possible, proving that rendezvous and docking with another vehicle in space was possible, and gathering medical data on the effects of weightlessness on humans. Jump to: navigation, search Project Gemini insignia Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program in which the United States of America sent humans into space, between Projects Mercury and Apollo, during the years 1963-1966. ... Gemini 3 was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gus Grissom in his Mercury spacesuit Virgil Ivan Gus Grissom (April 3, 1926–January 27, 1967) was a U.S. Air Force pilot who became one of the first American astronauts. ... Jump to: navigation, search John W. Young in 1986 John Watts Young (born September 24, 1930) is a former NASA astronaut who walked on the Moon on Apollo 16, April 21, 1972. ... Jump to: navigation, search March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1999-The Bomb 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ...


Apollo program

Following the success of the Mercury and Gemini programs, the Apollo program was launched to try to do interesting work in space and possibly put men around (but not on) the Moon. The direction of the Apollo program was radically altered following President John F. Kennedy's announcement on May 25, 1961 that the United States should commit itself to "landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth" by 1970. Thus Apollo became a program to land men on the Moon. The Gemini program was started shortly thereafter to provide an interim spacecraft to prove techniques needed for the now much more complicated Apollo missions. Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ... Jump to: navigation, search Crust composition Oxygen 43% Silicon 21% Aluminium 10% Calcium 9% Iron 9% Magnesium 5% Titanium 2% Nickel 0. ... Jump to: navigation, search John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as Jack Kennedy or JFK, was the 35th President of the United States (1961–1963). ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search Earth, also known as the Earth, Terra, and (mostly in the 19th century) Tellus, is the third-closest planet to the Sun. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Buzz Aldrin walks on the surface of the Moon during Apollo 11.
Buzz Aldrin walks on the surface of the Moon during Apollo 11.

After eight years of preliminary missions, including NASA's first loss of astronauts with the Apollo 1 launch pad fire, and the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon (Apollo 8) at the end of 1968, the Apollo program achieved its goals with Apollo 11 which landed Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 and returned them to Earth safely on July 24. Armstrong's first words upon stepping out of the Eagle lander captured the momentousness of the occasion: "That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind." Twelve men would set foot on the Moon by the end of the Apollo program in December 1972. Download high resolution version (2700x2700, 2494 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (2700x2700, 2494 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Jump to: navigation, search Buzz Aldrin Colonel Edwin Eugene Buzz Aldrin, Jr. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Apollo 11 mission was the first manned lunar landing. ... Apollo One is the name given to the Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) spacecraft after it was destroyed by fire during a training exercise on January 27, 1967, at Pad 34 atop a Saturn IB rocket. ... Apollo 8 was the second manned mission of the Apollo space program that was launched. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search The Apollo 11 mission was the first manned lunar landing. ... Jump to: navigation, search Neil Alden Armstrong (born August 5, 1930) is a former American test pilot and astronaut who was the first man to walk on the Moon. ... Jump to: navigation, search Buzz Aldrin Colonel Edwin Eugene Buzz Aldrin, Jr. ... Jump to: navigation, search July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... Jump to: navigation, search July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Apollo Lunar Module was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program to achieve the transit from Moon orbit to the surface and back. ... Twenty-four astronauts have been on or near the Moon. ...


NASA had won the moon race, and in some senses this left it without direction, or at the very least without the public attention and interest that was necessary to guarantee large budgets from Congress. After President Lyndon Johnson left office, NASA lost its main political supporter, and rocket scientist Wernher von Braun was moved to a position lobbying in Washington. Plans for ambitious follow-on projects to construct a space station, establish a lunar base and launch a human mission to Mars by 1990 were proposed but with the end to procurement of Saturn and Apollo hardware, there was no capability to support these. The near-disaster of Apollo 13, where an oxygen tank explosion nearly doomed all three astronauts, helped to recapture national attention and concern. Although missions up to Apollo 20 were planned, Apollo 17 was the last mission to fly under the Apollo banner. The program ended because of budget cuts (in part due to the Vietnam War) and the desire to develop a reusable space vehicle. Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Jump to: navigation, search Wernher von Braun stands at his desk in the Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama in May 1964, with models of rockets developed and in progress. ... Mars, with polar ice caps visible. ... Jump to: navigation, search For the Temptations album, see 1990 (Temptations album) MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... The Saturn family of rockets were developed to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond. ... Apollo 13 was an American space mission, part of the Apollo program. ... Apollo 20 was a cancelled flight within the Apollo Program. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program, and was the sixth and last mission to date to land on the Moon. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Vietnam War or Second Indochina War was a conflict between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN, or North Vietnam), allied with the National Liberation Front (NLF, or Viet Cong) against the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, or South Vietnam), and its allies—notably the United States...


Other early missions

Although the vast majority of NASA's budget has been spent on human spaceflight, there have been many robotic missions instigated by the space agency. In 1962 the Mariner 2 mission was launched and became the first spacecraft to make a flyby of another planet – in this case Venus. The Ranger, Surveyor, and Lunar Orbiter missions were essential to assessing lunar conditions before attempting Apollo landings with humans on board. Later, the two Viking probes landed on the surface of Mars and sent color images back to Earth, but perhaps more impressive were the Pioneer and particularly Voyager missions that visited Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune sending back scientific information and color images. Jump to: navigation, search 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Conceptual drawing Mariner 2 was the first successful spacecraft in the NASA Mariner program, which began by sending spacecraft to Venus. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... The Ranger program of unmanned space missions was the first United States attempt to obtain close-up images of the lunar surface. ... Diagram of Surveyor lunar landing spacecraft (NASA) The Surveyor Program comprised unmanned spaceflights to the Moon, with soft landings, without returning (although Surveyor 6 became the first spacecraft to lift off the moon). ... Lunar orbiter spacecraft (NASA) The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned Lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States in 1966 through 1967 with the purpose of mapping the lunar surface before the Apollo landings. ... NASAs Viking program consisted of two unmanned space missions to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... The American Pioneer program of unmanned space missions was designed for planetary exploration. ... The Voyager spacecraft Launch of Voyager 2 Voyager is also the name of a planned series of unmanned probes to Mars, cancelled in 1968. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 120 kPa Hydrogen 83% Helium 15% Methane 1. ... Atmospheric characteristics Surface pressure ≫100 MPa Hydrogen - H2 80% ±3. ...


Having lost the space race, the Soviet Union had, along with the USA, changed its approach. On July 17, 1975 an Apollo craft (finding a new use after the cancelling of planned lunar flights) was docked to the Soviet Soyuz 19 spacecraft, in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Although the Cold War would last many more years, this was a critical point in NASA's history and much of the international co-operation in space exploration that exists today has its genesis with this mission. America's first space station, Skylab, occupied NASA from the end of Apollo until the late 1970s. Jump to: navigation, search July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Due to budget constraints there were many cancelled Apollo missions during Project Apollo. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the US and Soviet space programs. ... Jump to: navigation, search Drawing of Skylab with components labelled Skylab was the United Statess first space station. ...


Shuttle era

The space shuttle became the major focus of NASA in the late 1970s and the 1980s. Planned to be a frequently launchable and mostly reusable vehicle, four space shuttles were built by 1985. The first to launch, Columbia did so on April 12, 1981. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x813, 126 KB)Launching of the NASA Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-1 in April 1981. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x813, 126 KB)Launching of the NASA Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-1 in April 1981. ... Jump to: navigation, search Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ... Jump to: navigation, search April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1981 (MCMLXXXI)is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia seconds after engine ignition, 1981 (NASA). ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the year. ... Jump to: navigation, search Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ... Jump to: navigation, search April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1981 (MCMLXXXI)is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The shuttle was not all good news for NASA – flights were much more expensive than initially projected, and even after the 1986 Challenger disaster highlighted the risks of space flight, the public again lost interest as missions appeared to become mundane. Work began on Space Station Freedom as a focus for the manned space programme but within NASA there was argument that these projects came at the expense of more inspiring unmanned missions such as the Voyager probes. The Challenger disaster aside the late 1980s marked a low point for NASA. Jump to: navigation, search 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search STS-51-L was the 25th launch of a Space Shuttle and the tenth launch of the Challenger. ... Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ... Jump to: navigation, search Look up voyager on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Nonetheless, the shuttle has been used to launch milestone projects like the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST was created with a relatively small budget of $2 billion but has continued operation since 1990 and has delighted both scientists and the public. Some of the images it has returned have become near-legendary, such as the groundbreaking Hubble Deep Field images. The HST is a joint project between ESA and NASA, and its success has paved the way for greater collaboration between the agencies. Jump to: navigation, search The Hubble Space Telescope is a telescope in orbit around the Earth. ... Jump to: navigation, search For the Temptations album, see 1990 (Temptations album) MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... The Hubble Deep Field The Hubble Deep Field (HDF) is the result of a series of observations by the Hubble Space Telescope of a small region of the northern celestial hemisphere. ... Jump to: navigation, search The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to exploration of space with currently 17 member states. ...


In 1995 Russian-American interaction would again be achieved as the Shuttle-Mir missions began, and once more a Russian craft (this time a full-fledged space station) docked with an American vehicle. This cooperation continues to the present day, with Russia and America the two biggest partners in the largest space station ever built – the International Space Station (ISS). The strength of their cooperation on this project was even more evident when NASA began relying on Russian launch vehicles to service the ISS following the 2003 Columbia disaster, which grounded the shuttle fleet for well over two years. Jump to: navigation, search 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mir (Мир, which can mean both world and peace in Russian) was a highly successful Soviet (and later Russian) space station. ... Jump to: navigation, search ISS Statistics Crew: 2 As of August 21, 2005 Perigee: 352. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2003 (MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shuttle debris falling over Texas, on Time cover The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster was the disintegration of the Space Shuttle Columbia over Texas on February 1, 2003, during reentry into the Earths atmosphere on its 28th mission, STS-107. ...


Costing over one hundred billion dollars, it has been difficult at times for NASA to justify the ISS. The population at large have historically been hard to impress with details of scientific experiments in space, preferring news of grand projects to exotic locations. Even now, the ISS cannot accommodate as many scientists as planned.


During much of the 1990s, NASA was faced with shrinking annual budgets due to Congressional belt-tightening in Washington, DC. In response, NASA's ninth administrator, Daniel S. Goldin, pioneered the "faster, better, cheaper" approach that enabled NASA to cut costs while still delivering a wide variety of aerospace programs (Discovery Program). That method was criticized and re-evaluated following the twin losses of Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander in 1999. Daniel Saul Goldin (born July 23, 1940) served as the 9th and longest-tenured Administrator of NASA from April 1, 1992, to November 17, 2001. ... NASAs Discovery Program is a series of lower-cost, highly focused scientific space missions. ... The Mars Climate Orbiter (formerly the Mars Surveyor 98 Orbiter) was one of two spacecraft in the Mars Surveyor 98 program, the other being the Mars Polar Lander (formerly the Mars Surveyor 98 Lander). ... Jump to: navigation, search Conceptual drawing of the Mars Polar Lander on the surface of Mars. ...


NASA's future

Left to Right: Saturn V, which last carried men to the moon, the Space Shuttle and the planned crew and heavy lift launch vehicles
Left to Right: Saturn V, which last carried men to the moon, the Space Shuttle and the planned crew and heavy lift launch vehicles

NASA's most publicly-inspiring mission of recent years has probably been the Mars Pathfinder mission of 1997. Newspapers around the world carried images of the lander dispatching its own rover, Sojourner, to explore the surface of Mars in a way never done before at any extra-terrestrial location. Less publicly acclaimed but performing science from 1997 to date (2004) has been the Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Since 2001, the orbiting Mars Odyssey has been searching for evidence of past or present water and volcanic activity on the red planet. NASA expects to continue exploring the Red Planet with more spacecraft such as the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which will reach Mars in 2006. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (960x720, 126 KB) Summary Comparison of the Saturn V, Space Shuttle and the two proposed Shuttle Derived Launch Vehicles. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (960x720, 126 KB) Summary Comparison of the Saturn V, Space Shuttle and the two proposed Shuttle Derived Launch Vehicles. ... The Saturn V (popularly known as the Moon Rocket) was a multistage liquid-fuel expendable rocket used by NASAs Apollo and Skylab programs. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia seconds after engine ignition, 1981 (NASA). ... The Mars Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II rocket, just a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1997(MCMXCVII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Computer generated image of Global Surveyor spacecraft (NASA) The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) is a American spacecraft. ... Artists concept of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft 2001 Mars Odyssey is an unmanned spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars. ... Conceptual drawing of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter over Mars NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (acronym: MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft, launched August 12, 2005 to advance human understanding of Mars through detailed observation, to examine potential landing sites for future surface missions, and to provide a high-data-rate communications relay...


The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster in 2003, which killed the crew of six American and one Israeli astronaut, and caused a 29-month hiatus in space shuttle flights, triggered a serious re-examination of NASA's priorities. The U.S. government, various scientists, and the public all considered the future of the space program.


On January 14, 2004, ten days after the landing of Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, President George W. Bush announced a new plan for NASA's future, dubbed the Vision for Space Exploration. According to this plan, humankind will return to the moon by 2020, and set up outposts as a testbed and potential resource for future missions. The space shuttle will be retired in 2010 and the Crew Exploration Vehicle will replace it by 2014, capable of both docking with the ISS and leaving the Earth's orbit. The future of the ISS is somewhat uncertain – construction will be completed, but beyond that is less clear. Although the plan initially met with skepticism from Congress, in late 2004 Congress agreed to provide start-up funds for the first year's worth of the new space vision. Jump to: navigation, search January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Artists Concept of Rover on Mars NASAs Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission (since 2003) is a unmanned Mars exploration mission that includes sending two Rovers (robots) to explore the Martian surface and geology. ... MER-A (Spirit) is the first of the two Mars Exploration Rover Missions. ... Jump to: navigation, search George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States and a former Governor of the State of Texas. ... Image from NASA site Two planned configurations for a return to the moon, heavy lift (left) and crew (right) The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by President George H. W. Bush. ... 2020 is a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia seconds after engine ignition, 1981 (NASA). ... Jump to: navigation, search 2010 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search Boeings CEV concept The Crew Exploration Vehicle is NASAs proposed series of human spaceflight spacecraft, intended to supersede the space shuttle system. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2014 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hoping to spur innovation from the private sector, NASA established a series of Centennial Challenges, technology prizes for non-government teams, in 2004. The Challenges include tasks that will be useful for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration, such as building more efficient astronaut gloves. The Centennial Challenges are NASA inducement prize contests for non-government-funded technological achievements by American teams. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Criticisms

Some commentators, such as Mark Wade, note that NASA has suffered from a 'stop-start' approach to its human spaceflight programs. The Apollo spacecraft and Saturn family of launch vehicles were abandoned in 1970 after billions of dollars had been spent on their development. In 2004 the U.S. Government proposed eventually replacing the Shuttle with a Crew Exploration Vehicle that would allow the agency to again send astronauts to the Moon. Despite the reduction of its budget following project Apollo, NASA has maintained a top-heavy bureaucracy resulting in inflated costs and compromised hardware. Jump to: navigation, search Boeings CEV concept The Crew Exploration Vehicle is NASAs proposed series of human spaceflight spacecraft, intended to supersede the space shuttle system. ...

Florida, USA, taken from NASA Shuttle Mission STS-95 on October 31, 1998.
Florida, USA, taken from NASA Shuttle Mission STS-95 on October 31, 1998.

Currently, the ISS relies on the Shuttle fleet for all major construction shipments. The Shuttle fleet has lost two spacecraft and fourteen astronauts in two disasters in 1986 and 2003. While the 1986 loss was made up with a Shuttle built from replacement parts, NASA does not plan to build another shuttle to replace the second loss. (But see also CEV.) The ISS, which was intended to have a crew of seven as of 2005, now has a skeleton crew of two, causing many intended research projects to be delayed. Other nations that have invested heavily in the space station's construction, such as the members of the European Space Agency, are fearful that the ISS's fate will soon match the fate of Skylab. As of 2005, however, all of the European or Japanese contributions to the ISS are years behind development schedule themselves. Florida, USA, taken from Shuttle Mission STS-95 on 31st October 1998. ... Florida, USA, taken from Shuttle Mission STS-95 on 31st October 1998. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush (R) Senators Bill Nelson (D) Mel Martinez (R) Official language(s) English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle. ... Jump to: navigation, search October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1998(MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Jump to: navigation, search ISS Statistics Crew: 2 As of August 21, 2005 Perigee: 352. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2003 (MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105) is the fifth and final operational NASA space shuttle to be built. ... Jump to: navigation, search Boeings CEV concept The Crew Exploration Vehicle is NASAs proposed series of human spaceflight spacecraft, intended to supersede the space shuttle system. ... Jump to: navigation, search The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to exploration of space with currently 17 member states. ... Jump to: navigation, search Drawing of Skylab with components labelled Skylab was the United Statess first space station. ...


NASA spaceflight missions

Human spaceflight

Description Role: Orbital spaceflight Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Height: 11. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ... Jump to: navigation, search Drawing of Skylab with components labelled Skylab was the United Statess first space station. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia seconds after engine ignition, 1981 (NASA). ... Jump to: navigation, search ISS Statistics Crew: 2 As of August 21, 2005 Perigee: 352. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... The Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is Japans aerospace agency. ... Boeings CEV concept The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is NASAs proposed series of human spaceflight spacecraft, intended to replace the space shuttle system. ...

Robotic space missions

  • Saturn missions
    • Cassini-Huygens together with ESA

The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a program of NASA comprising a series of artificial satellite missions and scientific instruments in Earth orbit designed for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, atmosphere, and oceans of the Earth. ... The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is an orbital observatory whose mission is to study the Earths atmosphere, particularly the protective ozone layer. ... The TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) mission is a two year project to study the dynamics of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) portion of the Earths atmosphere. ... The Ranger program of unmanned space missions was the first United States attempt to obtain close-up images of the lunar surface. ... Diagram of Surveyor lunar landing spacecraft (NASA) The Surveyor Program comprised unmanned spaceflights to the Moon, with soft landings, without returning (although Surveyor 6 became the first spacecraft to lift off the moon). ... Lunar orbiter spacecraft (NASA) The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned Lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States in 1966 through 1967 with the purpose of mapping the lunar surface before the Apollo landings. ... Clementine was a joint space project between the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO, previously the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, or SDIO) and NASA. The objective of the mission was to test sensors and spacecraft components under extended exposure to the space environment and to make scientific observations of the Moon... NASAs Lunar Prospector The Lunar Prospector mission was the third selected by NASA for full development and construction as part of the Discovery Program. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Mariner 10 probe. ... Jump to: navigation, search the MESSENGER spacecraft The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) is a NASA mission, launched August 3, 2004, designed to study the characteristics and environment of Mercury from orbit. ... Launch of Mariner 1 (NASA) The Mariner program was a series of unmanned interplanetary probes designed to investigate Mars, Venus and Mercury. ... The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components, launched separately: an Orbiter and a Multiprobe. ... Jump to: navigation, search Magellan spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center The Magellan spacecraft carried out a mission from 1989-1994, orbiting Venus from 1990-1994. ... Computer generated image of one of the two Mars Exploration Rovers which touched down on Mars in 2004. ... Launch of Mariner 1 (NASA) The Mariner program was a series of unmanned interplanetary probes designed to investigate Mars, Venus and Mercury. ... NASAs Viking program consisted of two unmanned space missions to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2. ... Mars Observer, launched in September 25, 1992, was the first of the Observer series of planetary missions, was designed to study the geoscience and climate of Mars. ... The Mars Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II rocket, just a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched. ... The Mars Climate Orbiter (formerly the Mars Surveyor 98 Orbiter) was one of two spacecraft in the Mars Surveyor 98 program, the other being the Mars Polar Lander (formerly the Mars Surveyor 98 Lander). ... Jump to: navigation, search Conceptual drawing of the Mars Polar Lander on the surface of Mars. ... Computer generated image of Global Surveyor spacecraft (NASA) The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) is a American spacecraft. ... Artists concept of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft 2001 Mars Odyssey is an unmanned spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars. ... Artists Concept of Rover on Mars NASAs Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission (since 2003) is a unmanned Mars exploration mission that includes sending two Rovers (robots) to explore the Martian surface and geology. ... Conceptual drawing of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter over Mars NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (acronym: MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft, launched August 12, 2005 to advance human understanding of Mars through detailed observation, to examine potential landing sites for future surface missions, and to provide a high-data-rate communications relay... For the Star Trek spacecraft, see Phoenix (Star Trek). ... Jump to: navigation, search 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mars Science Laboratory on Mars Conceptual drawing The Mars Science Laboratory (or MSL for short) is a NASA rover scheduled to launch in December, 2009 and perform a precision landing on Mars in October, 2010. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2009 by topic 2009 (MMIX) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pioneer 10 in the final stage of construction Launch of Pioneer 10 Launched on March 2, 1972 by an Atlas-Centaur rocket, Pioneer 10 (also called Pioneer F) was the first spacecraft to travel through the asteroid belt, and was the first spacecraft to make direct observations of Jupiter. ... Galileo being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... This is an artists concept of Cassini during the Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) maneuver, just after the main engine has begun firing. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... Pioneer 11 at Saturn (artists impression) Pioneer 11 was the second mission to investigate Jupiter and the outer solar system and the first to explore the planet Saturn and its main rings. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Mariner 10 probe. ... Jump to: navigation, search A NASA artists rendition of a Voyager spacecraft The Voyager 1 spacecraft is an 815-kilogram unmanned probe of the outer solar system and beyond, launched September 5, 1977, and currently operational. ... The Voyager 2 spacecraft was launched in 1977. ... New Horizons New Horizons is a NASA unmanned spacecraft designed to fly by Pluto and its moon Charon and transmit images and data back to Earth. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Near Earth Asteroid Eros as seen from the NEAR spacecraft. ... The spacecraft Deep Space 1 was launched October 24, 1998 on top of a Delta rocket. ... Jump to: navigation, search An artists rendering of Stardust (NASA image) Stardust is an American interplanetary spacecraft launched on February 7, 1999. ... Illustration of the Deep Impact space probe after impactor separation (artists conception) Deep Impact is a NASA space probe designed to study the composition of the interior of the comet Tempel 1. ... Dawn spacecraft, powered by ion thrusters The Dawn Mission is a NASA unmanned space mission that will send an orbiting space probe to examine the asteroids Ceres and Vesta. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Artistss Conception of Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) was a proposed spacecraft designed to explore the icy moons of Jupiter. ... Conceptual artwork of the CRAF spacecraft The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) was a cancelled plan for a NASA led exploratory mission designed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during the mid-to-late 1980s and early 1990s, that planned to send a spacecraft to encounter an asteroid, and then to... ... Neptune Orbiter is a proposed NASA unmanned planetary spacecraft to explore the planet Neptune. ... The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a spacecraft launched in 1995 to study the sun. ... Jump to: navigation, search The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to exploration of space with currently 17 member states. ... Ulysses spacecraft Ulysses is an unmanned probe designed to study the Sun at all latitudes. ... Jump to: navigation, search The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to exploration of space with currently 17 member states. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Hubble Space Telescope is a telescope in orbit around the Earth. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... Illustration of CGRO The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory(CGRO) was the second of the NASA Great Observatories to be launched to space, following the Hubble Space Telescope. ... Chandra X-ray Observatory is a satellite launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999. ... The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)) is an infrared space observatory, the fourth and final of NASAs Great Observatories. ... A space observatory is any instrument in outer space which is used for observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects. ... The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), also referred to as Explorer 66, was the first satellite built dedicated to cosmology. ... FUSE, the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, is a space-based telescope, run by the Johns Hopkins University. ... The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was a space-based observatory that performed a survey of the entire sky at infrared wavelengths. ... The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a planned orbital infrared observatory, intended (in part) to replace the aging Hubble Space Telescope. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... Alternate meaning: WMAP (AM) Artist depiction of the WMAP satellite at the L2 point The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is a NASA satellite whose mission is to survey the sky to measure the temperature of the radiant heat left over from the Big Bang. ...

List of NASA administrators

  1. T. Keith Glennan (1958–1961)
  2. James E. Webb (1961–1968)
  3. Thomas O. Paine (1969–1970)
  4. James C. Fletcher (1971–1977)
  5. Robert A. Frosch (1977–1981)
  6. James M. Beggs (1981–1985)
  7. James C. Fletcher (1986–1989)
  8. Richard H. Truly (1989–1992)
  9. Daniel S. Goldin (1992–2001)
  10. Sean O'Keefe (2001–2005)
  11. Michael Griffin (2005–)

Thomas Keith Glennan (September 8, 1905 - April 11, 1995) was the first Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, serving from August 19, 1958 to January 20, 1961. ... James Edwin Webb (October 7, 1906 - March 27, 1992) was the second administrator of NASA, serving from February 14, 1961 to October 7, 1968. ... Thomas O. Paine (November 9, 1921 - May 4, 1992), American scientist, was the third Administrator of NASA, serving from March 21, 1969 to September 15, 1970. ... James Chipman Fletcher (June 5, 1919 - December 22, 1991) served as the 4th and 7th Administrator of NASA, first from April 27, 1971, to May 1, 1977, and again from May 12, 1986, to April 8, 1989. ... Robert A. Frosch (born May 22, 1928), American scientist, was the fifth Administrator of NASA from 1977-1981 during the Carter administration. ... James Montgomery Beggs (born January 9, 1926) served as the 6th Administrator of NASA. Nominated by President Reagan on June 1, 1981, Beggs took his oath of office and entered the post on July 10, 1981, serving until December 4, 1985. ... James Chipman Fletcher (June 5, 1919 - December 22, 1991) served as the 4th and 7th Administrator of NASA, first from April 27, 1971, to May 1, 1977, and again from May 12, 1986, to April 8, 1989. ... Richard H. Truly Richard H. Truly (born November 12, 1937) is a retired Vice Admiral in the United States Navy, former astronaut, and was the 8th Administrator of NASA from 1989 to 1992. ... Daniel Saul Goldin (born July 23, 1940) served as the 9th and longest-tenured Administrator of NASA from April 1, 1992, to November 17, 2001. ... Sean OKeefe (born January 27, 1956) was the 10th Administrator of NASA, leading the space agency from December 2001 to February 2005. ... Michael D. Griffin Dr. Michael D. Griffin (born in 1949 in Aberdeen, Maryland) is the current NASA Administrator. ...

Field installations

In addition to headquarters in Washington, D.C., NASA has field installations at:

Aerial View of Moffett Field and NASA Ames Research Center. ... Aerial View of Moffett Field and NASA Ames Research Center. ... Jump to: navigation, search Dryden Flight Research Centers fleet of aircraft in 1993. ... Edwards Air Force Base is a base located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, northeast of Lancaster. ... The Glenn Research Center is located in Cleveland, Ohio between Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and the Metropark. ... Jump to: navigation, search City nickname: The Forest City Location Location in Cuyahoga County, Ohio Government County Cuyahoga Mayor Jane L. Campbell Physical characteristics Area      Land      Water 213. ... Aerial view of Goddard Space Flight Center. ... Location in Prince Georges County, Maryland Founded  -Incorporated 1937 {{{incorporated}}}  County Prince Georges County Mayor Judith F. Davis Area  - Total  - Water 15. ... The NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), at Columbia University in New York City, is a division of NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Directorate and a unit of the Columbia University Earth Institute. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... Jump to: navigation, search Fairmont is a city located in Marion County, West Virginia, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 19,097. ... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center`s Wallops Flight Facility, located on Virginia`s Eastern Shore, was established in 1945 by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, as a center for aeronautic research. ... Wallops Island is a 6 square mile (15. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), in La Cañada Flintridge, near Pasadena, California, USA, builds and operates unmanned spacecraft for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... Jump to: navigation, search Pasadena is a city located in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Deep Space Network operations center Deep Space Network (DSN) is an international network of radio antennas that supports interplanetary spacecraft missions, and radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the solar system and the universe. ... The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) —commonly called the Goldstone Observatory— is located in Californias Mojave Desert (USA). ... Barstow is a city located in San Bernardino County, California. ... Plaza de Cibeles (Cibeles square) and the Palacio de Comunicaciones (Communications Palace) Coat of arms. ... 70m telescope at the Canberra Deep Space Communications Complex Tidbinbilla Locality Map The Canberra Deep Space Communications Complex (CDSCC) is located in Australia at Tidbinbilla in a valley of the Murrumbidgee River, about half an hours drive out of Canberra in the Australian Capital Territory, accessible from either the northern... Jump to: navigation, search Canberra is the capital of the Commonwealth of Australia and, with a population of just over 323,000, is also Australias largest inland city. ... Jump to: navigation, search Motto: Pro Rege, Lege et Grege (For the Queen, the Law and the People) Nickname: (none) Other Australian states and territories Capital Canberra Government Administrator Chief Minister Const. ... An aerial view of the complete Johnson Space Center facility in Houston, Texas in 1989. ... Jump to: navigation, search City nickname: Space City Location Location in the state of Texas Government Counties Harris County Fort Bend County Montgomery County Mayor Bill White Physical characteristics Area      Land      Water 601. ... White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), formerly known as the White Sands Proving Grounds, is located in Otero County, New Mexico, in a valley between the Organ Mountains and the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico. ... Las Cruces is a city located in Doña Ana County, New Mexico, United States. ... Jump to: navigation, search Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white) The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the NASA space vehicle launch facility (spaceport) at Cape Canaveral on Merritt Island in Florida, United States. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush (R) Senators Bill Nelson (D) Mel Martinez (R) Official language(s) English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... Langley Research Center (LaRC) Oldest of NASAs field centers, LaRC is located in Hampton, Virginia, and focuses primarily on aeronautical research. ... Hampton is an independent city located in Virginia. ... The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is a lead NASA center for propulsion and for computers, networks, and information management. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Michoud Assembly Facility in 1968 The Michoud Assembly Facility is an 832 acre (3. ... Jump to: navigation, search New Orleans (local pronunciations: , , or ) (French: La Nouvelle-Orléans, pronounced in standard French accent) is a major U.S. port city and the largest city in the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... The John C. Stennis Space Center (or SSC), located in Hancock County, Mississippi at the Mississippi/Louisiana border, is NASAs largest rocket engine test facility. ... Bay Saint Louis is a city located in Hancock County, Mississippi. ...

Awards and decorations

NASA presently bestows a number of medals and decorations to astronauts and other NASA personnel. Some awards are authorized for wear on active duty military uniforms. Current NASA awards are as follows:

Congressional Space Medal of Honor The Congressional Space Medal of Honor was authorized by the United States Congress in 1969 to recognize any astronaut who in the performance of his duties has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious efforts and contributions to the welfare of the Nation and mankind. ... The NASA Distinguished Service Medal is the second highest award which may be bestowed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, ranking immediately below the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. ... The NASA Exceptional Achievement Medal is an award of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration that was established in the year 1991. ... The NASA Space Flight Medal is a decoration of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration which is awarded to any astronaut who performs a significant achievement or meritorious deed while engaged in a United States space mission. ...

Related legislation

  • 1958 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration PL 85-568 (passed on July 29)
  • 1961Apollo mission funding PL 87-98 A
  • 1970 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research and Development Act PL 91-119
  • 1984 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act PL 98-361
  • 1988 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act PL 100-685
  • NASA Budget 1958–2005 in 1996 Constant Year Dollars

Jump to: navigation, search 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Jump to: navigation, search This page is about the year 1984. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NASA Budget 1958-2005 NASA Yearly Budgets in Billions of Dollars CPI = Consumer_Price_Index Categories: NASA ...

See also

This page aims to list all articles related to the specific discipline of aerospace engineering. ... Jump to: navigation, search U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit (MMU) outside the Challenger in 1984. ... The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) is a joint project between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), along with local airports and aviation authorities. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia seconds after engine ignition, 1981 (NASA). ... Jump to: navigation, search Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer-Earth objects and generally anything that involves the technologies, science, and politics regarding space endeavors. ... Jump to: navigation, search Titan II rockets launched U.S. spacecraft from the 1960s through the 1980s. ... Robert Rowe Gilruth (October 18, 1913-August 17, 2000) was an American aviation and space pioneer. ... Christopher Columbus Kraft, Jr. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gene Kranz in a more recent photo. ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness Weightlessness is the experience (by people and objects) during freefall, of having no apparent weight. ... Shirley Thomas Ph. ... Stewart Brand speaking September 5, 2004 Stewart Brand (born December 14, 1938 in Rockford, Illinois) is an author, editor, and creator of The Whole Earth Catalog and CoEvolution Quarterly. ... The Astronomy Picture of the Day (or APOD) website is a service provided by NASA. According to the website, Each day a different image or photograph of our fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation written by a professional astronomer. ...

Other space agencies

Jump to: navigation, search The Canadian Space Agency (CSA or, in French, lAgence spatiale canadienne, ASC) is the Canadian government department space agency responsible for Canadas space program. ... The Centre National dÉtudes Spatiales is the French government space agency (administratively, a public establishment of industrial and commercial character). Its headquarters are located in central Paris. ... The China National Space Administration (中国国家航天局) is the civilian agency within the Peoples Republic of China which is responsible for national space policy within the space program of China. ... Jump to: navigation, search The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to exploration of space with currently 17 member states. ... The Italian Space Agency (LAgenzia Spaziale Italiana or ASI) was founded in 1988 to promote, co-ordinate and conduct space activities in Italy. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is Indias national space agency. ... Jump to: navigation, search This is the current Japanese collaboration of the week! Please help improve it to featured article standard. ... The National Space Agency of Ukraine, or NSAU (Ukrainian: Національне космічне агентство України, Natsionalne kosmichne ahentstvo Ukrayiny, or НКАУ, NKAU) is the Ukrainian government agency responsible for space policy and programs. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency (Russian: Федеральное космическое агентство), formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RKA; in Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство) is the government agency responsible for Russias space science program and general aerospace research. ... Jump to: navigation, search Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ...

External links

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Further research

 
National Space Programmes
Human spaceflight : USSR / Russia | United States | China (PRC)
Brazil | Canada | Europe ( France, Germany, Italy) | Japan | India | South Korea | Taiwan (ROC) | Ukraine

 
 

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