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Encyclopedia > Nasal release

In phonetics, a nasal release is the release of a plosive consonant into a nasal stop. Such consonants are also called prestopped nasals. Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ...

Prestopped nasals, and prenasalized stops, occur when the oral cavity is closed, and the nasal cavity is opened by lowering the velum, but the timing of these two events does not coincide. Prenasalized stops are phonetic sequences of nasal plus plosive that behave phonologically like single consonant. ... The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. ... The nasal cavity is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

The Slavic languages are most famous for having prestopped nasals. This can be seen in place names such as the Dniester River. The Russian word for "day", for example, is inflected день, дня, дни, дней [d̻en̻, d̻n̻a, d̻n̻i, d̻n̻ej], "day, day's, days, days'". (Here the "palatalized" stops are presented as laminal postalveolars.) The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the flattened end of the tongue. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ...

Prestopped nasals also found in Australia. The Eastern Arrernte language has both prenasalized stops and prestopped nasals, but does not have word-initial consonant clusters. Compare [mwarə] "good", [mpwaɻə] "make", [pmwaɻə] "coolamon". In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ...

Some languages which are reported to have unreleased stops turn out to have short voiceless nasal releases instead. Vietnamese is an example. An unreleased stop or plosive is a plosive consonant without an audible release burst. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that doesnt have voicing. ...

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The in vitro nasal release retardant effect of SMS and Tween 20 was investigated using factorial design.
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The rectal release of salicylates, procaine, and ketoprofen from Eudragit-based organogels showed initial burst of drug release due to surface-deposited fraction of drug, and further release was governed by Eudragit concentration.
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