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Nestorianism is the Christian doctrine that Jesus existed as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, rather than as a unified person. This doctrine is identified with Nestorius (c.386–c.451), Patriarch of Constantinople, although he himself denied holding this belief. This view of Christ was condemned at the Council of Ephesus in 431, and the conflict over this view led to the Nestorian schism, separating the Assyrian Church of the East from the Byzantine Church. As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... Jesus, also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity, in which context he is known as Jesus Christ (from Greek Ιησούς Χριστός) with Christ not being a name but rather a title meaning Anointed. He is also considered a very important prophet in Islam. ... Nestorius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For the processor, see Intel 80386. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aetius in the Battle of Chalons. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... The Council of Ephesus was held in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great. ... Events June - Council of Ephesus: Nestorianism is rejected, the Nicene creed is declared to be complete. ... The Nestorian Schism was the split between the Byzantine church of the West and the Assyrian church of the East in the 5th century. ... The Assyrian Church of the East is a Christian denominational body that traces its origins to the See of Babylon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle. ... ...


The Assyrian Church of the East, commonly described as Nestorian, does not teach Nestorianism, but rather teaches the view of Babai the Great, that Christ has two qnome (essences) which are unmingled and eternally united in one parsopa (personality). The origin of this confusion is mostly historical and linguistic: for example, the Greeks had two words for 'person', which translated poorly into Syriac, and the meaning of these terms were not even quite settled during Nestorius's lifetime. The Assyrian Church of the East is a Christian denominational body that traces its origins to the See of Babylon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle. ... Babai the Great (c. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


Nestorianism as a Christological heresy originated in the Church in the 5th century out of an attempt to rationally explain and understand the incarnation of the divine Logos, the Second Person of the Holy Trinity as the man Jesus Christ. Nestorianism teaches that the human and divine essences of Christ are separate and that there are two persons, the man Jesus Christ and the divine Logos, which dwelt in the man. Thus, Nestorians reject such terminology as "God suffered" or "God was crucified", because they believe that the man Jesus Christ suffered. Likewise, they reject the term Theotokos (Giver of birth to God) for the Virgin Mary, using instead the term Christotokos (Giver of birth to Christ) or Anthropotokos (Giver of birth to a man). Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos Θεοτοκος is a Greek word usually translated God-bearer. It literally means Birth-giver to God (literally, whose offspring is god, a bahuvrihi compound of θεος god and τοκος parturition, gestation, offspring, used synonymously is Μητηρ Θεου Mother of God, often abbreviated to ΜΡ ΘΥ). // Theotokos and early Christian Church Many Fathers of... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: For the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary, see Mary, the mother of Jesus. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek Θεοτοκος) is a title of Mary, the mother of Jesus. ... Anthropotokos is a name given to Mary by the Nestorianist Church. ...

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Nestorius

Nestorius (c.386–c.451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria and later became Patriarch of Constantinople. He preached against the use of the title Mother of God (Theotokos) for the Virgin Mary and would only call her Mother of Christ (Christotokos). He also argued that God could never be a helpless child, and could not suffer on the cross. Nestorius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For the processor, see Intel 80386. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aetius in the Battle of Chalons. ... Theodore (c. ... The city of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (modern Antakya; Greek Αντιοχεια ἡ επι Δαφνη; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is located in what is now Turkey. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos Θεοτοκος is a Greek word usually translated God-bearer. It literally means Birth-giver to God (literally, whose offspring is god, a bahuvrihi compound of θεος god and τοκος parturition, gestation, offspring, used synonymously is Μητηρ Θεου Mother of God, often abbreviated to ΜΡ ΘΥ). // Theotokos and early Christian Church Many Fathers of... Saint Mary redirects here. ...


His opponents accused him of dividing Christ into two persons: they claimed that proposing that God the Word did not suffer and die on the cross, while Jesus the man did, or that God the Word was omniscient, while Jesus the man had limited knowledge, implied two separate persons with separate experiences. Omniscience is the capacity to know everything, or at least everything that can be known about a character/s including thoughts, feelings, etc. ...


Nestorius responded that he believed that Christ was indeed one person (Greek: prosopon). Opposed by Cyril of Alexandria, Nestorius was condemned at the Council of Ephesus in 431. Cyril I (376 – June 27, 444), surnamed The Pillar of Faith, was Pope of Alexandria. ... The Council of Ephesus was held in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great. ... Events June - Council of Ephesus: Nestorianism is rejected, the Nicene creed is declared to be complete. ...


The Council held that Christ is one person, and that the Virgin Mary is the mother of God. The condemning pronouncement of the Council resulted in the Nestorian schism and the separation of the Assyrian Church of the East from the Byzantine Church.[1] However, even Ephesus could not settle the issue, and the Byzantine Church was soon split again over the question of whether Christ had one or two natures, leading to the Chalcedonian schism. The Nestorian Schism was the split between the Byzantine church of the West and the Assyrian church of the East in the 5th century. ... The Assyrian Church of the East is a Christian denominational body that traces its origins to the See of Babylon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle. ...


Today it is generally accepted that the accusations against Nestorius and the Churches of the East were exaggerated. The real question should have been whether properties of the Divine Word can be ascribed to the man Jesus, and vice versa. This sharing of properties is called Communicatio idiomatum, and is part of Alexandrian, Byzantine, and Roman doctrine. The position of the Assyrian Church and the official definition of Nestorianism should be consulted for further clarifications. The Divine Word may mean several things: According to the Gospel of John, Jesus is the Word of God (Greek: logos). ... Jesus, also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity, in which context he is known as Jesus Christ (from Greek Ιησούς Χριστός) with Christ not being a name but rather a title meaning Anointed. He is also considered a very important prophet in Islam. ... In Christian theology communicatio idiomatum is a term from the theology of the Incarnation, attempting to define the relationship between two natures in one person. ... Antiquity and modernity stand cheek-by-jowl in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport Located on the Mediterranean Sea coast, Alexandria (in Arabic, الإسكندرية, transliterated al-ʼIskandariyyah) is the chief seaport in Egypt, and that countrys second largest city, and the capital... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1...


Christological implications

The teaching of Nestorius has important consequences that deal with soteriology and the theology of the Eucharist.
The concept that Jesus did not die on the cross was in opposition to a statement by Paul the Apostle in an Epistle stating that If Christ is not risen from the grave our faith is in vain and during the Protestant Reformation, when some groups denied the Real Presence, they were accused of reviving the error of Nestorius. Salvation refers to deliverance from an undesirable state or condition. ... The Eucharist is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament, to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... An early portrait of the Apostle Paul. ... An epistle is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually a letter and a very formal, often didactic and elegant one. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which emerged in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Real Presence is a doctrine of many Christian traditions that Jesus the Christ is physically present in the bread and wine of the Eucharist or Holy Communion. ... Nestorius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The involvement of the Assyrian Church

Cyril of Alexandria worked hard to remove Nestorius and his supporters and followers from power. But in the Syriac speaking world Theodore of Mopsuestia was held in very high esteem, and the condemnation of his pupil Nestorius was not received well. His followers were given refuge. The Sassanid Persian kings, who were at constant war with Byzantium, saw the opportunity to assure the loyalty of their Christian subjects and supported the Nestorian schism: Cyril I (376 – June 27, 444), surnamed The Pillar of Faith, was Pope of Alexandria. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Sassanid Empire at the reign of Shapur II Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of Iran The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian...

  • They granted protection to Nestorians (462).
  • They executed the pro-Byzantine Catholicos Babowai who was then replaced by the Nestorian Bishop of Nisibis Bar Sauma (484).
  • They allowed the transfer of the school of Edessa to the Persian city Nisibis when the Byzantine emperor closed it for its Nestorian tendencies (489).

At Nisibis the school became even more famous than at Edessa. The main theological authorities of the school have always been Theodore and his teacher Diodorus of Tarsus. Unfortunately, few of their writings have survived. The writings of Nestorius himself were only added to the curriculum of the school of Edessa-Nisibis in 530, shortly before the Fifth Ecumenical Council in 553 condemned Theodore of Mopsuestia as Nestorius's predecessor. Events September 1 - possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. ... Bar Sauma was a teacher at the School of Edessa in the 5th century, but had to flee to Persia because of his Nestorian views. ... Events December 28 - Alaric II succeeds Euric as king of the Visigoths. ... The School of Edessa was the temporary home of the School of Nisibis from 363 until 489. ... The newly excavated Church of Saint Jacob in Nisibis. ... Events Theoderic, king of the Italy with the approval of the eastern emperor Zeno. ... After the early School of Antioch came into decline, the presbyter Diodore of Tarsus re-founded it in the middle of the fourth century as a semi-monastic community. ... Events September 22 - Pope Boniface II is elected to succeed Pope Felix IV December 15 - Justinian selects a second commission to excerpt and codify the writings of the jurists on Roman Law. ... The Fifth Ecumenical Council (the Second Council of Constantinople) was a Christian Ecumenical Council that was held in 553. ... Events The Ostrogoth Kingdom is conquered by the Byzantines after the Battle of Mons Lactarius. ... Theodore (c. ...


At the end of the 6th century the school went through a theological crisis when its director Henana of Adiabene tried to replace Theodore with his own doctrine, which followed Origen. Babai the Great (551628), who was also the unofficial head of the Church at that time and revived the Assyrian monastic movement, refuted him and in the process wrote the normative Christology of the Assyrian Church, based on Theodore of Mopsuestia. Henana of Adiabene was headmaster of the School of Nisibis, the theological center of the Assyrian Church of the East, from 571 to about 610. ... Origen ( 182– 251) was a Christian scholar and theologian and one of the most distinguished of the Fathers of the early Christian Church. ... Babai the Great (c. ... Events Jordanes publishes The Origin and Deeds of the Goths. ... Events Khusro II of Persia overthrown Pippin of Landen becomes Mayor of the Palace Brahmagupta writes the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Births Deaths Empress Suiko of Japan Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards Categories: 628 ...


A small sampling of Babai's work is available in English translation. The Book of Union is his principal surviving work on Christology. In it he explains that Christ has two qnome (essences), which are unmingled and eternally united in one parsopa (personality). This, and not Nestorianism, is the teaching of the Assyrian Church.


The spread of "Nestorianism"

The Assyrian Church produced many zealous missionaries, who traveled and preached throughout Persia and Central and East Asia in the seventh and eighth centuries. Also during this time many Nestorian scholars, having escaped the Byzantines, settled in Gundishapur, Persia, and brought with them many ancient Greco-Roman philosophical, scientific and literary texts. "Nestorian" Christianity reached China by 635, and its relics can still be seen in Chinese cities such as Xi'an. About the same time Nestorian Christianity penetrated into Mongolia, eventually reaching as far as Korea. The Nestorian Stele, set up on 7 January 781 at the then-capital of Chang'an, describes the introduction of Christianity into China from Persia in the reign of Tang Taizong. The Assyrian Church of the East is a Christian denominational body that traces its origins to the See of Babylon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle. ... ... The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur, GONDÊ SHÂPÛR, etc. ... Events Saint Aidan founds Lindisfarne in Northumbria, England Nestorian China Births Pippin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia (approximate date) 23 May - Chan Bahlum II, king of Palenque Deaths Categories: 635 ... City nickname: Changan Location Location of Xian Government City Shaanxi Mayor Sun Qingyun Physical characteristics Area      Land      Water 9,983 km²      9,983 km²      0. ... Korea refers to South Korea and North Korea together, which were a unified country until 1948. ... The Nestorian Stele, Nestorian Stone, formally the Memorial of the Propagation in China of the Luminous Religion from Daqin (大秦景教流行中國碑; pinyin: Dàqín Jǐngjiào liúxíng Zhōngguó béi, abbreviated 大秦景教碑), and also known as the Hsi-an Monument, is a Tang Chinese stele erected in 781... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Emperor Kammu succeeds Emperor Konin as emperor of Japan. ... Changan   listen? (Simplified Chinese: 长安; Traditional Chinese: 長安; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-an) is the ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in China. ... Emperor Taizong of Tang China (January 23, 599–July 10, 649), born Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China from 626 to 649. ...


The Christian community later faced persecution from Emperor Tang Wu Zong (reigned 840-846). He suppressed all foreign religions, including Buddhism and Christianity, which then declined sharply in China. A Syrian monk visiting China a few decades later described many churches in ruin. The Church experienced a significant revival during the Yuan dynasty. Marco Polo in the 1200s and other medieval Western writers indicate many Nestorian communities remaining in China and Mongolia; however, they clearly were not as vibrant as they had been during Tang times. The communities seem to have petered out due to hostility from the Ming dynasty. The legacy of the missionaries remains in the Assyrian churches still to be found in Iraq, Iran, and India. Emperor Tang Wuzong (武宗 814-846), born Li Yan, was a later emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. ... Events After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German fight over the division of the empire, with Lothair succeding as Emperor. ... Events The Moors temporarily recapture León. ... The term Buddha is a word in ancient Indian languages including Pāli and Sanskrit which means one who has awakened. It is derived from the verbal root budh, meaning to awaken or to be enlightened, and to comprehend. It is written in devanagari script as Hindi: and pronounced as... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 元朝 or 大元帝國) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty, was the name given to the significant ruling family of Borjigin in Asia. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254, Venice, Italy; or Curzola, Venetian Dalmatia - now Korčula, Croatia — January 8, 1324, Venice) was a Venetian trader and explorer who, together with his father Niccolò and his uncle Maffeo, was one of the first Westerners to travel the Silk Road to China (which he... Ming Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ...


There is evidence from within the hadith that Muhammad had contact with Nestorian Christians. Particularly of interest are the similarities between Muslim raka'ah, or ritual prayer, and the genuflections performed by Nestorians during Lent. Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... Muhammad is a common Muslim male name. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also pronounced Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Arabic word rakaah (pl. ... Genuflection is an act of reverence consisting of falling onto (usually) one knee. ... Look up Lent in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In Western Christianity, Lent is the period before the Christian holy day of Easter. ...


Modern Nestorianism

In addition to the Assyrian Church of the East and the Nestorian Church of the East & Abroad, some Protestant and Reformed organizations foster or tolerate doctrine that could be seen as Nestorian, specifically the doctrine that the Virgin Mary is merely the mother of "Christ's humanity" and denying that she could be seen as the mother of the Son of God. The Assyrian Church of the East is a Christian denominational body that traces its origins to the See of Babylon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle. ... Fix Crappy Prose Similar to the St. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


References

See also

This article is part of the Eastern Christianity Portal — Learn more about Eastern Christianity  

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