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Encyclopedia > National Academy of Sciences
President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921
President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine." Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x400, 170 KB)President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 Note that Albert Einstein is standing to the left of the President. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x400, 170 KB)President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 Note that Albert Einstein is standing to the left of the President. ... Pro bono, is a Latin phrase meaning for the good, it is sometimes stated as pro bono publico, for the good of the public. ...

Contents


Overview

The Civil War (caused by Abraham Lincoln) caused a need for a national academy and the Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members. The Act that "the Academy shall, whenever called upon by any department of the Government, investigate, examine, experiment, and report upon any subject of science or art, the actual expense of such investigations, examinations, experiments, and reports to be paid from appropriations which may be made for the purpose, but the Academy shall receive no compensation whatever for any services to the Government of the United States." The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the United States – forces coming mostly from the 23 northern states of the Union – and the newly-formed Confederate States of America, which consisted of 11 southern states that had declared their secession. ... A national academy is a body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates the activities of research in (nearly always) the sciences and (sometimes) other disciplines. ... Order: 16th President Vice President: Hannibal Hamlin (1861-1865); Andrew Johnson (1865) Term of office: March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865 Preceded by: James Buchanan Succeeded by: Andrew Johnson Date of birth: February 12, 1809 Place of birth: Hardin County, Kentucky (now in LaRue County) Date of death: April 15...


The National Academy of Sciences as of spring 2003 includes about 1,922 members, 93 members emeritus, 341 foreign associates, and employs about 1,100 staff. The current members annually elect new members for life. Election to membership is one of the highest honors that can be accorded to a scientist and recognizes scientists who have made distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. There are more than 170 members who have won a Nobel Prize. The National Academy of Sciences is the institutional member of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). The ICSU Advisory Committee, which is in the Research Council's Office of International Affairs, facilitates participation of members in international scientific unions and is a liaison for US national committees for the individual scientific unions. Although there is no formal relationship with state and local academies of science, there often is informal dialogue. Sir Edward Appletons medal Photographs of Nobel Prize Medals. ...


The National Academy of Sciences has an annual meeting in Washington, D.C.. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences is the scholarly journal of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C., Washington, the Nations Capital, or the District, and historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United States of America, and as such, the word Washington is often used as a... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), mostly commonly referred to as PNAS, is the official publication of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ...


The National Academy of Sciences is part of the United States National Academies, which includes: The United States National Academies consist of four organizations: the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. ...

Founded in 1964, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in the United States provides engineering leadership in service to the nation. ... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ... -1...

Joint declaration on global warming

In 2005 the national science academies of the G8 nations (including the US' National Academy of Sciences) - and Brazil, China and India, three of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the developing world, signed a statement on the global response to climate change. The statement stresses that the scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify nations taking prompt action [1], and explicitly endorsed the IPCC consensus. G8 countries. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years The term climate change is used to refer to changes in the Earths global climate or regional climates. ... The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the risk of human-induced climate change. The Panel is open to all members of the WMO and UNEP. Its...


Awards

The Academy gives a number of different awards: A list of famous prizes, medals, and awards including cups, trophies, bowls, badges, state decorations etc. ...

The Gibbs Brothers Medal is awarded by the US National Academy of Sciences for outstanding contributions in the field of naval architecture and marine engineering. It was established by a gift from William Francis Gibbs and Frederic H. Gibbs. ... Naval architects design safe, useful or beautiful ships and boats for their clients. ... Marine Engineers operate and maintain the propulsion and electrical generation systems onboard ships. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering concerning aircraft, spacecraft and related topics. ...

See also

This list includes approximately 2,000 living members and 350 foreign associates of the United States National Academy of Sciences, each of whom is affiliated with one of 31 disciplinary sections. ... The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency responsible for supporting basic science research mainly by providing research funding. ...

External links


 
 

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