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Encyclopedia > Nation

A nation is a form of cultural or social community. Nationhood is an ethical and philosophical doctrine and is the starting point for the ideology of nationalism. Members of a "nation" share a common identity, and usually a common origin, in the sense of history, ancestry, parentage or descent. A nation extends across generations, and includes the dead as full members. Past events are framed in this context; for example; by referring to "our soldiers" in conflicts which took place hundreds of years ago. More vaguely, nations are assumed to include future generations. For nation as a term of political discourse, see Nation For the political entity, as in international relations, see Country For the Swedish student societies, see Student nation Nation or The Nation has been the title of a number of newspapers. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Identity is an umbrella term used throughout the social sciences for an individuals comprehension of him or herself as a discrete, separate entity. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ...


A nation is usually the people of a state, and while traditionally monocultural, it may also be multicultural in its self-definition. The term nation is often used as a synonym for ethnic group (sometimes "ethnos"), but although ethnicity is now one of the most important aspects of cultural or social identity, people with the same ethnic origin may live in different nation-states and be treated as members of separate nations for that reason. National identity is often disputed, down to the level of the individual. For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as he is influenced by his belonging to a group or culture. ... Identity is an umbrella term used throughout the social sciences for an individuals comprehension of him or herself as a discrete, separate entity. ... The concept of ethnic origin is an attempt to classify people, not according to their current nationality, but according to where their ancestors came from. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


Almost all nations are associated with a specific territory, the national homeland. Some live in a historical diaspora, that is, mainly outside the national homeland. A state which explicitly identifies as the homeland of a particular nation is a nation-state, and most modern states fall into this category, although there may be violent disputes about their legitimacy. Where territory is disputed between nations, the claims may be based on which nation lived there first. Especially in areas of historical European settlement (1500-1950), the term "First Nations" is used by groups which share an aboriginal culture, and seek official recognition or autonomy. A homeland is the concept of the territory to which one belongs; usually, the country in which a particular nationality was born. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... First Nations is the current title used by Canada to describe the various societies of the indigenous peoples, called Native Americans in the U.S. They have also been known as Indians, Native Canadians, Aboriginal Americans, Amer-Indians, or Aboriginals, and are officially called Indians in the Indian Act, which... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ...

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Ambiguity in usage

In common usage, terms such as nations, country, land, and state often appear as near-synonyms, i.e., they can be used for a particular area or territory, or for the government itself; in other words, a de jure or de facto state. In the English language, the terms do have precise meanings, but in daily speech and writing they are often used interchangeably, and are open to different interpretations.hello For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


In the strict sense, terms such as nation, ethnos, and 'people' (as in 'the Danish people') denominate a group of human beings. The concepts of nation and nationality have much in common with ethnic group and ethnicity, but have a more political connotation, since they imply the possibility of a nation-state. Country denominates a geographical territory, whereas state expresses a legitimized administrative and decision-making institution. Confusingly, the terms national and international are used as technical terms applying to states. International law, for instances, applies to relations between states, and occasionally between states on the one side, and individuals or legal persons on the other. Likewise, the United Nations represent states, while nations are not admitted to the body (unless a respective nation-state exists, which can become a member). For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A legal entity or artificial person is a legal construct with legal rights or duties such as the legal capacity to enter into contracts and sue or be sued. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Usage also varies from country to country. As an example, the United Kingdom is an internationally recognised sovereign state, which is also referred to as a country and whose inhabitants have British nationality. It is however traditionally divided into four home nations - England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. These are not sovereign states in their own right. The island of Ireland is now divided into the sovereign Republic of Ireland, and Northern Ireland which remains part of the United Kingdom. The current status of the UK, in any case, is controversial and disputed, since there are secessionist movements in England, Scotland and Wales, and for example, Cornwall is considered by some to be a separate nation, within the country of England. Usage of the term nation is not only ambiguous, it is also the subject of political disputes, which may be extremely violent. “Sovereign” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... The Home Nations is a name to collectively describe the four nations of the United Kingdom: the countries of England, Scotland and Wales, and the province of Northern Ireland. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... Englands (in red) location within the United Kingdom English nationalism is the name given to a nationalist political movement in England that demands self-government for England, via a devolved English Parliament. ... Scottish independence is a political ambition of a number of political parties, pressure groups and individuals within and outside of Scotland. ... Welsh nationalism is a popular political and cultural movement that emerged during the nineteenth-century. ... The Cornish Flag The Cornish self-government movement (sometimes referred to as Cornish nationalism) is a social movement which seeks greater autonomy for the area of Cornwall. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


When the term 'nation' has any implications of claims to independence from an existing state, its use is controversial. In November 2006 the Canadian House of Commons passed a motion to "recognize that the Québécois form a nation within a united Canada.", an unusual concession to sovereigntist terminology, even though it explicitly places them within Canada.[1].[2] Minister Michael Chong resigned in protest, saying '"To me, recognizing Quebecers as a nation, even inside a united Canada, implies the recognition of ethnicity, and I cannot support that. I do not believe in an ethnic nationalism. I believe in a civic nationalism."[3] This event highlighted the confusion around the motion, as Bloc québécois MPs had understood it as inclusive of all Quebecers, irrespective of their ethnic origin.[10] Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois... This article is about the use of the term. ... Hon. ... Throughout the history of Canada, there have been movements seeking secession from Canada. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... Civic nationalism, or civil nationalism, is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from the active participation of its citizenry, from the degree to which it represents the will of the people. It is often seen as originating with Jean-Jacques Rousseau and especially the social...


The term nation is widely used, by extension or metaphor, to describe any group promoting some common interest or common identity, see Red Sox Nation and Queer Nation. This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Redsox Nation Logo Red Sox Nation is a term given to fans of the Boston Red Sox. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      Queer Nation was founded in March 1990 in New York City, USA by activists from ACT-UP. The four founders were outraged at the escalation of anti...


Nationalism

Main article: Nationalism

In Europe, especially since the late 18th century, the idea of nation assumed a fundamental political significance, with the rise of the ideology and philosophy of nationalism. Nationalists saw a 'nation' not simply as a descriptive term for a group of people, but an entity entitled to sovereignty, if necessary by the destruction of non-national states. There is no consensus, among the theorists of nationalism, on whether nations were a significant political factor before that time. England and Portugal are seen by some historians as early nation-states, with a developed sense of national identity. Others see the nation-state as a 19th century creation, either as the result of the political campaigns of nationalists, or as a top-down creation by pre-existing states. The modernisation-oriented theorists such as Benedict Anderson and Eric Hobsbawm are sceptical about the 'centuries-old nations' which nationalists claimed to represent, arguing that nations are often imagined communities constructed through a variety of techniques, including banal nationalism. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... The term state may refer to: a sovereign political entity, see state unitary state nation state a non-sovereign political entity, see state (non-sovereign). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Modernization is the process of changing the conditions of a society, an organisation or another group of people in ways that change the privileges of that group according to modern technology or modern knowledge. ... Benedict Richard OGorman Anderson (born August 26, 1936) // Anderson is professor emeritus of International Studies at Cornell University. ... Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm CH (born June 9, 1917) is a British Marxist historian and author. ... The Imagined Community is a concept coined by Benedict Anderson which states that a nation is socially constructed and ultimately imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group. ... The Pledge of Allegiance in the United States is one of the most overt forms of banal nationalism - most are less obvious. ...


By the end of the 19th century the idea that Europe's populations are divided into nations was generally accepted. In the course of the 20th century, partly through decolonisation, a 'world of nation-states' came into existence, at least nominally. That does not mean that there is any agreement on the number of 'nations', on whether they correspond with a nation-state, or on whether any existing state is legitimate. Very few nation-states have 100% undisputed territory and borders. Political actors make claims on behalf of 'stateless nations', such as the Kurds, Assyrians, Palestinians or Roma people (Gypsies). Secessionist movements may oppose the very existence of the nation-state, as in Belgium. Autonomous movements request greater autonomy within the framework of the broader state (e.g., Catalonia or Galicia in Spain, Quebecois in Canada, Native Americans in the US). Claimed national territory may be partitioned or divided, as in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. There are also examples of national identity without a corresponding state, or claim to a state. England is a nation within the United Kingdom, but there has, until recently, been little sign of aspiration to self-government (see Campaign for an English Parliament). Although it is common to attribute political and territorial aspirations to a nation itself, they are in fact made by political movements claiming to speak on behalf of that nation. Decolonization generally refers to a movement following the Second World War in which the various European colonies of the world were granted independence. ... A stateless nation is a political term used to imply that a group, usually a minority ethnic group is a nation, and is entitled to its own state, specifically a nation-state for that nation. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other Semitic peoples, and other ethnic groups from the Fertile Crescent. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In Canadian English, a Québécois (IPA: ) is a native or resident of the province of Quebec, Canada, especially a French-speaking one. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Partition in political science refer to a change of political borders cutting through at least one community’s homeland. ... This is a list of nations, which may have been divided. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... See also List of Parliaments of England External link Campaign for an English Parliament English Constitutional Convention Categories: English politics | England | Politics of England | Politics of the UK | United Kingdom | European politics | English independence ...


The term "state-nation" is sometimes used, for nations where the common identity derives from shared citizenship of a state. It implies that the state was formed first, and that the sense of national identity developed later, or in parallel. Italy and France are often quoted as examples. However, both countries also have a strong ethnic identity and cultural identity, reflected in widespread attitudes to immigrants. New world nations such as the USA and Australia may be better examples of nationality formed after the foundation of the state. If the nation was defined only by citizenship, then naturalised citizens would be accepted as equal members of the nation, and that is not always the case. Citizenship may itself be conditional on a citizenship test, which usually includes language and/or cultural knowledge tests, see Life in the United Kingdom test. Citizen redirects here. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as he is influenced by his belonging to a group or culture. ... -1... The Life in the United Kingdom test is a computer-based test for individuals seeking Indefinite Leave to Remain in the UK or naturalisation as a British citizen. ...


Etymology and early use

The English word "nation" is derived from the Latin term nātĭō (stem nātiōn-), meaning:[4][5] For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

  • The action of being born; birth; or
  • The goddess personifying birth; or
  • A breed, stock, kind, species, race; or
  • A tribe, or (rhetorically, any) set of people (contemptuous); or
  • A nation or people.

The combining form nātiōn‑ is built on the past participle form nāt‑us "having been born" of the verb nāscī "to be born". Thus it is also related closely to the English word "native", and more remotely to the English word "kin". It shares a common derivation from the Proto-Indo-European root *gen- "bear, generate, etc."[6] Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ...


As an example of how the word natio was employed in classical Latin, consider the following quote from Cicero's Philippics Against Mark Antony in 44 BC. Cicero contrasts the external, inferior nationes ("races of people") with the Roman civitas ("community").: For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... A philippic is a fiery, damning speech delivered to condemn a particular political actor. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC...

"Omnes nationes servitutem ferre possunt: nostra civitas non potest."
("All races are able to bear enslavement, but our community cannot.")[7]

St. Jerome used this "genealogical-historical term ... in his Latin translation of New Testament to denote non-Christians — that is, 'others.'"[8] An early example of the use of the word "nation" in conjunction with language and territory is provided in 968 by Liutprand, bishop of Cremona, who, while confronting Nicephorus II, the Byzantine emperor on behalf of his patron Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, declared: For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Events Births Emperor Kazan of Japan Ethelred II of England Romanus Argyrus, later Romanus III of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Liutprand (Liudprand, Luitprand) (c. ... The Italian Catholic diocese of Cremona is suffragan of the archdiocese of Milan. ... Emperor Nicephoros Phocas Nicephorus II Phocas was one of the most brilliant generals in the history of Byzantium who rose to become a mediocre emperor from 963 until his assassination in 969. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... For others with the same name, see Otto I (disambiguation). ...

"The land...which you say belongs to your empire belongs, as the nationality and language of the people proves, to the kingdom of Italy.'" (Emphasis added.)[9]

Although Liutprand was writing in Latin, his native tongue was Lombard, a Germanic language. Lombardic or Langobardic is the extinct language of the Lombards (Langobardi), the Germanic speaking settlers in Italy in the 6th century. ...


A significant early use of the term nation was at mediaeval universities, to describe the colleagues in a college or students, above all at the University of Paris, who were all born within a pays, spoke the same language and expected to be ruled by their own familiar law. In 1383 and 1384, while studying theology at Paris, Jean Gerson was twice elected procurator for the French nation (i.e. the French-born Francophone students at the University). The division of students into nations was also adopted at the University of Prague, where from its opening in 1349 the studium generale was divided among Bohemian, Bavarian, Saxon and various Polish nations. The first European medieval universities were established in Italy and France in the late 12th and early 13th Century for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology. ... College (Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an educational institution. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Year 1383 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1384 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Jean de Gerson Jean Charlier de Gerson (December 14, 1363 – July 12, 1429), French scholar and divine, chancellor of the university of Paris, a guiding light of the conciliar movement and the one of most the prominent theologians at the Council of Constance, was born at the village of Gerson... The Charles University of Prague (also simply University of Prague; Czech: Univerzita Karlova; Latin: Universitas Carolina) is the oldest and most prestigious Czech university and among the oldest universities in Europe, being founded in 1340s (for the exact year, see below). ... // Events January 9 - The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing bubonic plague. ... Studium Generale is the old name for a medieval university which was registered as an institution of international excellence by the Holy Roman Empire. ...


Defining a nation

The national identity refers both to the distinguishing features of the group, and to the individual's sense of belonging to it. A very wide range of criteria is used, with very different applications. Small differences in pronunciation may be enough to categorize someone as a member of another nation. On the other hand, two people may be separated by difference in personalities, belief systems, geographical locations, time and even spoken language; yet regard themselves, and be seen by others, as members of the same nation. ...


The first requirement for the definition is that the characteristics should be shared - a group of people with nothing in common cannot be a nation. Because they are shared, the national population also has a degree of uniformity and homogeneity. And finally, at least some of the characteristics must be exclusive - to distinguish the nation from neighbouring nations. All of the characteristics can be disputed, and opposition to secessionist nationalism often includes the denial that a separate nation exists. For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ...


Common descent

The etymology of the word nation implies ancestry and descent. Almost all nationalist movements make some claim to shared origins and descent, and it is a component of the national identity in most nations. The fact that the ancestry is shared among the members of the nation unites them, and sets them apart from other nations, which do not share that ancestry. Etymologies redirects here. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ...


The question is: descent from whom? Often, the answer is simply: from previous generations of the same nation. More specifically:

  • the nation may be defined as the descendants of the past inhabitants of the national homeland
  • the nation may be defined as the descendants of past speakers of the national language, or past groups which shared the national culture.

Usually, these factors are assumed to coincide. The well-defined Icelandic nation is assumed to consist of the descendants of the island of Iceland in, say, 1850. Those people also spoke the Icelandic language, were known as Icelanders at that time, and had a recognised culture of their own. However, the present population of Iceland cannot coincide exactly with their descendants: that would imply complete endogamy, meaning that no Icelander since 1850 ever had children by a non-Icelander. Most European nations experienced border changes and, migration over the last few centuries, and intermarried with other national groups. Statistically, their current national population can not coincide exactly with the descendants of the nation in 1700 or 1500, even if was then known by the same name. The shared ancestry is more of a national myth than a genetic reality - but still sufficient for a national identity. Icelandic ( ) is a North Germanic language, the official language of Iceland and the mother tongue of the Icelandic people. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... Othello and Desdemona from William Shakespeares Othello, a play often depicted as concerning a biracial couple. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ...


Common language

A shared language is often used as a defining feature of a nation (that is, apart from its value in facilitating communication among the members). In some cases the language is exclusive to the nation, and may be central to the national identity. The Basque language is a unique language isolate, and prominent in the self-definition of the Basque people, and in Basque nationalism, although not all Basques speak it. In other cases, the national language is also spoken by other nations (shared among the nation, but not exclusive to the nation). Some nations, such as the Swiss nation, self-identity as multilingual. Papua New Guinea promotes a 'Papuan' national identity, despite having around 800 distinct languages. No nation is defined solely by language: that would effectively create an open membership (for anyone who learnt the language), although the case of Catalan linguistic nationalism comes quite close to this. India also emphasizes a 'national' identity, despite having more than 20 official languages in its government, and hundreds more languages/dialects spoken throughout the nation. Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern... Political Spain in 1854, after the first Carlist War The Arrano beltza (black eagle) flag is waved by radical Basque nationalists, mainly supporters of ETA and HB, along the Ikurriña and the Navarrese flag as a claim of unity of the Basque lands. ... Swiss redirects here. ... The term Papuan languages refers to those languages of the western Pacific which are neither Austronesian nor Australian. ...


Common culture

Most nations are partly defined by a shared culture. Unlike a language, a national culture is usually unique to the nation, although it may include many elements shared with other nations. Additionally, the national culture is assumed to be shared with previous generations, and includes a cultural heritage from these generations, as if it were an inheritance. As with the common ancestry, this identification of past culture with present culture may be largely symbolic. The archaeological site of Stonehenge is owned and managed by English Heritage, although no 'English' people or state existed when it was constructed, 4 000 to 5 000 years ago. Other nations have similarly appropriated ancient archaeological sites, literature, art, and even entire civilisations as 'national heritage'. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Cultural heritage (national heritage or just heritage) is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... The standard of English Heritage English Heritage is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) with a broad remit of managing the historic environment of England. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ...


Common religion

Religion is sometimes used as a defining factor for a nation, although some nationalist movements de-emphasize it as a divisive factor. Again it is the fact that the religion is shared, that makes it national. It may not be exclusive: several nations define themselves partly as Catholic although the religion itself is universalist. Irish nationalism traditionally sees Catholicism as an Irish national characteristic, in contrast to the largely Protestant British colonial power that usually recognized the Protestant minority in Ireland as Irish too. Some religions are specific to one ethnic group, notably Judaism. Nevertheless, the Zionist movement generally avoided a religious definition of the 'Jewish people', preferring an ethnic and cultural definition. Since Judaism is a religion, people can become a Jew by religious conversion, which in turn can facilitate their obtaining Israeli citizenship. Jews in Israel who convert to other religions do not thereby lose Israeli citizenship, although their national identity might then be questioned by others. In comparative religion, a universalist religion is one that holds itself true for all people; it thus allows all to join, regardless of ethnicity. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... Citizen redirects here. ...


Voluntary definitions (will)

Some ideas of a nation emphasise not shared characteristics, but rather on the shared choice for membership. In practice, this has always been applied to a group of people, who are also a nation by other definitions. The most famous voluntarist definition is that of Ernest Renan. In a lecture in 1882, Qu'est-ce qu'une nation? he rhetorically asked "What is a Nation?", and answered that it is a 'daily plebiscite'. Renan meant, that the members of the nation, by their daily participation in the life of the nation, show their consent to its existence, and to their own continued membership. Renan spoke in the context of the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine by the German Empire. At the time, the region was ethnically more German than French, and the Alsatian language is a west German language: Renan opposed such 'objective' criteria for a nation. Like Renan, most voluntarist definitions appeal to consent for existing nations, rather than promote explicit decisions to found new ones. Renan saw the nation as a group "having done great things together and wishing to do more" ("avoir fait de grandes choses ensemble, vouloir en faire encore"). Voluntarism (lat. ... Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... This inscription in Alsatian on a window in Eguisheim, Alsace, reads: Dis Hausz sted in Godes Hand - God bewar es vor Feyru (This house stands in Gods hand - God beware it for fire) Alsatian (French Alsacien, German Elsässisch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in Alsace, a...


Stalin's definition

Many definitions of a nation combine several of these factors. One of the most influential of these combined definitions is that of Joseph Stalin. His views on national identity influenced his subsequent nationality policies in the Soviet Union and the creation of the Republics of the Soviet Union. Stalin wrote in 1913: Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Soviet Union administrative divisions, 1989 In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ...

A nation is a historically constituted, stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, and psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.[10]

See also

Look up Nation in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Central New York City. ... Citizen redirects here. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... First Nations is the current title used by Canada to describe the various societies of the indigenous peoples, called Native Americans in the U.S. They have also been known as Indians, Native Canadians, Aboriginal Americans, Amer-Indians, or Aboriginals, and are officially called Indians in the Indian Act, which... Home Nations (often written as the common noun home nations) is a term used to refer to the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — collectively but as separate entities, distinct from the United Kingdom as a state. ... Identity is an umbrella term used throughout the social sciences for an individuals comprehension of him or herself as a discrete, separate entity. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ... Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... This is a list of nations, which may have been divided. ... This is a list of ethnic groups. ... // International rankings of the Peoples Republic of China International rankings of Finland International rankings of Japan International rankings of South Korea International rankings of Thailand International rankings of the United States IMD International: World Competitiveness Yearbook 2006 World Economic Forum: Global Competitiveness Report A.T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine... There are a variety of articles listing people of a particular nationality. ... Meta-ethnicity is a term that arises relatively rarely in literature or public discourse, but when it does, seems to be an attempt to describe a level of commonality that is wider and more general (i. ... This article is about entities that are not officially recognised by world governments or major international organisations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A national symbol is a symbol of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community – namely sovereign states, but also nations and countries in a state of colonial or other dependence, (con)federal integration, or even an ethnocultural community considered a nationality despite the... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... http://www. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Notes

  1. ^ BBC: Quebec 'nation in Canada', [1]; Bloc Quebecois supports Canada PM, [2]
  2. ^ CBC: House passes motion recognizing Québécois as nation, [3]
  3. ^ Tory cabinet minister quits post over motion, [4]
  4. ^ Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, (1879). A Latin Dictionary. Entry for natio. Online at [5]
  5. ^ Harper, Douglas (November 2001). Nation. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-11-08..
  6. ^ See [6]
  7. ^ M. Tullius Cicero, Orationes: Pro Milone, Pro Marcello, Pro Ligario, Pro rege Deiotaro, Philippicae I-XIV (ed. Albert Clark, Oxford 1918.) Online at [7]
  8. ^ Amos Elon: The Pity of It All: A History of the Jews in Germany, 1743-1933 (Metropolitan Books, 2002) p.23. ISBN 0805059644
  9. ^ Relatio de legatione Constantinopolitana ad Nicephorum Phocam. Online translation at [8].
  10. ^ Stalin, "Marxism and the National Question," Prosveshcheniye, Nos. 3-5, March-May 1913. ([9] on-line text]). Though Stalin is credited with writing "Marxism and the National Question," his revolutionary opponent Leon Trotsky concluded that the definition of what constitutes a nation is actually V.I. Lenin’s intellectual product. In "Stalin: An Appraisal of the Man and His Influence" (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1941), Trotsky quotes from the recollections of Lenin’s companion, Nadezhda Krupskaya, and examines the language of other writings by Stalin. Says Trotsky: “‘Marxism and the National Problem’ is undoubtedly Stalin’s most important — rather, his one and only — theoretical work. On the basis of that single article, which was forty printed pages long, its author is entitled to recognition as an outstanding theoretician. What is rather mystifying is why he did not write anything else of even remotely comparable quality either before or after. The key to the mystery is hidden away in this, that Stalin’s work was wholly inspired by Lenin, written under his unremitting supervision and edited by him line by line” (pg. 156-157). Lenin's own works on nationalism include major theoretical studies of the meaning and application of the Bolshevik program for national liberation.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Amos Elon is an Israeli journalist and author. ... Prosveshcheniye (Russian: , Enlightenment) was a legal Bolshevik socio-political and literary monthly magazine in Russia. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was... Nadezhda Krupskaya Nadezhda K. Krupskaya ( February 26, 1869 - February 27, 1939) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary. ...

Further reading

  • Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities. ISBN 0-86091-329-5 .
  • Brubaker, Rogers. 1996. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57224-X .
  • Canovan, Margaret. 1996. Nationhood and Political Theory. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. ISBN 1-85278-852-6 .
  • Delanty, Gerard and Krishan Kumar (eds) Handbook of Nations and Nationalism. London: Sage Publications, 2005.
  • Geary, Patrick J. 2002. The Myth of Nations: The Medieval Origins of Europe. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11481-1 .
  • Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-1662-0 .
  • Hobsbawm, Eric J. 1992. Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43961-2 .
  • Renan, Ernest. 1882. "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?"
  • Smith, Anthony D. 1986. The Ethnic Origins of Nations London: Basil Blackwell. pp 6–18. ISBN 0-631-15205-9 .
  • Weber, Max. 1978 [1922]. Economy and Society, eds. Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Benedict Richard OGorman Anderson (born August 26, 1936) // Anderson is professor emeritus of International Studies at Cornell University. ... The Imagined Community is a concept coined by Benedict Anderson which states that a nation is socially constructed and ultimately imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group. ... Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ...

External links


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