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Encyclopedia > Narodowa Demokracja
Poland

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Politics and government of
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Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1932x2407, 4465 KB) [edit] Summary Coat of arms of the Republic of Poland Made by Aotaearoa, based on the official specifications in Coat of arms, Colors and Anthem of the Republic of Poland, and State Seals Act (Dz. ... Politics of Poland takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...







Voivodeships Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is directly elected by the people to serve a term of five years. ...  , (born June 18, 1949) is the President of the Republic of Poland and a politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, PiS.) KaczyÅ„ski served as President of Warsaw from 2002 until December 22, 2005, the day before his presidential inauguration. ... The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service...   (born June 18, 1949) has been the Prime Minister of Poland since July 2006 and is the chairman of Law and Justice (Polish: ), a party which he co-founded in 2001. ... The National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe) is the name of both chambers of the Polish parliament, the Sejm and the Senate, when sitting in joint session. ... The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... The Council of Ministers (cabinet), or Polish government, consists of ministers, heads of departments of ministerial rank, and heads of central institutions. ... // Existing ministries Ministerstwo Finansów (Ministry of Finances) Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Ministerstwo Spraw WewnÄ™trznych i Administracji (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration) Ministerstwo SprawiedliwoÅ›ci (Ministry of Justice) Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej (Ministry of National Defence) Ministerstwo Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi ( Ministry of Agriculture and Rural... Polish law is a legal system in Poland. ... The Supreme Court of Poland supervises the adjudication in: General courts - these are district, voivodeship, and appeal courts. ... The Constitutional Tribunal of Poland is a judicial body established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions; its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. ... The State Tribunal of Poland is the judicial body, which rules on the constitutional liability of people holding the highest offices of state. ... The Supreme Administrative Court of Poland (Polish: ) is the court of last resort in administrative cases i. ... The Supreme Chamber of Control (Polish: Najwyższa Izba Kontroli, short: NIK) is one of the oldest state institutions in Poland, created under the Second Republic on February 7, 1919, barely 3 months after the restoration of Polands independence. ... The Attorney General of Poland (Polish: Prokurator Generalny) is the top prosecuting officer in Poland. ... List of the Polish Ombudsmen: Ewa Łętowska - November 19, 1987 - February 12, 1992 Tadeusz ZieliÅ„ski - February 13, 1992 - May 7, 1996 Adam ZieliÅ„ski - May 8, 1996 - June 29, 2000 Andrzej Zoll - from June 30, 2000 Official site Categories: Poland-related stubs | Politics of Poland ... Political parties in Poland lists political parties in Poland. ... The League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, or LPR) is a conservative and nationalist-minded political party within the Polish Parliament, and a coalition partner in Polands current ruling government. ... Unia Polityki Realnej (Real Politics Union) is a conservative free-market party in Poland. ... The Democratic Party () is a social liberal party in Poland, publicly announced on February 28 and formally established on May 9, 2005 as an enlargement of the Freedom Union (Unia WolnoÅ›ci), which it legally succeeds. ... Then-Prime Minister Marcinkiewicz, Lech KaczyÅ„ski, and Maria KaczyÅ„ska during KaczyÅ„skis swearing in as President of Poland, December 23, 2005. ... The Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, also called the Citizens Platform) is a liberal conservative political party in Poland. ... The Polish Peoples Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe, also known in English as Polish Peasant Party) is a political party in Poland. ... The Social Democratic Party of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL) is a new leftist political party in Poland founded in April 2004 as a splinter group from Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (it should not be confused with a former party Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland - SdRP). ... Democratic Left Alliance (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties. ... Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SRP) is a left wing political party and trade union in Poland. ... Labor Union (Unia Pracy) is a Polish political party. ... Elections in Poland gives information on election and election results in Poland. ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday November 25 (1st round), and Sunday December 9, 1990 (2n round). ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday November 5 (1st round), and Sunday November 19, 1990 (2n round). ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday October 8. ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on October 9 and October 23, 2005. ... Contract Sejm (Polish: ) is a term commonly applied to the Polish Parliament elected in the Polish parliamentary elections of 1989. ... Sejm election Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1991 elections | Elections in Poland | 1991 in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 4 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1993 elections | Elections in Poland | 1993 in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1997 elections | Elections in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 2001 elections | Elections in Poland ... Parliamentary elections for both houses of the Parliament of Poland were held on September 25, 2005. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held in Poland on June 13, 2004. ... Local elections in Poland SLD-UP - 6644 (14,19%) PSL - 4986 (10,65%) Samoobrona - 1530 (3,27%) LPR - 1065 (2,27%) PiS - 217 (0,46%) PO - 213 (0,45%) PO-PiS - 85 (0,18%) Unia SamorzÄ…dowa - 4 (0,01%) Alternatywa - 1 (0,00%) UPR - 0 (0,00%) other comitets... Local elections were held in Poland in 1990. ... Local elections were held in Poland in 1994. ... Local elections were held in Poland in 1998. ... SLD-UP - 6644 (14,19%) PSL - 4986 (10,65%) Samoobrona - 1530 (3,27%) LPR - 1065 (2,27%) PiS - 217 (0,46%) PO - 213 (0,45%) PO-PiS - 85 (0,18%) Unia SamorzÄ…dowa - 4 (0,01%) Alternatywa - 1 (0,00%) UPR - 0 (0,00%) other comitets - 32088 (68,52%) sum... Polish local elections 2006 schedule: November 12 - first round November 26 - second round Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska) Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) Categories: | ... There have been several referenda in history of Poland. ... The voivodeship or province (Polish: województwo) has been a second-level administrative unit in Poland since the 14th century. ...


See also: Economy, Foreign relations
History, Military
Poland became a full member of NATO in March 1999, and of the European Union in May 2004. ... In the period following its emergence in the 10th century, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christianity, created a strong Central European state and integrated Poland into European culture. ...


EU Politics The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ...


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Narodowa Demokracja (National Democracy), also known as Endecja (from abbreviaton (ND) of its Polish name; was a Polish right-wing nationalist political movement most active from middle of the 19th century to the end of the Second Polish Republic in 1939. Among its most important founders and ideologues was Roman Dmowski. The movement effectively ceased to exist with the end of Second World War. During the times of the Second Polish Republic it was a strong proponent of polonization policies. Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... Roman Dmowski Roman Dmowski (b. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ...

Contents

Origins, program and ideology

The origins of the endecja can be traced to the failure of the January Uprising in 1864 and the era of the positivism in Poland. After the uprisng, last in the series of several Polish uprisings in the 19th century, was bloodily crushed by the partitioners of Poland, the new generation of Polish patriots and politicians decided that Polish independence will not be won on the battlefield but through education and culture. Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... For other meanings of positivism, see Positivism. ... This is a list of Polish uprisings. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


In 1886 the secret Liga Polska organization was founded, in 1893 renamed into Liga Narodowa. From 1895 Liga published its own newspaper (Przegląd Wszechpolski), and from 1897 it had an official political party, the Stronnictwo Narodowo-Demokratyczne. Unlike the Polish Socialist Party (PPS), endecja advocated peaceful negotiations. Influenced by Roman Dmowskis radical nationalist and social-Darwinist ideas National Democrats turned against other nationalities within the Polish lands, most notably Jews; anti-Semitism became one of key elements in NDs ideology. [1] The National Democratic Party was a pre-WWII Polish right-wing political party co-founded by Roman Dmowski. ... The Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) was one of the two most important Polish political parties from its inception in 1892 until 1948, when it merged with the Stalinist Polish Workers Party (PPR) to form the Polish United Workers Party (PZPR), the ruling party in the Peoples... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


During the First World War, while PPS, now under influence of Józef Piłsudski, supported the Central Powers, endecja first allied itself with the Russian Empire (supporting the creation of the Legion Puławski), and later, with the Western Powers (supporting the Polish Blue Army in France). After the end of the Great War, many endecja politicians had much more influence abroad then in Poland. It forced them to share power with Piłsudski, who had much more support in the military then they had. Still, due to their support abroad, endecja politicians like Dmowski and Ignacy Paderewski were able to gain support for some Polish requests at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and the Treaty of Versailles. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman Political party none (see Sanacja for details), formerly PPS Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... General Józef Haller in front of the troops Blue Army or Hallers Army are informal names for the Polish Army formed in France during the later stages of World War I. The army was created in June of 1917 as part of the Polish units allied to the... Ignacy Jan Paderewski Ignacy Jan Paderewski (November 6, 1860 – June 29, 1941) was a Polish pianist, composer and politician, the third Prime Minister of Poland. ... The Paris Peace Conference was an international conference, organized by the victors of the World War I for negotiating the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and their former enemies. ... The Palace of Versailles, where the treaty was signed. ...


Second Polish Republic

In the newly independent Second Polish Republic endecja was represented first by the Związek Ludowo-Narodowy party, and from 1928 by Stronnictwo Narodowe. Among the chief characteristics of endecja policies was the stress on polonization: it was endecja politicians like Dmowski and Stanisław Grabski who contributed the failure of Piłsudski's Międzymorze federation and the alliance with the Ukrainian leader Symon Petlura, and the alienation of ethnic minorities in Poland. After Piłsudski's May Coup of 1926, endecja found itself in constant opposition to the pro-Piłsudski Sanacja. To fight the Sanacja movement, endecja created the Obóz Wielkiej Polski organization. Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... Endecja (from abbreviaton (ND) of its Polish name, Narodowa Demokracja (National Democrats), also known as National Movement (Ruch Narodowy)) was a Polish right-wing political movement most active from middle of the 19th century to the end of the Second Polish Republic in 1939. ... Stronnictwo Narodowe (National Party, SN) was a Polish political party formed in October 1928 after the transformation of ZwiÄ…zek Ludowo-Narodowy (National Peoples Association). ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... StanisÅ‚aw Grabski (5 April 1871 - 6 May 1949) was a Polish politician and economist, an ideologue of endecja known for his support of the polonization policies during the time of the Second Polish Republic. ... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Look up Alliance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Symon Petlura Symon Petlyura (Ukrainian: (Simon Petljura); in English, also spelled Simon Petliura or Petlura; May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian socialist politician and statesman, a leader of Ukraines unsuccessful fight for independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... May Coup (Polish: Przewrót majowy or zamach majowy) was a coup detat successfully carried out in Poland by Józef PiÅ‚sudski between May 12 and May 14, 1926. ... Flag of the Chief of State (1919-1927) Sanacja was a coalition political movement of the Second Polish Republic in the inter war years. ... Flag of the Chief of State (1919-1927) Sanacja was a coalition political movement of the Second Polish Republic in the inter war years. ...


Simultaneously endecja continued to stress its anti-Jewish program, aiming at exclusion of the Jews from Polish social and economical life and ultimately push them to emigration. Anti-Semitic actions or incidents – boycotts, demonstrations or even pogroms - organised or inspired by National Democrats accelerated during the 1930s. Most notorious actions were taken by young, radical NDs who formed fascist-inspired and strongly anti-Semitic National-Radical Camp (ONR). [2] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Immigration. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


Second World War

During the WWII sanacja became part of a coalition which formed the Polish Government in Exile. It was closely linked with the controversial Narodowe Sily Zbrojne (National Armed Forces), an underground organization which became a small part of the Polish resistance movement. Due to endecja's anti-minority policies, its armed organizations were engaged in combat not only against the Nazi Germany, but also against the Soviet Union and organizations of various Polish minorities. Due to that, they had relatively little support and many enemies. A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. ... Narodowe Siły Zbrojne (English National Armed Forces, NSZ) was one of the Polish armed underground guerilla organizations, fighting Nazi German occupation in General Government. ... Look up Underground in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Armia Krajowa soldiers resting during a lull in fighting during the Warsaw Uprising. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


After the War

After the end of the war, when Poland found itself under the control of Polish communists and the Soviet Union, most remains of endecja either emigrated to the West, or continued the eventually futile fight against the Soviet occupation. Others joined the new regime - most notably the ONR-Falanga leader Boleslaw Piasecki, who co-organised regime-controlled Catholic movement, or Maciej Giertych who returned from exile in London and supported the martial law imposed in 1981 by the communist leader Wojciech Jaruzelski; even his father Jędrzej Giertych (once close associate of Roman Dmowski) was the only Polish politician in exile who supported Jaruzelski. Polish communists can trace their origins to early 1900s and the works tor the first Polish Marxist, StanisÅ‚aw Brzozowki (1878-1911). ... The term Western World or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupies all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent. ... BolesÅ‚aw Piasecki BolesÅ‚aw Bogdan Piasecki (alias Leon CaÅ‚ka, Sablewski; born February 18, 1915 in Łódź, died January 1, 1979 in Warsaw) was a Polish politician and writer. ... Maciej Marian Giertych (born March 24, 1936 in Warsaw) is a Polish politician with extreme conservative social views and in favor of state intervention in the economy. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Broadcast of Wojciech Jaruzelski declaring martial law (December 13, 1981) The period of martial law in Poland refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983 when the government of the Peoples Republic of Poland drastically restricted normal life. ... Wojciech Jaruzelski in 2006 Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (pronounced: ) (born July 6, 1923) was a communist Polish political and military leader, Prime Minister from 1981 to 1985, head of the Polish Council of State from 1985 to 1989 and President from 1989 to 1990. ... JÄ™drzej Giertych was a Polish politician, being the son of Franciszek Giertych, grandfather of Roman Giertych and father of Maciej Giertych. ...


Modern Poland

Since the fall of communism, when Poland became a democratic country, several political parties have attempted to re-estabilish some of the traditions of the endecja movement; adherents prefer the name "national movement" (ruch narodowy). Currently the only significant party that declares itself a successor to the endecja is Liga Polskich Rodzin (League of Polish Families), founded in 2001 by Roman Giertych, son of Maciej. Since then, in various elections, it has garnered 8-16% of the votes. The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin) is a right-wing and populist opposition party in the Polish Parliament. ... Roman Giertych Roman Giertych (born 27 February 1971 in Åšrem, Poland) is a Polish politician, Deputy Prime Minister and, since May 5, 2006, Minister of Education. ...


Notable members

Roman Dmowski Roman Dmowski (b. ... Jędrzej Giertych was a Polish politician, being the son of Franciszek Giertych, grandfather of Roman Giertych and father of Maciej Giertych. ... Stanisław Grabski (5 April 1871 - 6 May 1949) was a Polish politician and economist, an ideologue of endecja known for his support of the polonization policies during the time of the Second Polish Republic. ... Władysław Grabski Władysław Grabski (July 7, 1874 - March 3, 1938) was a Polish politician, economist and Prime Minister of Poland. ... Józef Haller Józef Haller de Hallenburg (August 13, 1873 - June 4, 1960) was a Polish general and politician. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Władysław Konopczyński (1880-1952) was a Polish historian, professor of Jagiellonian University, member of Warsaw Science Society (Towarzystwo Naukowe Warszawski) and Polish Academy of Learning (Polska Akademia Umiejętności). ... Wojciech Korfaty in 1905 Wojciech Korfanty (20 April 1873-17 August 1939) was a Polish nationalist activist, journalist and politician, serving as member of the German Reichstag and the Prussian Landtag, later in the Polish Sejm. ... General Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski (1866-1928) was a Polish military commander and politician, an officer of the Austro-Hungarian Army and then the Polish Army. ... Redirect page ...

References

  1. ^ Hardly surprisingly, anti-Semitism became a key elements in the ND ideology. – Lukowski, J., Zawadzki, H., A Concise History of Poland, Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp. 173-174
  2. ^ The appeal of fascism and of anti-Semitism was most pronounced among young radical NDs, who in 1934 formed the ‘National Radical Camp’ (ONR), from which emerged the distinctly totalitarian ONR-Falanga under Boleslaw Piaasecki – Lukowski, J., Zawadzki, H., A Concise History of Poland, Cambridge University Press, 2001, p. 217-218

Notes

  • This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding Polish Wikipedia article as of 1 June 2006.

  Results from FactBites:
 
May Coup - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (782 words)
Piłsudski on the cover of TIME magazine, June 7, 1926.
In November 1925, the government of prime minister Władysław Grabski was replaced by the government of prime minister Aleksander Skrzyński, which had received support from National Democratic Party (Narodowa Demokracja or endecja) and Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalityczna, PPS).
General Lucjan Żeligowski became the Minister of Military Affairs of the new government.
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